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The Revolution of the 24th February — Baron Stockmar at 
Frankfort — The Rising at Berlin — Prince of Prussia arrives at 
Carlton Terrace — Totteridge — Letter to Mr. Reeve on German 
Progress — Jenny Lind — Excursion to Germany — ConJQict 
between Frankfort and Berlin — Bunsen adheres to the Prus- 
sian Side— State of Berlin — Returns to England — Memoir on 
Events at Berlin 165 



* Nemesis of Faith ' — Christology — Occasional Memoranda — 
Relations with Austria — Osborne House — Prince Albert — 
Birmingham — Warwickshire — Manchester — Great Exhibi- 
tion of 1851 — Bunsen*s Speech — The Gorham Judgment — 
Death of Sir R. Peel — Broadlands — Danish Affairs — ^Egyp- 
tian Studies 217 



Prospects of Germany — * Hippolytus ' — Protocol of 8th May, 
1852 — Count Usedom's Narrative — Visit to Glasgow — Inverary 
— Afl^r of Neufchatel — The Mosaic Books — St. Giles- 
Deaconesses — Mazzini — Desponding Views of Germany — 
Funeral of the Duke of Wellington — Letter on Religious 
Opinions— General Schamhorst — Lord Derby's First Adminis- 
tration — The French Empire — Change of Ministry — Edinburgh 
Diploma — Mrs. Beecher Stowe — Crystal Palace — Cologne 
Singers — Mr. Layard — ^Nineveh — Naval Review — Dedication 
of * Hippolytus ' — Theological Conferences at Berlin — Cuddes- 
don Palace— Policy of Russia — ^Menace of War . . .275 



Bunsen recalled from England — ^Departure from Carlton Terrace 
— ^Farewell to his Friends — ^Establishes himself and Family at 
Charlottenbeig — Correspondence from Heidelberg — The Ln- 
maculate Conception — State of Germany — Bible Work — Death 
of Archdeacon Hare 330 



Literary Work — Interview with the King — * Signs of the Times ' 
—Fall of Sebastopol— * God in ffiatory *—* Bibelwerk '—Letter 
from Frederica Bremer — Journey to Switzerland — Visit to 
Coppet — Sch^rer — Return to Heidelberg — ^Approach of Old 
Age — Closeof the Year 1856 375 



Declining Health — Neufchatel — Article on Luther — ^Energetic 
Work — Letter to Mr. Harford — Letter to the Duchess of 
Argyll — Visit from Mr. Astor — Visit to Berlin — Letter from 
the King of Prussia- — The Evangelical Alliance at Berlin . 415 



Elevation of Bunsen to the Peerage — Renan — Lord Derby's 
Administration — India Bill — Death of Neukomm — Bunsen's 
Religious Opinions — Visit to Baden — ^Affair of Rastadt — Dr. 
M^Cosh's Interview with Bunsen — Bunsen's Opinions on Clair- 
voyance—Visit to Berlin — The Prince Regent — Bunsen takes 
his Seat in the Prussian House of Peers — Journey to Geneva 
and the South of France — Cannes — Death of Tocqueville — 
* The Life of Jesus ' — Campaign of 1859 — Prussia and Austria 
— Sympathy with Italy — Irritation in Southern Germany — 
Visit to Paris — Return to Cannes — Commercial Treaty of 
France and England — Letter to Renan and to M. R^ville . 457 



Centenary of Schiller's Birth — Bunsen finally leaves Heidelberg 
— Journey to Paris and Cannes — Family Troubles — Journey 
to Bonn — Purchase of a House there — Visits from his Children 
and their Families — His last Birthday, August 25, 1860 — In- 
crease of Suffering — Takes to his Bed, October 28, 1860 — 
Kidlies again — His Death, November 28, 1860 — His Fimeral, 
December 1, 1860 — Closing Remarks ..... 545 


Index 595 


Bust of Bunsen, by Behmes, 1847 in page 165 

Residence of Bcnsen at Boiin „ 545 

BuHSEH'S MoHimEHT AT BoNM „ 582 

Page 80, line 6, for Ciliiheobiiiy read Cussioljury. 
Page 1 29, line 1 6, for Foster rrati Fowter. 




Portrait of Bunsen, by Roeting . . . Frontispiece 


Hurstmonceaux To face page 28 


Charlottenbeko, NEAR Heidelberg . „ 353 

Maison Pinchinat, Cannes ... „ 492 

Heidelberg, as seen from Charlotten- 

berg . ), 561 


Bust of Bunsen, by Behnes, 1847 in page 165 

Residence of Bunsen at Bonn „ 545 

Bunsen*s Monument at Bonn „ 582 


Page 80, line 6,/<w Casheoburj read Cassiobury. 
Page 129, line 15, /or Foster read Foreter. 


CHAP, not pity us ; I never was in so warm a one, except Pnsey. 
^^ A letter I received at Berne protested against the honses on 
Carlton Terrace as roinons in point of rent : that touches us 
not, as the Grovemment is willing to incur the expense. 
Another letter declares, they go a-begging, nobody desiring 
to have them. Independently of either statement, the situa- 
tion is to me invaluable. Two days ago the sky was clear, 
and I saw the prospect across the Park to Westminster 
Abbey, and had the sun the greater part of the day on the 
windows ; and the quiet is delightful — ^we scarcely hear the 
wheels of carriages, as there is no thoroughfare. If I have 
shown myself, as I was, depressed, it was by the serious 
change from the independence of the most perfect country 
situation, to the darkness of a London winter, and the slavery 
of a London life. I neither felt nor intended any complaint 
of the house. 

19th January. — ^Yesterday morning, the 18th, Bunsen em- 
barked on board the Firebrand to meet and fetch the King ; 
but the vessel did not depart by the morning tide — I hope it 
did by the evening. George arrived in time to see his father, 
who has taken him with him. 

Bunsen to his Wife, 
Tuesday, 18th January : on board the Firebrand. 

Here I am, in the comfortable cabin of the most com- 
fortable of ships ; but we cannot stir, first on account of the 
dense fog, then because a boiler which was about to burst 
did burst exactly at the right moment, when all hands were 
ready for repairs ! Nobody knows when we start, but I sup- 
pose not before the evening tide. Never mind ! I am read- 
ing, writing, talking, and thinking, very comfortably, and 
therefoi'e also of you. . . . We have already made out 
an expedition to Briigge and Ghent, if we arrive at Ostend 
in good time. 

Extracts from Contemporary Letters. 

On Saturday, the 22nd, I drove to Greenwich, having a 
card of invitation to witness the King's landing, at the 
Admiral's house (as well as Neukomm, who was with me), 
through Lord Haddington. Before the King arrived, I had 


CHAP, taking up Bunsen by the way at Sir Robert PeePs, whither 
^^ he had attended the King, who had accepted a luncheon 
there. We were quartered in the York Tower, the apart- 
ment most complete and comfortable,* the rooms all grouped 
together. Proceeding along the corridor as soon as dressed, 
we soon met Lord Delaware and the Duchess of Buccleuch, 
and were directed where to go, that is, to walk to the end 
of the corridor (a fairy scene, lights, pictures, busts, and 
moving figures of courtiers unknown), and then through 
one splendid room after another, till we reached the mag- 
nificent ballroom, where guests were assembled to await the 
Queen's appearance. Among these guests stood the King 
himself, punctual to half-past seven. Soon after came 
Prince Albert, to whom Lord Delawarr named me: he 
said, * You were long in Rome. I have been in your 
house at Rome.' We had not stood long, when two gentle- 
men, walking in, and then turning, with profound bows 
towards the open door, showed that the Queen was approach- 
ing. She came near at once where I stood ; the Duchess of 
Buccleuch named me, and she said with a gracious, beaming 
smile, * I am pleased to see you ; ' then, after a few moments' 
speaking to the King, she took * his arm and moved on, 
* God save the Queen ' having begun to sound at the same 
moment from the Waterloo Gallery, where the Royal dinner 
has always taken place since the King has been here. Lord 
Haddington led me to dinner. The scene was such as fairy- 
tales describe, in magnificence. The fine proportions of the 
hall, the mass of light from above, subdued by thick 
plates of ground-glass with cut devices, the gold plate on 
the table, and the side-tables glittering with the thousands 
of reflected lights, all hung at a proper height above 
the eye — ^nothing was wanting but a little more youth and 
beauty among the ladies to make the spectacle complete : 
only Miss Cavendish (now Countess Cawdor) I thought pretty. 
The King's health was drunk as soon as the ice had been 
carried round, and then Her Majesty rose and departed, fol- 

* These indications of the truly royal hospitality of Windsor Castle have 
been inserted in contradistinction to the well-known recollections of the corres- 
pondent, relating to the order of things in the provisional royal residence 
called the Queen's Lodge, in the time of King George III. and Queen 
Charlotte, in the years 1784 to 1787. 


CHAP, it, and was in part occupied by an audience granted to two 
^^ Dutch statesmen, who came unexpectedly. 

On Monday, January 31, 1 was at StaflFord House, where 
the King accepted an invitation to dinner from the Duke 
and Duchess, y^hose manner of receiving me was in hannony 
with their letters, and that is saying all. After the Duchess 
had granted me more words, and moments, at first entrance, 
than I should have deemed it possible for her to spare, she 
presented me to the Duchess of Gloucester, by whom I was 
greeted as * the daughter of her old friend ;' then to Lady 
Elizabeth, whom I found charming even beyond the idea 
that I had fbrmed of her, as everything really good always 
is. I was taken to dinner by Lord John Russell, whom I 
found a very agreeable neighbour, in no common way: 
he is one of the persons with whom it is possible to 
get directly out of the emptiness of phrases. The appear- 
ance of the house was wonderfully beautiful, the stair- 
ca^e in paxticulax, where a band played all the evening, 
concluding with a composition of Pnnce Radziwill's, never 
before performed in England, as a mark of attention to the 
King. The Duke of Sussex invited me to the luncheon he 
was to give on the following day to the King. The way to 
Kensington Palace was lined by school-children with flags, and 
a vast crowd of people. I was received first by the Duke of 
Sussex himself, and he took me into the library to the Duchess 
of Gloucester and Princess Sophia, who greeted me most 
kindly, and made me sit between them ; when afterwards 
they rose to speak to somebody else, I took the opportunity 
of gliding away and placing myself at a modest distance. 
Lord Lansdowne came up to speak to me, and persons without 
end — ^there is nothing like standing within the Bude-light of 
royalty to make one conspicuous, and sharpen perceptions 
and recollections ! At table I sat down between Hxmiboldt 
and Lord Palmerston, whom I found very ready to converse. 
The Duke*s speech to the King was, I hear, accurately given 
in the * Morning Post.' The King, on being asked by the 
Duke for the toast, gave — * To the greatest, most illustrious, 
and most amiable lady — great by her vast dominions, her 
ancient descent, and most of all by the qualities of her heart 
and mind — ^to the health of Queen Viotoria ! ' This was the 
sense — the words may not be accurate. The moment the 


CHAP, in every spot where foot could stand — all looking so pleased — 
^^' the splendid Horse Guards, the Grenadier Guards — of 
whom it might be said, as the King did on another 
occasion, *an appearance so fine, you know not how to 
believe it true ' — the Yeomen of the Body-Guard ; then, in 
the House of Lords, the Peers in their robes, the beautifully 
dressed ladies, with many, many beautiful faces ; last, the 
procession of the Queen's entry, and herself, looking worthy 
and fit to be the converging point of so many rays of 
grandeur. It is self-evident that she is not tall ; but were 
she ever so tall, she could not have more grace and dignity, 
a head better set, a throat more royally and classically 
arching : and one advantage there is in her not being taller, 
that when she casts a glance, it is of necessity upwards and 
not downwards, and thus the effect of the eyes is not thrown 
away — the beam and effluence not lost. The composure with 
which she filled the throne, while awaiting the Commons, was 
a test of character — ^no fidget and no apathy. Then, her voice 
and enunciation could not be more perfect. In short, it could 
not be said that she did well^ but she wds the Queen ; she was, 
and felt herself to be, the acknowledged chief among grand 
national realities. Placed in a narrow space behind Her 
Majesty's mace-bearers, and peeping over their shoulders, I 
was enabled to hide and subue the emotion I felt, in 
consciousness of the mighty pages in the world's history, 
condensed in the words, so impressively uttered in the silver 
tones of that feminine voice. Peace and war — ^the fate of 
millions — relations of countries — exertions of power felt to 
the extremities of the globe — alteration of com laws — the 
birth of a future Sovereign, mentioned in solemn thankfulness 
to Him in whose hands are nations and rulers ! With what 
should one respond, but with the heartfelt aspirations, * God 
bless and guide her ! for her sake, and the sake of all 9' 

The King had expressed the wish of being accom- 
panied or followed by Bunsen to Berlin, to make an 
opportunity for the conversations for which no time was 
found during the sojourn in England ; but he gave up the 
project, as it became clear to him that Bunsen's presence, 
if elsewhere desirable, was now, in the beginning of his 
fixed position, indispensable in London. 


Extracts from Contemporary Letters, 

London : Monday, 14th Februnry, 1842, 

Tlie complication of Bunsen's illness, following directly 
on the King's departure, has only increased the difficulty of 
mastering contending elements, and of spending time ac- 
cording to any plan, determination, or inclination. He is 
all at once better, sooner than I expected, from the degree of 
ferer and cough : the difficulty wiU be to prevent his being 
again harassed and over-excited, for the late indisposition 
had no other cause. Coughs are the rule in the house — 
myself as yet the exception, although I live in a sort of fever, 
not comprehending how I can go on, whirling round the circle 
with a sensation as though I must drop at last. To-day I feel 
cooler, but then I always am so on Monday, after Sunday 
quiet and comfort. The bright moments of last week were 
tiiose of seeing Lady Prances Sandon, Lady Emily Pusey, and 
Madame de St. Aulaire — and I have also seen other persons 
with whom I was glad to renew my acquaintance. On Saturday 
evening, the 12th, we had the great indulgence of having the 
music of the Holy Week (as Neukomm arranged the ancient 
compositions,.Eoman and German, to the materials combined 
bj Bunsen) performed in our own house, by a small number 
of good voices (Germans and Danes) sought out by Neukomm 
and Moscheles. It was droll to see Sir Benjamin Hall walk 
in, — in the midst of a performance which might not have been 
supposed to interest him : however, he seemed pleased with 
what he heard, and afterwards went in next door to Lady 
Palmerston's, whither we also had been invited — but Bunsen 
had been in bed till the preceding day, and was quite unfit 
to go out. On Friday evening I enjoyed the Oratorio of 
' Solomon,' taking the two girls : instead of going to Lady 
Lansdowne's, for which omission Bunsen's illness was sufficient 
ground of excuse. 

Bunsen to Miss Davenport Bromley. 

London (4 Carlton Terrace): 15th February, 1842. 

Imagine that Neukomm has contrived to find ten most ex- 
cellent professional performers, Moscheles at their head, who 




CHAP, executed here the other evening the whole music of the 

^^ Passion Week — and so much to their own delight as well as 

ours, that they have oflfered to repeat the performance on 

March 4. It was so like Borne, and like home ! Since that 

day I begin to feel at home in our beautiful house. 

Extracts from Contemporary Letters* 

22nd February, 1842. 

Were it possible to overcome and manage the incongruous 
mass that presses down one's very soul, how many are the 
persons and things, the best and most interesting, to be found 
in London ! But one has but one life, and the day and hour 
cannot be made to carry double and treble. My internal 
ejaculation is daily — how long ? — when shall I get out, and 
get the children out of a place in which I feel not that we ever 
can live what can be called life ? And first and foremost, when 
can I get Bunsen out? — for he will not be himself again 
without country-air, sea-air, and quiet. 

Thursday ySrd March. — On Monday, the last day of February, 
we had a most agreeable dinner-party at Lord Stanhope's — 
just what is enjoyable, few persons and much conversation. 
Lady Wilhelmina is a very fine creature, and also a very 
agreeable converser, full of intelligence and information : but 
I was not prepared for the genius which her drawings denote 
— original groups from tales, from history, from an imagined 
cycle of events in a female existence, beginning with baby- 
hood, to old age and death : — from opera scenes, not servilely 
adhering to theatrical representation, but giving human 
beings with human reality of feeling — from ballads, in part 
finely illuminated ; extraordinary and individual conceptions 
of beauty, expression without distortion, and a degree of 
correctness of outline and proportion very rare even among 
professors of the art — at the same time no scrawling and 
blotting to hide defects, no colour or shadow to give effect : 
pen and sepia outlines neatly finished, in the manner of 
Flaxman, only — not like the antique — her subjects and cos- 
tume are of the middle ages. No subject had she treated 
that was not a good subject, no quotation written by the side 
that was not poetical. I was very glad to make Lady 
Mahon's acquaintance — an engaging being, intelligent, con- 
versible, naturally gay, giving the impression of a mind and 


CHAP, read — I could not read what was mislaid : and for the mis- 
^^- laying there were ' circonstances att^nuantes/ which I beg 
you, like the French jury, to take into account, and absolve 
me from the extreme penalty. For you have really brought 
a regular accusation against me. Believe me, that I never 
forget, even when I do not write, and may seem not to exert 
myself: but where nothing can be done, che vuol che gli dica ? 
I should like to give you an idea of our life. I have again 
in this place, as I had in Borne, the most remarkable situa- 
tion, and acknowledged the finest, for my dwelling-place : on 
the spot where Carlton House, the residence of George IV. 
formerly stood, which was pulled down, *not to interfere 
with a great plan of embellishment:' and thence the name 
of Carlton House Terrace. On the other side of the broad 
street is a garden, and beyond that the palaces called Club- 
houses, five in number : this is on our north side — on our 
south side spreads St. James's Park with its verdure and 
sheet of water, to the right of which is the residence of the 
Queen, to the left the ministerial offices (Downing Street and 
Whitehall, &c.); in the background of the Park, Westminster 
Abbey, with Westminster Hall and the new Houses of Par- 
liament. My present Capitol is not in ruins, — God be 
thanked ! The distances therefore to the Ministers cost me 
little time, but the waiting for an interview, even when ap- 
pointment has been made, costs much. Matters of business 
are innumerable here, — ^visits and notewriting are a real dis- 
tress : and, in one word, the labour to be accomplished is 
enormous. I hope in time to master the monster : I have 
now but one secretary and one clerk, but reckon upon ob- 
taining two of each sort. Just so is it with salary : as much 
as three and a half Ministers of State in Prussia, seemingly 
enormous, and yet inadequate. 

In the evenings we are alone, when we have not made or 
accepted an invitation. Yet I should like to have a Capito- 
line Club — on a fixed day, for the old friends, if to be found. 
Sunday is in truth a day of refuge and of blessing, when cus- 
tom forbids making visits : and the Passion Week is com- 
prised in the same privilege. You will imagine that general 
relations to society are favourable, when one has started 
with one's King ! It was a joy indeed to my German heart 
to see him receive the homage of a free nation with such 

El. 50 THE queen's DRAWING-ROOM. 15 

royal grace and dignity, and his own original supremacy of CHAP, 
intelligence. Queen Victoria is most engaging — Prince ^^- 
Albert, amiable and full of tact as ever. Friend !Neukomm 
leaves us to go to Prance — ^the same high-minded, attaching 
philosopher and man as ever. 

Extract from a contemporary Letter. 

Friday morning, 7 o'clock : 8tli April, 1842. 

After the fag of the Drawing Room, and much besides, yes- 
terday, I am glad to be up fresh and early. How hard did it 
go with me to spend money on a Court dress ! how depressed 
and put out of countenance by my own conscience ! But I 
was obliged to silence myself with the consideration that 
royalty is a thing most useful and necessary in the world, 
and that if one is pushed up close against it one must show 
the respect one feels in the manner appointed by custom. . . 
I was much struck by the splendour of the scene, . . . and 
standing near enough to see every lady come up to the 
Queen and pass off again, I had occasion to admire many 
beautiful persons, regretting the difficidty of annexing names 
from the faintness of the tone in which they were announced. 
But it was Mrs. Norton whom I most admired, and the face 
of Lady Canning always grows upon me. . . . Bunsen has 
just despatched Abeken as courier to Berlin, to prevent, if 
possible, being obliged to go himself. . . . The name of our 
present guest is Madame Heifer {nee Baronne des Granges) 
belonging to the Saxon province of Prussia, whom we were 
le<i to invite by an urgent recommendation from the Princess 
Wilhelm of Prussia, who desired she should be helped and 
protected, as a widow returning from India, and having an ap- 
plication to make to the East India Court of Directors. She 
is handsome and agreeable, and pleases everybody ; she has 
been in Tenasserim, and has much to tell of her travels — 
having accompanied her husband (who was a naturalist) 
years ago on the great expedition to examine the course of 
the Euphrates. 

Will Bunsen be excused from going to Berlin ? Alas ! I 
have many fears about that.* 

• The Kinjf's desire for realising the often-delayed conference with 
Bunsen would seem to have given way to the consciousness that his duties 
in London admitted of no interruption. 


CHAP. The last week in May and the first in June formed a 
" period of respite from the tumult of London life, and 

Bunsen with his family breathed once again freely on 
the cliffs of Ramsgate, although Bunsen himself could 
spare but a small part of that fortnight, the arrival of a 
courier from Berlin having soon called him away from 
the sunshine, the sea-breezes, and the green meadows; 
this absence, however, gave occasion to a renewal of 
communication in writing, from which extracts shall 

Bunsen to his Wife. 

London : Ist June, 1842. 

Yesterday, early, I was received by Prince Albert. The 
following is the order of circiunstances : — ^As the Queen with 
the Prince on Sunday was driving back from church, over 
Constitution Hill, the Prince observed (on a spot where it 
was afterwards proved that Oxford had stood) a pistol held 
out towards the Queen, which plainly had missed fire. On 
re-entering the Palace he questioned all attendants and ser- 
vants, but no one had seen it. On Monday morning, early, 
came a boy of fourteen years of age, bearing witness to the 
fact. Thereupon a council was held, and it was resolved that 
the best plan would be for the Queen to drive out that same 
day at the accustomed hour, the carriage closely attended by 
the equerries, fifty policemen being on the road disguised in 
common attire, it being calculated that the man of evil 
intentions would then take the opportunity to renew the 
attempt. It was the Queen herself who freely resolved thus 
to proceed ; * for,' she said, * I should else not have a moment 
of peace as long as the shot bad not been fired.' They set 
out upon the drive — think only with what feelings! the 
Queen hoping that the shot would only take place ; the 
equerries (Arbuthnot and Wylde) hoping that the ball might 
hit one of themselves or their horses, and horse and man 
striving to cover the Queen ! The shot was fired — the Queen 
exclaimed, ' God be thanked ! now we are safe. I heard the 
report.' At the same moment the miscreant was seized — a 
youth twenty years of age, a London reprobate. Being 


CHAP. Francis, the miscreant, will be transported to Norfolk 
" • Island. All are convinced that he had no intention of killing 
the Queen. 

Bunsen to Archdeacon Julius Hare. [On the death of 

Dr. Arnold,) 

London : Sunday morning, 10th June, 1842. 

My Dear Friend, — My heart has been with you, as I am 
sure yours has been with me. I returned last night from 
Rugby. 0, what is the death of a great and good man ! 
What distraction (humanly) and yet what consolation ! Head 
the enclosed — I add nothing. All who saw him during the 
last month were struck by something more than usually 

heavenly-minded and awfully imearthly He has left 

the new volume of Sermons just filled ; and it appears that 
it contains some of the finest he ever preached. His third 
volume of ' Rome ' is completed to the fortieth chapter. An- 
other colossal Torso of Roman History ! . . . But there is a 
still more sacred trust. He wrote in 1838 a book on the 
Church, to prove, in his way, the general priesthood of all 
Christians, as the doctrine of the Gospel and of the Fathers, 
and the groundwork of the Church. The whole may form a 
volume of no more than 150 pages ; but it is pure gold. It 
has formed the groundwork of long debates, as it in part ori- 
ginated in serious conversation and correspondence between 
us, in many a hallowed hour. He desired me, when at Fox 
How in 1839, to write my remarks, or rather confessions of 
faith, on the blank sides of the leaves, which I did with pen- 
cil, and thus it remained. His note in the last volume of 
Sermons about the Sacrifice in the Pfaffian fragment of 
Irenaeus, would form an Appendix, and perhaps the whole 
long note relating to the Siicrifice might be added. Arnold 
had a favourite idea ... a critical and orthodox edition of 
the Greek text of the New Testament. His plan was this : — 
.... Each of his chosen friends was to take one or 
more of the sacred books : — he intended himself to take the 
Gospels. I propose that this work be done as Editio Ru^^ 
byanay dedicated to Pice Memoriae Amoldi, If you could 
undertake it, the thing would be done. I would give what 
I promised Arnold — the Epistle of James, the two of Peter, 
and that of Jude, of which I have abeady written out the 




Then grew on thee the longing 

That lays the storm of life. 
In love, in pious trusting. 

Thy heart reposed from strife : 
How gladly then, our champion. 

Didst thou the angel greet. 
Sent, to thy home to guide thee. 

Thine habitation meet ! 


And now, the surging tumult 

Is still'd beside thy grave, 
Whilst thou, a brilliant beacon. 

Yet tow'rest o'er the wave : 
From seeds in youthfdl bosoms, 

By thee proftisely sown. 
The germs of holy purpose 

And noble deed have grown. 


Apart fix)m earth's wild turmoil 

Thou calmly tak'st thy rest, 
The worst of sorrows spared thee, 

Vouchsafed of joys the best : 
The mystery of ages 

Unveiled to thy sight, 
Each sequence clear before thee. 

In Gk)d's unchanging light. 


And we would still be waging 

The warfare thou hast waged. 
With hope and love and fealty 

On Virtue's part engajjed : 
Eternity before us. 

Eternal truth our end, — 
For this, our Kfe's brief moment 

How freely would we spend ! 


CHAP, by Sir Robert Inglis, by Mr. Monckton Milnes (now 
^^' Lord Houghton), by Mr. Rogers, by Sir Alexander 
Johnston, by Baron Alderson — (how many more names 
might not be added, mostly of the dead ?) — Bunsen found 
the thorough refreshment of mind, which made it pos- 
sible for him to struggle on under conflicting cares and 
subjects of uneasiness connected with public, fully as 
much as with private, interests, and under the worry- 
ing succession of interruptions, more wearying to the 
spirits than any amount of labour. 

The correspondence of Bunsen with his Royal master, 
should it ever reach the light, would record the main 
subjects of interest in this year as well as in many before 
and after. From 1842 date the beginnings of many 
friendly connections, which grew and strengthened as 
time wore on ; among which that with Florence Night- 
ingale claims the first notice. Bunsen and his family 
met, and from the first valued her, on a few occasions, 
when nothing occurred peculiarly to rouse and reveal 
the soul which subsisted in her, in the fullness of its 
energy, or the powers which only waited for an oppor- 
tunity to be developed; but her calm dignity of de- 
portment, self-conscious without either shyness or pre- 
sumption, and the few words indicating deep reflection, 
just views, and clear perceptions of life and its obliga- 
tions, and the trifling acts showing forgetfulness of self, 
and devotedness to others, were of sufficient force to 
bring conviction to the observer, even before it had 
been proved by all outward experience, that she was 
possessed of all that moral greatness which her sub- 
sequent course of action, of suffering, and of influential 
power, has displayed. The date cannot easily be ascer- 
tained when she first began to enquire the opinion of 
Bunsen on the question which occupied her mind, ' What 
can an individual do, towards lifting the load of sufifer- 
ing from the helpless and the miserable ? ' — ^but a corre- 
spondence which yet exists (though not with Bunsen 


personally) shows that she had already thought and chap. 
observed much with regard to one of those needs of •^- 
humanity with which her name has since been connected. 
The excellent Dr. Sieveking (now physician to their 
Royal Highnesses the Prince and Princess of Wales) 
had given much of his time, gratuitously, to attend 
to, and to investigate the condition of, poorhouses and 
hospitals ; and in the full consciousness of one of the 
awful evils which almost nullifies the benefit of hospi- 
tals, the vice and incompetence of the usual attendants 
on the sick, and, on the other hand, of the large amount 
of unemployed power of labour among the female in- 
mates of workhouses — ^he was anxious that ladies might 
be induced to combine for the purpose of giving help 
on both sides, by the transference of willing and capable 
females from the idleness of poorhouses, to a sphere of 
well- remunerated usefulness. His reflections were sub- 
mitted to Florence Nightingale ; the result of whose con- 
siderations upon them was, that from her acquaintance 
\\ith the inmates of poorhouses, not a single individual 
among them, however willing to obey a call to another 
condition, would be found competent to fulfil the ardu- 
ous duties of the hospital, without a regular training) and 
for such training, a place, and persons themselves in- 
structed, were indispensable. It was owing to Bunsen's 
suggestion, that long after this date, Florence Night- 
ingale went to Kaiserswerth, not only to study the 
system, but to serve through a practical apprenticeship 
in each and every subdivision of the labours there per- 
formed, previous to her arduous study at Paris among 
the ' petites Soeurs de Charit^.' 

The letters of Bunsen have often borne testimony to 
the benefit and the relief he experienced from a work of 
the highest art, such as the successful performance of a 
piece of Shakespeare, in clearing the mind of care, and 
restoring elasticity to the overstrained powers ; and he 
often had opportunity, during the managership of Mr. 


ciiAP Macready, of enjoying that recreation, and adding his 
' meed of applause to the completeness of the entire 
arrangements, as well as the excellence of individual 
representation — for instance, in the case of Macready's 
Brutus (as in later years of Lear), in which he felt that 
the conceptions of Shakespeare were made more percep- 
tible than the mere dead letter could render them. More 
than once did he enjoy Handel's * Acis and Galatea,' then 
brought out in the full perfection of the combined fine 
arts, as each could be brought to bear on the perform- 
ance — the bright and graceful, though frivolous poetry 
of Gay ; the depth and breadth and versatility of Handel's 
musical feeling, as he endeavoured to represent the 
tragedy first in preparation and then in solution ; the 
luxury of decoration achieving the effect and earning 
the praise of landscape-painting; the pastoral groups 
elevated by the just choice of drapery into a peasantry of 
ancient Greece ; and last not least effective, the voices and 
demeanour of the performers. The only incongruous 
lX)rtion, indicating decline and corruption of taste, he 
observed to be the dance of shepherds in the common 
figurante style of the opera stage ; he admitted, however, 
that even had Macready been able to conjure up and 
reanimate the style of the ancients, it might have proved 
to modern perceptions insipid. With the opera stage, 
Bunsen had no patience, and though he visited it in 
London, in attendance on the Prince of Prussia, even 
Jenny Lind (although he entirely felt her power ol 
grace as well as voice) failed to enable him to find 
pleasure or even amusement in that form of dramatic 
representation against which he peculiarly protested, as 
being the betrayal of a good cause, and the caricature 
of a kind of composition which he acknowledged to be 
founded in reason, and desired to see revived by a real 
master of combined verse and harmony. The ballet 
he considered a thing of unmixed evil, and its highest 
and most applauded efforts as the exaficfireration of un- 


CHAP, earnestly asked for by the publisher, Perthes, of Gotha. 
" * The account which has been given of events and 
avocations since that date may render the non-com- 
pliance of Bunsen with the friendly demand intelligible, 
without reconciling the minds of his friends, and those 
of the cause, to the result of the delay, which in a 
great measure defeated the end Bunsen had proposed 
to himself, and to which he devoted the freshest period 
of his life and faculties. The first edition met with 
so much favour, that had a second edition in a more 
popular form and of diminished size followed upon it, 
the matter might have pervaded the public mind, instead 
of being confined to the knowledge of a few ; and 
Germans might have accepted the evidence brought 
forward to prove their neglect of one of the principal 
glories of their nation — the possession of the finest 
devotional poetry in existence ; and to demonstrate the 
necessity of reforming and restoring the collections of 
hymns in use, whether in public or private worship, 
according to Christian principles, and the rules of sound 
criticism. But the purpose of republication, which 
Bunsen unceasingly entertained, was not effected, be- 
cause he contemplated a larger amount of alteration 
than othei*s deemed necessary, and therefore put oiF the 
commencement of revision, in the hope of being enabled 
to look forward to a time when he might devote to the 
new edition his own undivided attention. This was, in 
the summer of 1 842, as far from practicable as it ever 
had been ; and Bunsen was obliged to confine himself to 
the general arrangement and supervision, leaving a great 
amount of detail to the numerous, intelligent, and inde- 
fatigable assistants, who were his household guests and 
inmates during nearly two summer months. It must be 
confessed that the omission of many much-cherished 
portions of the first edition, and the retaining and inser- 
tion of much that must be termed ultra-dogmatical in 
the second, was not done in the spirit of Bunsen, so 


CHAP, one whose zeal in the common pursuit equalled his owa 
^^' thus procuring for himself that complete refreshment 
which became a necessity after the long course of official 
work which he had so unremittingly pursued ; so that h« 
needed, as little as he desired, to absent himself during 
the (so called) dull season, from his delightful London 
residence, which entirely satisfied all his requirements. 
If, however, his own health as yet stood the test a 
town air, that was not the case with his children, and 'r* 
had gi'adually become clear that, used as they had beer 
to a purer atmosphere, the confining them to that or 
London was out of the question. When, therefore, hie 
Avife departed in the last week of July to take the 
family (for the sake of two among the number) to the 
baths of Aix in Savoy, Bunsen combined a search after 
places in the country with a long-desired and promised 
visit to his beloved friend, Julius Hare, at Herstmon- 
ceaux, in Sussex, finding the desired object where leasl 

Bunsen to his Wife. 

London : Idth August. 

I am, GU)d be thanked, as well and as active as ever in my 
life. This morning I have given Lepsius my last reaction ol 
the first volume. To-morrow I shall rewrite my chapter oi 
the Jerusalem book. Abeken's task is done, entirely to my 
satisfaction. Euhlo is working hard at the Liturgies ; Kap- 
pel at the Psalms (the execution of which leads to many dis- 
coveries as to their original construction) ; Stip at the Hymn 
Book, Sydow at the Prayer Book. At breakfast, and again ai 
dinner in the evening, we all meet. I am up generally at five in 
the morning, and the air agrees wonderfiilly with me. I walk 
in the parks, and drive to Kensington, and the Surrey Gar- 
dens, &c. You, of course, my beloved one, are always want- 
ing ! but there is the prospect of the blessed hour of meeting 
at Blackwall, and of renewal of immediate communication. 
May God grant that blessing as soon as it can be ! 


CHAP. I am placed ; a thread of connection extending from Zion ia 
" politics to the glove and stocking interest ! Finishing seemed 

impossible, but yet it was accomplished. Among the twelve 
was a report on the Casa Tarpea (Archseological Institate, 
hospital, &c., on the Capitol) superintended by Brann; a> 
detailed statement of the needs and requirements of th^ 
undertaking was made out by Abeken, and accompanied by 
three separate letters from myself to the King — the proposaX 
and petition signifying payment of all the debts of the house^ 
and an appointment from January 1, 1843, of a regular * House — 
father and House-mother' (as we call the steward and matron) ^ 
in the persons of the Organist Schulz and his bride electa 
who would live for and in the daily and hourly managemen 
of all household concerns. This plan (which I fully believ 
the King will graciously accept) implies a peculiarly persona.1 
gratification {An<febinde) to myself — as the confidential reply 
of Schulz, the organist, to Abeken's private hint of the pro- 
ject, was that * the execution of such a design would mak& 
the happiness of two hearts.' You will imagine how this 
providential dispensation of blessing comes home to me per- 
sonally ! May I ever keep it in thankful memory ! At half- 
past six all was done ; and at seven we sat down to a remark- 
able parting-meal : — Abeken to Berlin, — Lepsius with Wei- 
denbusch to Africa, — Sydow, Kuhlo, Stip, Maurice, and 
Prentiss, — the latter departing next day to America, an 
admirable man, and who has shown me much attachment. 
Having in cheerfulness eaten and drank, we removed upstairs 
for singing, as a finale, the * German Fatherland ' and the 
* Song of Bliicher,' until the hour, a quarter before twelve, con- 
verted mirth into the solemnity of farewell. From twelve to one 
o'clock I wrote the three letters yet wanting for Abeken (to 
the King, to the Minister von Thile, &c.) and let him de- 
part, with heartiest wishes for every blessing. 

I am thankful for all that has been realised, and for all 
that might be added to the picture — Zion and much besides — 
which could not enter my mind three years ago. To God be 
the glory ! I will also thank Him for my being fixed in 
the land of the mighty Unicom, in the wave-encircled dwel- 
ling of the highly-favoured nation. Early on Saturday I began 
the revision of the Psalm Book, and read with Kuhlo in the 
Hebrew Psalms cxxxi. to cl. . . Here have I written a long 


CHAP. London is indescribably delightful just now. Nobody there 
XI. to disturb my leisure — no Court, no Foreign Office ; mogt 
heavenly weather. Every other day we drive to the charming^ 
heights above London — Hampstead, ELighgate — walk abou'fc 
there, drive home again, dine, walk again (when there is no 
rain), talk, have some music, and then go to bed. 

The King has again excited the enthusiasm of the nation, 
by his speech, &c., at Cologne. He is as inexhaustible] in 
his resources as in his own kindness and benevolence ; and 
also full of daring. Only he could venture upon taking part; 
first in the Protestant worship, and then attending the High. 
Mass at the laying of the foundation-stone for the restoration, 
of the Cologne Cathedral — in both with the Queen and in. 
state. The Pope and the good people of Elberfeld will both, 

Bunsen to Mrs. Waddington. 

London : Gth September, 1842. 

. . . I do not expect Fanny and the children before 
the 24th — and shall in the meantime go to Norwich, for the 
Bishop's sake and that of the Musical Festival. If Ernest 
and Charles arrive in time, they may accompany me for two 
or three days. I accompanied Lepsius to Southampton — ^he 
embarked on the 1st (for his Egyptian expedition). May Grod 
speed it ! — it is as if my eldest son had left me ! Abeken is 

gone also to meet the King on the Rhine We go to 

our place in Sussex the end of October. I am sure, if you 
consider all the circumstances, you will find it (as Fanny 
also considers it) a God-send. 

London :10th October. — I must thank you with a line for 
your kind and maternal reply to my letter, — I cannot say 
how thankful I am that you feel satisfied we are right in 
going to Herstmonceaux. I can assure you I attach not the 
slightest importance to the judgment of the world in this, as 

♦ In August 1842, King Frederick William IV. inaugurated in a scene of 
great splendour the recommencement of the labours connected with the com- 
pletion of Cologne Cathedral (began in 1248), assisting his eloquent appeal to 
all lovers of German Gothic by a grant from the public funds of 7,500/. an- 
nually, which the Prussian Parliament (since its e^stablishment in 1849) has 
faithfully continued to vote. Bunsen *s enthusiasm at the time was ex- 
pressed in a paper, first published in the Augsburg AUgeineine Zeiitmg, and 
then printed separately^ under the title of Die VoUendtmg des Kolner Donu. 



Extract from a Letter of Bunsen^s of September 1842. 
{Uncertain to whom addressed,) 


. . . . One thing I must beg of you : cast not away 
the yoke of Christ, — it is not only * an easy yoke/ but of 
force to raise you above all the sufferings of earth : — fix)m it 
can no one withdraw unpunished, for the false freedom of 
the age is spiritual death. I do not utter this by way of in- 
struction, but as a profession of faith : by the help of which, 
all other things become equal or indifferent. 

Bunsen to his Wife. {In answer to an enquiry as to the nature 
of his anticipations, when he had alhidedy in a letter of Ist 
July, to trials in prospect.) 

[Translation.] 8rd September. 

Here you have my share of the thoughts of July 1 ! — I ap- 
prehend that much care and sorrow may be in store for us 
respecting the children. Of our ten, only one is provided 
for. It were, in our case, not merely to be * of little faith,* 
but altogether faithless, after the providential guidance 
which we have experienced, if we could make matter of 
doubt and dread out of any cares which may arise; even 
to such I would address the words of the Hymn, — * Cares 
belong to the Creator' — but, however, they exist, in full 
reality. A^s to what concerns myself, nothing more painful 
and difficult can come over me, than what has befallen me. 
K I live, I may yet find the harvest of my earthly endeavours 
there, where I am as yet misunderstood — in my own country. 
But great trials of good or evil fortune are before us in the 
coming time — that I feel distinctly. 

Lepsius has departed. I saw him embark at Souiliampton 
on September 1. The next morning I began to withdraw 
from Egypt to the Land of Promise. I put my own hand 
to the work, and all help me with insight and willingness ; 
but it is an enormous work. 


CHAP, whole assembly (above 2,000 in number) rose and remained 
^' standing, as during devotional pieces. After this piece, the 
greatest effect was produced by a short chorus, which no 
one had heard before : and that was, equally from the Septimej 
borrowed from Carissimo. This system of intercalation is 
in itself indefensible : but I must confess that the text, as it 
is, has a fine effect : the action progresses dramatically, and 
nothing could be easier than to make a representation with 
entire dramatic effect of this ^ Samson' : an idea for which I 
sought to obtain acceptance. 

Abeken writes from Berlin that all are satisfied to whom 
he was allowed to communicate the MS. My proposal as 
to the Law of Divorce is vehemently contended against in 
the Cabinet Council : and it is believed that this will give oc- 
casion for the King's calling me to Berlin, when I should be 
^obliged to come.' Je n^en voia pas la nScessitS — that is, I see 
not any possibility of my aiding the good cause — the only 
gain would be to remove from tiie King's mind all the de- 
ceptions which he makes to himself about my position at 
Berlin, and the yet greater entanglement into which he 
would bring me by such a summons. Thej have in writing 
my unchangeable opinion on the subject. Nitzsch, at Berlin, 
is entirely agreed in the contents of the MS., — which was 
as little expected by, as it has been agreeable to the King, 
and to Eichhom. 

Bunsen to Usedom. 


London : 18th November, 1842. 

. . . . I am comforted by what you say as to a second 
Secretary in this Legation — your sympathy and that of 
Schleinitz and. Philipsbom does me good. Much longer, 
indeed, it will not be possible to go on in this manner. What 
I have had to do for to-day's post to Berlin — (which could 
neither have been done sooner nor put off later) — you will see: 
and you must believe me that, in addition, I have had to get 
through diplomatic conferences, the eternal newspapers, 
matters of public concern to despatch, at least ten letters 
in England itself and concerns of private persons to treat, 
Gterman, English, and French, such as the Chief of this 
Legation never ought to be troubled with, further than to 


CHAP, was incomparably interesting. It was Hansen's desire 
^^ and aim to elicit from Sir Robert Peel such sentences on 
matters touching the weal or woe of nations, as he had 
the peculiar gift of uttering, when the right question 
had been asked, in a few words of weighty import. He 
said, in reference to the King of Prussia, *I hope he 
will be ready to concede to the wishes of his subjects 
— ^it is well to make concessions while they yet can be 
made: — many Sovereigns have had cause to lament 
having let the hour of concession go by — ^which returns 
not.' Bunsen observed upon Sir Robert Peel's rare 
power of condensing enquiry into a question, the answer 
to which, if duly made, would be voluminous. 

The party were among the listeners to a sermon of the 
Rev. Hugh Stowell, preached in Tamworth Church ; all 
joined in astonishment and admiration, whether matter 
or manner were considered : but neither Sir Robert Peel 
nor his guests, with the exception of Bunsen, could bring 
themselves to believe that the sermon could be extem- 
pore, as they considered that a composition, so faultless 
and yet so forcible, could not have originated but in an 
hour of quiet and seclusion, when it must have been 
carefully written down and committed to memory. Bun- 
sen was better acquainted than the rest of the party 
with the effect of such practice, it being universal (ex- 
cept in the case of exceptional talent) in Germany, where 
congregations do not allow of the reading of a manuscript 
in the pulpit. He felt the manner of Stowell to be 
throughout contradictory of such a supposition, — ^argu- 
ing (but in vain) to convince the parliamentary orators 
that could they but attribute to the preachers of Chris- 
tian truth as entire a possession of their subject, as great 
a warmth of feeling, and as thorough a conviction, as 
they knew by exi:)erience to be the stimulus of eloquence 
in their own case, they would have no difficulty in 
creditmg the spontaneity of ' d' alta facundia inesaxirihil 
vera.^ Sir Robert Peel insisted that the position of the 


CHAP, past Speaking, Sir Robert Peel is reported to have de- 

1^ manded three times that Bunsen should be summoned 

to his bedside. As the meeting was prevented by the 
rapid approach of the last moment the feeling which dic- 
tated this most affecting call must remain a mystery. 

It was at this time that when an allusion was made to 
hardness of hearing, Sir R. Peel mentioned his own un- 
ceasing inconvenience, not to say suffering, from a sound 
in his ears like that of boiling water, — ^which began in 
consequence of the report of a fowling-piece, going off 
unawares close to his head very early in his life ; and 
from which he had no respite. When Bunsen com- 
mented on the peculiar hardship attending such an 
infirmity in the case of the parliamentary debater, bound 
not to lose or misconceive a word. Sir Robert Peel 
admitted the effort of keeping up unbroken attention to 
be severe. 

In the calm and solemn brightness of Christmas days, 
in family intercourse, with the precious addition of the 
society of Archdeacon Hare and of the widow of the Rev. 
Augustus Hare, the year 1842 closed to Bunsen and 
his family, in their beloved refuge at Herstmonceaux. 

Bunsen to his Wife. {At Herstmonceaux.) 


London : Sunday morning, 12ih March, 1843. 

To me the case stands clear before the mind's eye thai 
you will outlive me, and be called upon to guide the deai 
children farther in life ; this thought is firm in my mind 
these many years, although not from the very beginning. 
The Lord order the event according to His holy wiU ! Bui 
I will this day make my will; a short one, for, God b( 
thanked! I have little to dispose of, and what I have ii 
yours ; of that I shall speak no more. But what I have t< 
say to you, in consciousness of our indestructible bond o: 
love, is that your letter has caused me to look deeply anc 
sorrowfully into my own heart. . . The wheel of life whirli 



Bunsen to Mrs. Waddington. 

London : June| 1843, Saturday. 

Pray read the Duke's wonderfal speech on Thursday. It 
is an historical one, more than any we have probably heard 
these many years; he delivered it almost fluently. As a 
piece of oratory. Roebuck's philippic is said to have been 
the finest thing that ever proceeded from his mouth. 

As to Lord Ellenborough, it comes out (as a statesman 
here told me a month ago), that ^ he has made blunders, and 
will make blunders ; he has been disagreeable, and will be 
disagreeable ; — ^but that he will always do great things welL' 

Bwisen to one of his Sons. 


London: 8rd July, 1843. 

The day before yesterday appeared a work which will mark 
an epoch in the Church history of England.* 

9th July. — In order to seize the connection clearly between 
the sermon and the commentary, place before your mind the 
simple question of the Eeformation — Is the Godhead — latens 
dict^cs — in the consecrated wafer, which by the consecration 
is made the present body ? — or is the bread and wine simply 
nothing^ either before or after the prayer of consecration, 
except in and with the sotd and body of the believing re- 
ceiver — in which connection it may be termed the symbolical 
or substantial body, according to the school that affixes the 

Whosoever maintains the former is a Romanist, a servant 
of the Mass, and is under the obligation to take all conse- 

But that is asserted everywhere in the sermon, — just be- 
cause without this assumption it is unintelligible. And why 
is this assumption at the bottom of the whole ? Because, 
instead of the living God and the Eternal Word — whose 
utterances are spirit and life — Dr. Pusey invests the priest- 
hood, called by him the Church, with a magic power to give 

• The well-known sermon by Dr. Pusey. 


CHAP, in faith* Tmth and falsehood, reality and sham, must soon 
^' separate, as fire from water. Whoever was not before con- 
vinced of the eternal truth of Gospel faith and the doctrine 
of justification by that living faith in the Saviour, would 
now become so here on beholding the deathlike superstition 
of the Puseyites. Be not led into error; the people of 
England are more strenuous than ever against this party, 
whose decided adherents are few. They lead astray many 
green girls and old women, and they have altogether the 
advantage of the reaction of the Middle Ages against the 
eighteenth century to make use of — ^which with us began 
fifty years ago, and had its consequences — ^witness StoU- 
berg, Schlegel, &c. All that is told of ' thousands of Pusey- 
ites ' is a falsehood ; were you here, you would see it with 
your own eyes. 

What our intentions were with regard to Jerusalem is told 
in the small book which Hering wiU bring you. It is by 
Abeken, written here ; if you should discern the pencil of 
your friend in the first part, keep to yourself the fact that 
you know it to be from his hand. The establishment will 
in five or six years show itself for what it is. * Patience and 

Tour * Niebelungen ' are my joy and my pride. The book 
meets with much approbation here. Lachmann's publication 
of * Twenty Songs of the Niebelungen' (in Simrock's transla- 
tion) would deserve to be treated in a similar manner. They 
are more easy for the general reader, and also more grand in 
style than the former. 

We go on better as regards the health of our children. 
We old ones are well. 

Bunaen to one of his Sons. 

24th August, 1843. 

In remembrance of to-morrow receive the best edition of 
the divine Plato. Take him as being, next after the Gospel, 
the best means of assisting us in consecrating our life to 
God, and the most powerful help in the struggle with it. 
And may Grod bless you ! 


CHAP, referring the inscription upon Arnold's tomb wholly to Haxe's 
^- correction and decision, he continues: — ] Let me thank 
you once more for the days of happiness which your friend- 
ship, unwearied kindness, and ever ready help and advice, 
procured me at Herstmonceaux. I look back to those days 
as to one of the happiest portions of my life, and I cannot 
help hoping that Providence will bring us once more near 
together, to exchange thoughts and feelings. 

I go with very mixed feelings to Berlin ; but the idea of 
seeing the King — also Schelling and my two boys, and so 
many kind friends— of settling the printing of the Liturgy, 
and possibly the Divorce question — ^fills me with hope and 
thankfulness. I shall not remain ; there is no place for me 
now, and in my opinion there never will be. If I can from 
time to time go over to Berlin, and see Oermany, I cannot 
imagine a more desirable arrangement of life. 

Bunsen to his Wife. 


Brussels : Friday, 15th March, 1S44, half-past two. 

Twenty-four hours and a half after you and all my friends 
had vanished from my sight, I landed well and cheerftd at 
Antwerp ; never have I had more prosperous seafaring expe- 
ditions than since I have been Envoy to the favourite of Nep- 
tune, the Queen of Great Britain ! The cause is self-evident. 
I had begun by making myself at home in the state cabin, by 
using the upper hammock as a standing desk upon which I 
placed my book, supported on each side by book bags. When 
the rain had ceased I walked on deck, the sea was smooth, 
but the N.E. wind most penetrating. 

The dear Amims are as kind as ever ; I have left them to 
return in two hours to dinner ; to-morrow, at half-past seven, 
I go on to Cologne. When I have dressed for dinner I shall 
write my comment upon Ewald's book. 

Ewald does not admit the historical personality of Joseph — 
because he cannot explain it from want of knowledge of Egyp- 
tian chronology ; although he remarks, with great acuteiiess, 
that Joseph is never placed in the series of the patriarchs. 
He perceives that Joseph came to an Egyptian^ and not to a 
Shepherd'Kiiigi therefore he concludes that Joseph came before 




Bunaen to his Wife. 


Cologne : Monday, 18th March, 1844 

(Soft breath of Spring), eight o'clock, ajl 

Already I have plunged into the open sea of the life of my 
people, and into the arms of old friends. I left Brossels early 
on Saturday, and arrived at seven o'clock in the evening at 
Cologne, where Helmentag fetched me from the station. 
We talked until after two in the morning. On Sunday 
Zwimer's assistant showed us everything in the cathedral ; 
for the first time I saw the apsis completed, according to the 
original plan. Helmentag suggested to me to visit the 
Archbishop, and one of the principal patricians of Cologne, 
the President von Grote. I enquired whether he believed 
the attention would be taken in good part ? He was sure 
that there need be no doubt ; and oflFered to ascertain the suit- 
able time. Then we proceeded to the Protestant church, full 
to the very street door ; the preacher, a true servant of the 
Gospel. Then I flew by railway to Bonn, and by one o'clock 
was on my pilgrimage to the monument of Niebuhr, which I 
beheld with imspeakable emotion. Then I went to Hollweg, 
with him to Brandis, with the latter to Amdt and Nitzsch, 
whence Hollweg again fetched me, and he with Brandis accom- 
panied me back to Cologne : on my arrival there, I was met 
by Helmentag with the intelligence that my announced visit 
would be very agreeable to the Archbishop. I drove to the 
Palace, where I had not set foot since the eventftil day 
of September 17, 1837; and had a conversation of an 
hour and a quarter with the coadjutor Archbishop, who met 
me in the most friendly manner, and after the first half hour 
treated me even confidentially. Having returned to Helmen- 
tag I met the President von Grote, at supper, and we sat 
in friendly talk together till midnight. Now, in half an 
hour I shall be on the way to Diisseldorf, passing by the side 
of a hospital building, where a fine Roman mosaic has been 
excavated, 500 square feet, with the images of tlie seven 
sages and their Grecian names. The kind President promises 
to show them to me. We two had never seen one another 
before, and we have parted as friends. The Archbishop re- 


CHAP, gloomily stilL With the noblest intentioiis and the lughert 

^ 1__ giftSj mistakes continually take place ; and the public mind 

(which is unjustly embittered) seizes upon them. What- 
ever is done is sure to be misinterpreted-eveiything timt 
takes place is disapproved, either because it is really &uliy, 
or because it is not that which is demanded, the desideratnm 
being a Eepresentative Assembly {Reichstdnde). That the 
Bang should have accepted the protectorate of the * Gustay- 
Adolph Yerein' has been matter of great irritation among the 
Boman Catholics, who intend to have an association for the 
benefit of poor Catholic communities (as the other is for Pro- 
testants), which they will call the TiUy Society (!) They 
will not accomplish this. The Minister has despatched a 
letter to the Catholic Bishops in defence and explanation of 
the acceptance of the protectorate, to obviate groundless sup- 
positions ; which step is vehemently blamed — it is said, * Q^% 
s^excttse^ s^accvse.^ If things look ill here, it is worse in the 
old provinces, as I am assured. 

One word about Kaiserswerth, which is an admirable insti- 
tution, superior to what I expected. Not before next year 
(the autumn of 1845) will Pliedner be able to send us four 
or five deaconesses (for the German Hospital in London). 

A short notice must be given of the institution of a 
Hospital for Germans in London, alluded to in the letter 
of Bunsen of March 19, 1844, though there is no paper 
in Bunsen's own handwriting to notify his discovery of 
the great need of such an establishment, or of his own 
sedulous labour to bring it into reality. Such state- 
ments were no doubt made in his communications to 
the King, who granted munificent assistance as soon as 
it was applied for, the application not having been made 
until Bunsen could represent the undertaking as both 
existing and in a state of forwardness, according to his 
principle and invariable practice with regard to claims 
on the Royal beneficence. 

The existing need of medical and surgical aid for the 
very large German population of London was not owring 
to any objection or difficulty being made to the admis- 
<4ion of German patients into the London hospitals, but 


CHAP, prefiice. Now for the continuation of my narrative. My last 
^- letter was from Diisseldorf, on Tuesday ; at half-past two I 
proceeded to Elberfeld, and there saw Graber, the President 
of the Synod, and F. W. Krummacher. With the former I 
talked over the Law of Divorce ; he shares my opinion, that 
the law is not tenable except on the scriptiiral foundation, 
and that must be understood in the sense of the Beformation 
and of our ancient Liturgies: that is, that marriage is 
essentially indissoluble, except on the ground of adultery, or 
of malicious desertion. He declared himself to hold per- 
sonally the same view, but that many voices, even in the 
Synod, would be against it, when the proposal should be laid 
before them ; the clergy, he believed, would willingly con- 
form to it as lawy and he and those agreed with him would 
thankfully support it, if it were reformed according to my 
proposal. This testimony rejoiced my heart, in opposition 
to such fearful infatuation as exists elsewhere. 

The accounts I first received of the temper of the public 
are confirmed in every place. . . Clubs are everywhere in 
process of formation. It is not insurrection that is aimed 
at, but agitation. Shortly before reaching Minden, I met so 
heavy a fall of snow, with a north-east wind, that the postil- 
lion had to be lifted off his horse, so greatly was he stiffened 
with the cold. The snow continued to fall all night : but by 
eight o'clock next morning the finest sunshine brought in 
the first day of spring, and at Hamela after having break- 
fasted, I hastened on, on foot, before the carriage, for, as I 
was now in the kingdom of Hanover, waiting for the horses 
was a matter of course. By a quarter past six (Friday the 
22nd) I arrived at the Berlin station. . . Yesterday I went 
early to Biilow, who received me with his accustomed hearti- 
ness, and gave me at once the carte du pays with reference to 
myself; it was just what I had anticipated. The granting to 
me the Star of the Order had called forth great indignation, 
and my being called to Berlin great alarm. Next Wednesday 
the last conference of the Council of State on the Law of 
Divorce is to take place, and they expect that the King will 
send me there to preach the Gospel. I found General von 
Thile, and was most affectionately received, and confiden- 
tially informed of the questions that awaited me. 

The King, I find, has adopted the Ministerial proposal, to 


CHAP, alon-e ; — it was as if the solar system should be furnished 
^^- with centrifugal powers only. The Prince stated to me his 
own position relative to the great question, and to the King, 
with a clearness, precision, self-command, and openness 
which delighted me. He is quite his father ; throughout, a 
noble-minded Prince of Brandenburg — of that House which 
has created Prussia. 

This audience has created much surprise, and all those 
who as yet had avoided taking cognisance of my existence, 
are now full of attention and consideration. I have informed 
the King of what passed, and I now wait to see whether the 
Prince will give me an opportunity again to speak to him on 
this greatest of all the questions of the present day. I have 
the King's permission to tell the Prince that I am informed of 
aU that the King thinks on the subject, and to communicate 
my own opinion. WiU all this help ? That, no one can 
know ; but I trust God will give me strength to speak openly, 
and yet to be prudent. As to the first, I have no fear ; but 
that prudence I shall never learn which consists in not say- 
ing what I think. I see the King almost daily. The 
day before yesterday I read to him the Introduction to my 
Egyptian work. Last night I was two hours alone with the 
King. The aide-de-camp (Colonel Willisen) was commanded 
not to announce me, but to desire me to go straight into the 

To the Same, 

Berlin : Monday, 15tli April, 1844 

Best Beloved ! — Only two words — particulars another 
time. I am well, and very happy. My heart expands in the 
thought that I may he oi service to King and fatherland in 
their immediate need, in the question of the time. 

To the Same. 

Berlin : Tuesday, 16th April, 1844. 

I work in the morning at the * fom' preliminary ques- 
tions.' * In the afternoon I meditate on the great cathedral 

• These Vier Vorfragen were treated in four essays, proposing certfun pre- 
paratory laws and regulations to bo decided upon by the King (according to 
' Bunsen's opinion), without any delay, so as to prepare tb^ -way for the 
promulgation of a Prussian Constitution. 


CHAP, much care and vexation, so many mistakes, so much discord 
^^' and misapprehension ! Since this interview, I feel my heart 
free ; I feel again that I am reconciled to my old paternal 

To-day I have invited my two sons, with Gerhard, Panofka, 
Franz, Kramer, Marcus Niebuhr, Usedom, Boestell, Baron 
Liphart, Eeumont, and Stier (twelve in all), to an archaeo- 
logical dinner party, in the strangest and most agreeable 
locality in the world — KrolPs, in the Thiergarten. . . . 

To the Scume. 


Berlin : Sunday morning, 2l8t April, 1844. «» 

(2597 th anniversary of the birtiiday of Rome.) 

I have had an important week. My proposal with regard 
to the reconstruction of the ancient Schwanen-Orden (Order 
of the Swan) consists mainly of two measures proposed as 
immediate and contemporary : 

1. The foundation of an establishment at Berlin for the 
care of the sick by means of self-devoted and trained females 

2. Restoration of the original communities of canonesses 
(about ten in number in the monarchy), according to the 
original idea of the institution. You know that these were 
originally aristocratic convents, retained at the time of the 
Reformation as places of refuge for the unmarried daughters 
of the country nobility. The old Elector of Brandenburg 
decreed that the inmates should * hold Divine service daily, 
and lead a pious and contemplative life,' but the Chapters 
have naturally become mere receptacles of old maids and of 

The Xing has resolved to announce to the abbesses of 
these establishments that he ^ does not desire to exercise any 
compulsion, but if any of them will undertake and carry out 
any work of charity (such as infant schools, for instance), the 
residue of the revenues of the establishment (hitherto appro- 
priated by the State, after payment of the several allowances 
and expenses) shall be placed at the disposal of the ladies for 
public purposes; besides which, every establishment which 
should thus- form for itself a new rule of life, should be 



XI. To the Same. 


The Palace, Potsdam : Wednesday, 15th Maj, 1844. 

I came here, by command, affcer despatching my letter of 
this morning to you, and while awaiting farther orders, I 
employ the moment in intercourse with you. My task for to- 
day is indeed an important one ! The reform of the ladies' 
establishments would be a real blessing. The King as 
Crown Prince opposed their suppression, because he would 
not give up the hope of making use of them for purposes 
beneficial to the Protestant community, instead of allowing 
their revenues to fall into the general treasury for the dis- 
posal of Government. The election of a truly religious abbess 
in the most considerable of these institutions (that of the 
Holy Sepulchre) seemed to be at the same time an unhoped- 
for opportunity for the beginning of the work. The plan of 
the abbess would include (after indispensable preliminary 
regulations) the establishment of an infant school, that of a 
hospital, and of a school for girls ; but she necessarily waits 
for the King first to clear out the old leaven, it seeming 
indispensable to allow and to oblige those inmates, who are 
unfit and unable to live according to new regulations, to con- 
sume their annuities elsewhere, at the same time retaining 
their rank — a thing much cared for, as canonesses take place 
in society before others who are their equals in birth. 

On the same principle, the rich prebends of the Cathedrals 
at Magdeburg, Merseburg, and Naumburg, will be dealt with ; 
but these rich morsels fall to the share of persons in whose 
case it is difficult to find the form by which to make such an 
alteration as to restore those revenues to their originally 
useful destination, — a difficulty shared with England in the 
case of Holy Cross, the Charterhouse, Dulwich, St: Alban's, 
and many others. 

To the Same. 

Sans Souci : Whit Sunday, 1844. 

. . . The King having desired that music to the great 
Trilogy of -ZEschylus should be composed by Mendelssohn, 
Professor Franz has, at my request, made a new translation, 
in three acts — ^brought together by omission and conden- 


CHAP, cal and gainsaying public, which, instead of beholding 
^ in the performance the gratification of artistic taste on 

the part of the King, was resolved to believe in a de- 
sign to regulate or school the general taste by authority. 
At a later period, the ' (Edipus at Colonos ' (the Cho- 
ruses by Taubert) was performed with good effect, and 
by the desire of the King, under Bunsen's direction, 
the great works of ^schylus (the * Agamemnon,' the 'Eu- 
menides,' the 'Choephorae') were compressed by Profes- 
sor Franz into one piece, called the ' Oresteia.' It was 
hoped that Mendelssohn would have undertaken the 
arrangement and musical composition of the Choruses, 
but after much consideration, for reasons indicated in 
the second volume of his published correspondence, he 
was obliged to leave the royal wish unfulfilled. 

Bunsen to his Wife. 

Palace of Sans Souci, Potsdam : Whit Sunday, 1844, twelve o'clock. 

Here, as at Berlin, all is in the greatest excitement — the 
courier announcing the Emperor's arrival having come but 
two minutes before him. The Emperor had accomplished the 
250 German miles in 106 hours, including the fowr hours 
that he passed before the gate of Berlin (in order not to rouse 
the Meyendorfs out of their sleep), changed his dress, drove to 
the Greek Russian Church, which was decorated with fresh 
flowers and branches for the festival, and all present on their 
knees, the Mass having begun. The Emperor by a sign 
commanded stillness, and knelt close to tiie entrance, re- 
maining thus (in his tight uniform) for half an hour, and 
then proceeded to his proper seat, before the singing of the 
* Te Deum ; ' after that, to the railway, and on to Sans 
Souci. He is going by Holland to England, where he will 
remain eight or ten days, and so you will see him. A grand 
presence! The jomney hither, and to England, may be- 
come matter of universal history. All is in the hands of GUxl, 
and this is the festival of the greatest of miracles ! 

Four 0^ clock. — I have been presented to the Emperor by the 
King. He said, he had expected to find me in London. The 


CH^VP. This last would be the one rational aim, and therefore a 
• political intention, of the Cabinet of St. Petersburg, as it is 
the foundation of Brunnow's policy. He wishes to influence 
them. To what end ? To what, but for plans as to the future 
— ^the near future, in which he would fain not see England 
and France pursuing the same line ! Thus he may yet more 
strengthen the already ruling conviction of the Government, 
that he will never lend a hand to a combination with France, 
such as all other Russian politicians demand, in order to take 
a share of Turkey, without asking leave of England or of 
Germany. But further. There is the world's prospect barred 
up fix>m our view. England never gives an eventual assent, 
and takes upon herself no eventual obligations : not one of 
her present statesmen is capable of a prescient, systematic 
course of politics respecting Turkey ; but were there even 
such a systematic course adopted and followed up, it could 
only be for the present, not for a future transaction. And 
what inducements can the Emperor oflFer? 

It may, after all, have been only a whim of autocracy 
that has decided him personally to examine into the state 
of men's minds. But a courageous autocrat in truth he is ! 
No police in London can protect him from the daggers or 
pistols of the Poles, or of any possible madman ; and how 
many of his bitterest enemies are there, in despair, breathing 
forth vengeance, setting life at nought ! He has a firm belief 
in Divine protection ; yet upon what is such faith founded ? 

No confidential intercourse has taken place here between 
the King and the Emperor, — of that I am convinced : it was 
scarcely possible ; and, besides, they are upon no confidential 
footing. Were that the case I should now be on the way to 
London. The Emperor himself brought the matter near to 
me — * J'avais cru vous trouver a Londres. Quand y serez- 
vous de retour?' * J'attends les ordres du Roi, Sire.' * Je 
peux done me charger de vos commissions pour Londres?' 
A low bow on my part. End of the conversation ; the 
Emperor moved on; the King came near; Humboldt re- 
marked, as in joke, ' You ought to travel after the Emperor, 
and return with him.' * Yes, indeed,' said the King, * that 
is true!' *But he would not arrive in time,' observed 
Humboldt. * It might be possible, by Hamburgh.' * Rather 
by Ostend,' rejoined the King. I was silent, for I saw it was 


not the King's intention, and could perceive no use in such a CHAP, 
journey to and fro ; on the contrary, it would give rise to er- ^^' 
roneous suppositions, as though there were a great political 
plan between the two Courts, into which I was to help to in- 
duce England to enter ; but that is not the case — ^the Emperor 
lias indicated no such design. Of course I should go, had 
the Eing given the least sign of a wish to that effect. I 
believe he would like it as little as myself. Ideas or imagi- 
nation the Emperor has not ; but there is an inward dignity 

As matters now stand, it is clear to me that now no measure 
can or wiU be taken from which an important result could be 
expected. The temper of minds in the country may im- 
prove, just because it cannot be worse. As long as the aim 
and the means of attainment remain separate, there is 
nothing to be done, but to pray and to hope and to believe. 

I was with Greneral Thile the day before yesterday. He 
assured me that he would make use of the leisure he should 
•btain, by the King's short absence on a visit in Prussian 
l^ony, to study the subject of my Political Memoirs. So it 
ia here — everybody has to do with so much current business, 
that there is no time to bestow on the weightiest concerns ; 
that is, just now, the very question of life — not even to think 
of it, much less to work it out. Imagine (the fact is signi- 
ficant) that during the fortnight in which the two Memoirs 
have been in the General's hands no clerk has had leisure 
even to transcribe them — they are too much engaged with 
TOting on daily business to find time for anything unusual ! 
As I know that I should perish at the end of a few years 
if I was obliged to remain here, I ofben seem to myself like 
the insect, which, though singed, yet flies ever and again to 
the flame. I do that to which my innermost feeling urges me, 
^thout consideration of consequences to myself; but when I 
folly contemplate realities I see that no danger exists of my 
being detained here. That nothing whatever will be done is 
a matter of the highest probability : should anything be done 
some of my ideas may be made use of. That is what I must 
consider the gracious ordinance of God's providence for myself 
personally; and it would also be well-judged to act without me, 
for I am not suited to the execution of afiairs, or not suited 
to the men with whom I should have to act. I cannot even 


CHAP, comprehend how business can be performed as it is here — ^I 
^^' mean really great and necessary business. All seem to be 
gliding quietly down the stream to the cataracts which are 
actually before them. The daily life of the Court and of the 
Ministers experiences no interruption for a single day, as 
though we lived in the most commonplace period ; and yet 
every one says that we are in a time of crisis ! Non d capisco 
niente I Often am I haunted by the spectre of the C!ourt and 
Ministry at Paris in 1 788-89 ; but then, I say again, Prussia 
is not France, and, above all, Frederick William IV. is not 
Louis XVI. I have shown throughout my life, that I am not 
nervous : I can sleep in the storm, and be silent in the fire ; 
but if I sat at the helm, I should have no peace until a reso- 
lution had been taken, and I could then set about the work 
resolved upon. For delay between determination and action 
is as intolerable as between betrothal and wedding. 

To the Same. 

Tuesday in Wliitsun-week. 

The day that the Emperor was here at dinner, I sat, as 
usual, opposite to the King, who addressed me, in conversa- 
tion, more even than usual. He began by explaining the 
sense of Beethoven's ^ Overture ' to the ' Coriolanus * of 
Shakespeare, which was performed imder the windows of the 
dining-room, remarking that the composition designated all 
parts of the action, &c. ; his subject led him to speak of the 
* Eumenides,' and I mentioned that I had induced Franz to 
make a fresh translation, condensing the three parts into one 
whole, in three acts, by the omission of unnecessary portions. 
The Emperor enquired what the matter in question was? 
and the King related, shortly and humorously, the subject 
of the tragedy, concluding with — ' The thing ends thus : the 
Furies receive the title of Excelleyicyj and a house rent free 
outside the gates, — and withdraw, on these conditions, well 
pleased ! ' All the allusions contained in this jest you must get 
Thile to explain, — one allusion, among many others, is to a 
set of grumblers who a few days ago were dismissed and paid 
off with the title just mentioned and other desirable things. 
The Emperor must have remained as entirely uninformed 
as before, and have thought his Royal brother-in-law original 


CIIAP. stains fixed upon her by unbelief and false belief, by des- 
^^- potism and anarchy, by aristocratic greediness of gain ! It 
will not be long before I shall be called a Jacobin, as before 
I was reckoned a Jesuit. Never mind ! With Grod's help I 
may yet attain the end. Next week I am to go to the King ; 
this week I requested him to leave free to me. To-morrow 
is the anniversary of the late King's death, which the King 
keeps in the mausoleum at Charlottenburg. 

[In English.] Berlin : Thursday morning, 13th June. 

I have to tell you an important fact, that I must be in 
London soon after the middle of July. The commercial 
discussions are becoming too important to allow of my being 
longer detained. Biilow has written in perfect accordance 
with my own declarations and convictions, at my instigation, 
to the King, that he must not keep me longer than neces- 
sary. I was to have been yesterday at Sans Souci, but the 
telegraph announced the flying Emperor's arrival here to- 
day, and that I am to dine with the King herey and go with 
him to Sans Souci when the northern gale is blown over. 

The King htis my two Memoirs, and I have announced to 
him my l<ist word, which contains the Key, and which I have 
shown to nobody else. I do not work much now ; I merely 
think, which costs me no trouble ; I eat and drink (homoeo- 
pathically), which gives me none either ; and I sleep, which 
does me much good. Besides, I lounge about, doing nothing, 
and enjoy the society, first of the King, then of friends, 
from five to eleven every day. What interesting letters frt)m 
Lepsius and Abeken ! It is with the Ethiopian hypothesis 
(i.e. that Egyptian civilisation came from Meroe), as I said 
in 1841, in my instructions to Lepsius, — it is all a bubble, 
humbug, and nonsense. No Ethiopian monuments before 
the Ptolemies ! Possibly the name of Queen Candace. . . . 

To the Same. {At Berlin.) 


From Sans Souci : Wednesday, 2Cth June, 1844. 

. . . I am still here, and shall probably also be here 
to-morrow, and the day after (Friday). I am to have a 
solemn audience — the audience. To-day is the birthday o€ 


CHAP, daughter to Berlin, ended in the recommendation of a 

L cold-water treatment, to be undergone at Marienburg, 

near Boppart, on the Rhine ; and Bunsen and his wifie 
departed in different directions from Berlin at the same 
time — he to be ready in London for the Prince's arrival^ 
and she for a temporary banishment, which prevented 
her being present to receive his Royal Highness at the 
dwelling of the Prussian Legation, then No. 4 Carlton 

To the Same, {His wife beitig at Berlin ; while he was at tht 

Palace of Sana Souci, at Potsdam,) 


Saturday morning, aeven o'clock : 6th July, 1844. 

I am still here, — for how long ? — one knows nothing here 
beforehand. • • . The King said to Count Bedem that 
I must now go back to London, on accoimt of public 
business, but that I was to return to fetch you, Humboldt 
insists that the King said the same to yourself (when he 
spoke to you at the New Palace), of which I know nothing. 
For my own part, I have no desire to return ; I see no reason 
for it, and all reasons against it ; but if the King should 
command, I must do so. Will he indeed command? thai 
must depend upon events. All this troubles me not, for 1 
have cast my die^ let it fall as it may. I have chosen mj 
line, and on that I will run my coiu^e, as long as God give^ 
me strength. . . . 

10th Julyy Thursday, half-past eleven. — I am deep in work 
and, spite of the name of this residence, deep in cares. Nevei 
mind ! 

To the Same, 

London, Carlton Terrace : 24th July, 1844, Wednesday. 

. . • You have been informed of our prosperous voyage 
and you also know that the Prince of Prussia, in all proba- 
bility, will arrive to-day, and receive the intelligence o: 
Queen Victoria's safety, and the birth of a second Prince ;— 
he will also find all things here prepared for his reception 
I must consider this as providential. How extraordinary, a* 
least, that the Prince should just enter the house I inhabit 


CHAP, work on Egypt. At Oakhill (the country-house) I work al 
^^' the completion of the * General Evangelical Hymn and 
Prayer Book/ the printing of which is to begin on August 15, 
at tiie Bauhe Haus in Hamburgh, in 10,000 copies. Thig 
is essentially my work of life and love ; and it has in the 
latter years constituted itself, in its form and its matter, intc 
a popular Germa/i form. A book of choral melodies will 
appear simultaneously ; in which you will find the genuine 
ancient harmonies, with equal notes for congregational sing- 
ing, and, on the opposite side, a rhythmical arrangement 
for the choir. For each and both these works I have de 
clined all favour or concern on the part of Government, ai 
I desire that the work should appear before the congregatioi 
entirely as a private undertaking. The Hymn Book containi 
sixty- fcwo psalms and 450 hymns ; the Prayer Book containi 
the Church Prayers as its liturgical section, and forms o 
private prayer extracted from those of the former publicatioi 
in 1832. 

Much besides, humanly speaking more important, was als< 
agitated at Berlin, but is not calculated for communicatioi 
in a letter. Still I must say a word on one subject — that o 
the Cathedral and the Campo Santo. Only the latter will h 
built in the first instance ; before' the present church can b 
pulled down, the Petri-Kirche must be finished, which wil 
require three years. The designs of Cornelius for the Camp 
Santo are the finest that he has ever made. He will exe 
cute the Cartoons, but that he should ever paint them i 
most improbable. 

Bunsen to his Wife, 

London : 7th August, 1844. 

... I am just returned from Windsor Castle, where all ii 
prepared for the friendly and dignified reception of th< 
Prince. Prince Albert very happy in the birth of a seconc 

son, the Queen as well or better than ever I shal 

to-morrow write and try to induce the King to cause th< 
oldest Obelisk in the world — that of Sesortosen (imdei 
whom Joseph was Vizier) — to be sent to him trom thi 


CHAP, of less than a foot, tore tlirough all my clothing ; bnt I ex- 
perienced not the slightest sensation, and it rolled ofiF from 
the breast-bone, powerless into the carriage ! Be silent, and 
adore ! is my motto. 

* The Obelisk will be lost to me. But, may the Arazzi be 
mine ! I will give the sum out of my pocket, and into the 
bargain the twenty guineas for the cameo of my great-unde. 
Pray settle all at once. Grod be with you !— P.W. 

^ To William all that is cordial and affectionate ! Talk 
over with him all things as much as possible — ^politics, Church 
matters, the arts, Jerusalem in particular. I have begged 
him, on his part, to discuss everything unreservedly with 
you — ^that will be most useful and very necessary.* 

Whither will the Lord guide us, beloved ? Not to great- 
ness ; but I say in words of the hymn : — 

Thus lead'st Thou, Lord, Thy people still to blessing — 
To blessing still, by strange, unthought-of ways. 

I say Amen to all that you express in your two last letters, 
so full of love. I rejoice in Christiana's visit to you. A thou- 
sand greetings to her ! 

A letter to Bunsen from the banks of the Rhine, 
dated August 20, 1844, records a condition of weather 
strongly contrasted with the report repeatedly given of 
the clear sky and bright sunshine which favoured the 
tour of his Royal Highness the Prince of Prussia in 

Since the 10th there has been scarcely a cessation of pelt- 
ing rain, and the Rhine is swollen to such a degree as to 
cause apprehension of the low grounds being flooded ; at the 
same time it is as cold as in November. Yet in despite of 
this state of weather, a troop of 400 pilgrims set off on foot 
this morning at four o'clock (from Boppart) to attend the 
festival at Treves on the occasion of the displaying of the 
Holy Coat — supposed to be that of our Saviour for which the 
soldiers cast lots, as being * without seam, woven from the top 
throughout.' This is a relic, as a rule, shown only once in a 
century ; but the Pope has issued a permission for its being ex- 
posed on August 23, and again on September 8, and tracts on 

£j. 53 * THE HOLY COAT ' AT TREVES. 73 

the subject have been distributed for some time all about the CHAP 


coimtTy. . • . A travelling woman, who oflFers for sale pieces 
of fine guipure, said that most of it was purchased of the 
peasant-women, who sell it to obtain the means of defray- 
ing their travelling expenses to worship the Holy Coat at 
Treves ! These pieces of lace are considered as the necessary 
decoration of the wedding cap, worn on festivals for life, and 
intended to descend from one generation to another. To see 
them set off, in procession, headed by their priest, and 
chanting as they walked, was solemn and edifying, looking 
like devotion ; but wretched was the sight as they returned, 
with clothes wet and muddy, and countenances worn and 
expressive not of fatigue only, but of discontent also. All 
the most serious-minded Catholics wish for the prohibition of 
such travelling and crowding under plea of devotion, which 
the late Archbishop Spiegel used to check by charges and 
admonitions to his clergy, as tending to more moral evil than 
can be told. 

Bunsen to his Wife. 

Carlton Terrace : Thursday morning, 5th September, 1844. 
.... I am this day to receive the Raphael-tapestry, and 
forward the pieces to the King, I hope before the equinoc- 
tial storms. On the journey with the Prince of Prussia I 
iad occasion to see and know fine specimens of human 
nature, besides Wellington, Peel and Aberdeen, with whom 
I have really livedo and conversed much and confidentially : — 
Lady Adeliza Manners, daughter of the Duke of Rutland 
who translated Tholuck's sermons), I saw at Belvoir Castle ; 
and Lady Westmoreland, with whom I first became ac- 
quainted on this occasion; and this flight through the 
countr}^ will save me half a year of future travelling, both 
time and expense, for I have seen much that I had need to 
^, and should long since have seen. One friend too have I 
trained — Stockmar. He will accompany me next Sunday to 

To the Same, 

London : Monday, 0th September, 1844. 

The Prince has departed, and the end has passed off as 
l^appily as the beginning and the middle of the time. The 
Prince has heaped all possible kindness upon me, and, as he 


CHAP, is trae and sincere, I can thoronghly rejoice therein. He 
''^' has not only allowed me to lay before him all imporiaiit 
papers, but has discussed them with me. 

Xumerous additions might have been made to this 
scanty report of the important and prosperous journey 
of his Royal Highness to and through England, in pa^ 
ticulars related by Bunsen of conversations with the 
distinguished men whom he presented to the Prince, 
always endeavouring to lead to topics on which they 
might be moved to utter opinions, which he then re- 
ported in German to his Royal Highness. The Duke 
of Wellington readily replied to questions on military 
subjects, and his answers (as was always the case witii 
every word that fell from him) would all have been 
well worth recording; but only one is remembered— 
when asked about military regulations : — * I know of 
none more important than closely to attend to the com- 
fort of the soldier : let him be well clothed, sheltered, 
and fed. How should he fight, poor fellow ! if he ha^ 
besides risking his life, to struggle with unnecessary 
hardships? Also, he must not, if it can be helped, be 
struck by the balls before he is fiiirly in action. One 
ought to look shai^) aft^r the young officers, and be very 
indulgent to the soldier.' 

Bunsen to Archdeacon JuUvls Hare. 


Board of Trade : 4th September, 1844. 

I reply to your invaluable letter not till the third day, and 
from this place ! — ^that must show you that I have had as 
much impediment to writing as I have had desire to write. 
May God's richest blessing be upon the great and important 
change in prospect ! I call it down, with truly confident 
belief that it will be granted to you. I feel as though a 
long-desired personal benefit had been conferred upon myself 
when I see that happiness conferred upon you which I have 
so often desired for you. I am convinced that your heart's 
impulse has g^ded you rightly, having felt myself drawn 



CHAP, are of suffering it to become a custom or rule. But who will ■ 
" • doubt that many persons find it a comfort and a blessing? 
and the opposite view, in the Roman Catholic Church, where ; 
the popular habit (in Bome and Italy) in the one paschal 
communion, is, as Calvin so truly says, ^ an invention of 
Satan.' . . . 

The article in the * Times ' on Arnold was very maliciooi 
and insidious. Not venturing to ignore his book, and not 
daring to trample him under foot, the Tractarians do after 
the method of their brethren the Jesuits,— they praise the 
schoolmaster, declaring him to have been the greatest tiiat 
ever lived, but, of course, nobody ever failed so signally as ft 
controversialist. ^ A splendid boy, he was indeed,' as Mo0^ 
ley says in the insidious Review in the ^ Christian Bemem- 
brancer.' * Luther was a great popular writer ' {VoUctsckr^ 
steller), says King Louis of Bavaria, *only no theologian,* 

Niebuhr's Lectures — what a treasure ! — we read them 
every evening. And how admirably are they rendered Ij 
Dr. Schmitz ! The character of Cicero is given like the 
description of a friend with whom you have passed your 

To the Same. 

Oakhill : 27tli November, 1844. 

I have received, from a highly respected quarter, a very 
strong recommendation of a young man of twenty-two yean 
of age, much thought of by Schelling. He has made him- 
self known by a new edition of the ^ HitdpadSsa ' from the 
Sanscrit, and is a general scholar, altogether distinguished. 
He desires to live some years in England. . . He is the son 
of the celebrated poet and philologer Wilhelm Mtiller 
(author of the Griechen-Lieder, and Bomische RitameUen)^ 
of high moral character, and, as far as I know, of serious 

• This is the first indication of an important event in the life of Buiwen, 
— the acquaintance (which at once became warm friendship) with Dr- 
Max Miiller, now Professor at Oxford ; and his approach is hailed as the 
rising of a beneficent luminary on the horizon. The kindred mind, their 
sympathy of heart, the unity in highest aspirations, a congeniality in prin- 
ciplos, a fellowship in the pursuit of favourite objects, which attracted and 
bound Bunsen to his young friend, rendered this connection one of the hftp* 
piest of his life. Bunsen had always made advancea to meet men of tbo 


C5HAP. text, * That it cannot be a heresy to try to prove that which 
is delivered to ns as an historical fiuit, to be oho tme, mde* 
pendently, in its idea.' And that seems to me the connedang 
idea of whatever has been said on the subject since East 
As to Hegel, I confess that I think every year more higli^ 
of his power to embrace reality, although the method remaiu 
to me unpalatable. 

Bwisen to his Wife. {At OaJchiU,) 

Carlton Terrace : Tuesday, November, 1844 

T had a charming dinner-party at Peel's — Sir H. Pottinger 
Sir B. Sale (who leaves England to-morrow for India) 
Everett (disconsolate at the election to the Presidency of lb 
Polk, the representative of slavery and repudiation, wifl 
what in America is called ultra-Badicalism, and ther^ore o 
prime quality !), Dodd, Stanley, Graham, Gladstone, Loit 
Lonsdale. • • • Peel invites me to Drayton during fb 

To Schnorr von Carohfeld. 


London : 4th Decemberi 1844 

I admit fully a degree of uncertainty upon many historica 
particulars : but as long as the two principal points, — ^per 
sonal responsibility towards God, a resting upon a sense (X 
the immediate relation of the soul to Him, — and faith in ib( 
Holy Scripture, — are held fast, — then a serious, Christiai 
course of life will and must bring the Christian nearer anc 
nearer, every year of his life, to the Gospel, if he has bul 
once known it. 

Bunsen to one of his Sons. 


London : 11th December, 1844. 

. . . The criticism of the historical school endangen 
not faith, but, on the contrary, is calculated to strengthen an< 
confirm it. We do not in the least give up prophecy, bu 
consider it as specifically different from divination and subtle 
combination : we place prophecy in its true light, by provinj 
it to be based in every instance on historical facts. 




'church of the FrXURB' — THE QUEEN^S VISIT TO eSRMAKT — BBUHL-^ 

CHAP. The following letter was addressed by Bunsen to one 
^^- of his sons, then on a visit to Corbach, his own birth- 
place, in the Principality of Waldcck. After giving 
directions for the erection of a monument to his parente 
in the cemetery of his town, he proceeds : — 

[Translation.] Tendon : 11th Maich^ 1845. 

Be sure to see my friend, Syndic Wolrad Schumacher, at 
Arolsen ; he was the best-beloved of my youth in the school- 
years, and I have never ceased to be attached to him with 
all the peculiar tenderness of youthful feelings. Make ft 
point of visiting Louise Cramer, with whom I was confirmed 
— an old maid, living iii poverty. Remember me to Prederica 
Wigand, a Bunsen by birth, my cousin and playfellow, now 
a widow and a grandmother. Visit the sdwolmasters. I 
should like to contribute to the Strube Fund.* Tell Curte 
that I shall send my works for the school library. Greet tie 
thatched roof under which your father was bom, and where 
he lived for seventeen years ; the Eisenberg, on which he 
often sat in waking dreams ; and pray in the church of the 
old town, for yourself and us, and for the cherishing light 
and warmth needed by the whole country ! 

• A foundation towards assisting needy scholars at tlie Corbach L«tin 
Schools, in commemoration of Dr. Strube, for a long time one of its mo?t 
meritorious masters. 


To the Syndic Sievekingj in Hamburgh. ^^- 


London : Tliundaj, 10th April, 1845. 

. . . The first part (of ' The Church of the Future ') 
was added after the entire work had been written. I felt 
the need of clearly stating beforehand the idea which the 
work was intended to unfold, in its deepest roots, and in its 
most extensive ramifications, shortly and yet fully. I am 
quite aware that I have thereby rushed into a new dan- 
ger, but I could not do otherwise. I chiefly apprehend 
haying given the iU-disposed a pretext for considering me a 
semi-Pelagian, a contemner of the sacraments, or denier of 
tt« Son, a perverter of the doctrine of justification, and 
therefore a crypto-Catholic theosophist, heretic, and enthu- 
siast, deserving of all condemnation. I have written it 
because I felt compelled in conscience to do so. Again, 
lowever, I think that many a German reader will imder- 
stand me all the better, for (as Beck says) ' a thorough 
Cennan cannot convey the soup to his moutii, without the 
spoon of metaphysics ! * 

The course of the Leipzig Council (as it may be called) 

shows how just was the opinion of with regard to the 

majority of members of the conference. That will become 
a rationalistic Church, but a free, congregationalist one. Can 
you suppose the members had any mare faith prev^iorisly 
to making the present negative profession ? I rather think 
they believed less, or nothing at all before. Upon the degree 
of moral earnestness with which men treat the matter, 
depends the giving it a right direction. It was an experi- 
mettt, and as yet seems to me sadly abortive ; but the Being 
which ought to have been born into the world is the child 
in the Apocalypse saved from the dragon in the desert, — it 
is the child of Eternity, which will reveal itself in Time. 
Christ will become the State, as eighteen centuries ago He 
Wame Man. 

At the same time, what remarkable conferences have there 
Wn on the Ehine ! ^ O, that thou knewest, now in this 
thy day, the things that belong unto thy peace ! ' May the 
Wd and God of His people and of His Church ward off 
from us the consequences ! — otherwise the End is at hand. 



XII. Contemporary Notice. 

6th April, 184B. 

. . . Since Monday, the last day of March, when ire 
left Oakhill after a bustle of country business, I have been 
plunged in London business. A few persons were invited 
yesterday evening to meet the Amims, for conversation- and 
to hear Ernest sing. Tuesday, we had the dutj-undertakiiig 
of a great dinner party to the Dietrichsteins and other diplo- 
mats. Wednesday, dining out at the Dietrichsteins, and re- 
fireshing ourselves afterwards at the St. Aulaire's. Thursday 
evening, we were at the Hebelers. Friday, a small party 2A 
home in the evening; and Saturday, the Grand Duchess 
Stephanie to luncheon, with a party of twenty in all (Lady 
Palmerston, &c.). On leaving the table, we conducted the 
Grand Duchess to the Clubs — ^the Reform and New Ck)nBe^ 
vative ; before luncheon she had been to Westminster Abbey, 
and the new Houses of Parliament. Besides all the engage* 
ments mentioned, I have had daily sight-seeing with the 
Amims, and very glad have I been both of their company 
and of the sights. They are delightful people, and know how 
to enjoy everything. Our music was fine on Friday evening; 
Hausmann played on the violoncello exquisitely; Frances 
accompanied at sight, and was much praised by Neukomm ; 
then Mrs. Sartoris (Adelaide Kemble) sang, as if inspired, a 
Scottish ballad — poetry, melody, expression, all wonderfcd. 

Contemporary Notice. 

Tuesday morning, 22nd April, 1845. 

This date and no more was written yesterday, and I 
wonder how much more will be added to it to-day! for 
besides writing notes, and having had a party of guests at 
breakfast, and a walk since to Covent Garden for flowers, 
(not for enjoyment, but decoration,) I must rest, arrange 
rooms, look after the dinner-table, dress, and be ready for 
guests at dinner, and be at the Duchess of Kent's by ten in 
the evening. Last Friday, we dined at the Duchess of 
Kent's, who had a very good concert in the evening : tiie 
Queen was present. We missed a musical evening at Mrs. 
Sartoris's through the Duchess of Kent's invitation. Satur- 


CHAP, you shall read, please God, next month, in a book which I 
^^- shall send you, entitled * The Church of the Future.* 

Bunsen to Kestner. *{In Borne.) 


Oakhill (near Liondon) : Monday, dOth June, 1845. 

My dear old heart's-fiiend, this day closes the twentj- 
eighth year of the happiest married life ; and this day it wu 
given me to write to the beloved bride-elect of my dear Ernest 
the first letter, as to a daughter ; and now do I approAch 
my desk again to announce to you this family event. Ton 
were always fond of my Ernest. Elizabeth Gumey is the 
same that he saw five years ago at Berlin, with her fihtha 
and aunt, when the latter, Mrs. Pry, visited Grermany. 

In my letters to Mr. Gladstone, I have maintaiiied tiu 
lawfulness and the apostolic character of the Grerman Fko 
testant Church. You will find the siyle changed in tiu 
work, bolder and more free ; I hope also easier to under 
stand. It is my endeavour to write as I speak ; and I tr 
to exercise both writing and speaking as an art Franee 
writes to my dictation : she enters quite into my ideas, whid 
is a great enjoyment to me. 

To act as a statesman at the helm, in the fiitherland, 
consider not to be in the least my calling : what I belief 
to be my calling is to be mounted high before the mast, t 
observe what land, what breakers, what signs of comm 
storm, there may be, and then to announce them to the wis 
and practical steersman. It is the same to me whether m 
own nation shall know in my lifetime or after my death, ho' 
faithfully I have taken to heart its weal and woe, be it i 
Church or State, and borne it on my heart as my nearei 
interest, as long as life lasted. I give up the point of mal 
ing myself understood in the present generation. Here, 
consider myself to be upon the right spot : I seek to presen 
peace and unity, and to remove dissatisfaction, wherever 
is possible. And then I leam daily in this country mm 
from life itself. Therein consists English greatness ; in a 
and science we have still the advantage. The true poeti 
and philosophy of England is in life, and not in the abstnu 
consciousness of that same life. I was never a better Gei 
man than since I have lived in England. Of Bome, I thin 


CHAP. The Prince of Prussia sends kind congratulations to Er- 
^^^- nest ; the King wishes all joy to him and you and me ; and he 
commented (in the railway-carriage) in his animated manner 
upon the desirable circumstances of such a connection, — * to 
have Mrs. Pry for an aunt, and the excellent grand Samuel 
Gumey for a father-in-law ! ' He added, * The first free hour 
we have, we will write a letter to Mrs. Pry ; I shall give you 
my thoughts in German, and you shall put them at once 
into English.* 

I had of course got into one of the carriages of the suite — 
when the King, who was in the central carriage reserved for 
him, with the Prince of Prussia and the Ministers of State 
and General Thile, called to me to get in, saying, * Bunsen 
will fill the whole carriage with English comfortableness, 
which does me good/ 

I shall not attempt to give you an idea of the tasteful 
and judicious regality of style in the arrangement of the 
Palace of Briihl, because such descriptions are tiresome. 
Queen Victoria's apartment is the only thing magnificenty 
— and in that the only thing costly is her dressing-table, 
with the cover of finest Brabant lace. * After Stolzen- 
fels all this is not to be looked at,' said the King ; ' but 
comparisons are odious — there all is romantic, — here is the 
spoilt antique, which yet has a style of its own ; ' — like the 
Romanic languages, and the French literature of the time of 
Louis XIV, — /, his ^ younger brother Dunce ' (as the Chinese 
say), should have added ! 

Humboldt is here, greatly depressed by the tragical failure 
of Billow's health, at the moment when he might have had 
a brilliant close to his political life. Canitz and Badowitz 
are to arrive to-morrow. I believe the King's object is to 
bring us three together; we have never yet had such an 
opportunity. I was to have been lodged in the same house 
with Billow in the village of Briihl, but am now to have 
Aniim for my companion. 

I shall write to Miss as soon as I can find time. The 

Spirit moves me to urge upon her, that she can be saved 
only by casting off all theological contests and modes of 
utterance, and by seeking to rekindle her faith in the love of 
Grod, which in the New Testament, and especially in the Gros- 
pel of St. John, speaks in every part to the seeking soul, and 


CHAP. Queen herself declared that she had never heard anythmg t 
^^^ equal the effect. The prose of life disturbed its sublimitie 
by unheard-of scramble and disorder, wiih which I can enter 
tain you when I return. 

Yesterday, the whole party went to the uncoyering of tli 
statue of the pride of Bonn, Beethoven. Speeches were mad 
and songs sung, in the open air, on the space before tii 
Minster at Bonn ; and then the King, with the two Queeiu 
and Prince Albert, drove to the house which the latter ha 
occupied in his University years, — afterwards through th 
Avenue of Poppelsdorf, and back to Briihl, where dinner fol 
lowed, the first at which Queen Victoria had been present 
for on the preceding evening, owing to official mismanage 
ment, neither her w^aiting-wtmen nor her cloihes axrivSI 
after eleven o'clock ! 

The King gave the following toast : — 

* Gentlemen, fill your glasses ! There is a word, resoundin 
in British and in Prussian hearts, which thirty years ag 
echoed on the heights of Waterloo fi:x)m English and Prussia 
voices, as marking the result of a glorious, hard-won, brother! 
deed of arms ; now, it resounds on German ground, in th 
midst of the blessings of that peace, which was th 
blessed firuit of the great conflict. That word is, Victoria 
Gentlemen, drink to the well-being of Her Majesty th 
Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Irelan 
(bowing gracefully towards the Queen) and (making hi 
glass ring, according to German wont, against the glass < 
Prince Albert) that of her most illustrious Consort ! ' 

The Queen bowed at the first word, but much lower at th 
second. Her eyes brightened through tears, and as th 
King was taking his seat again, she rose and bent towait 
him and kissed him on the cheek ; then took her seat agau 
with a beaming countenance. 

At six o'clock the Sovereigns rose from table ; from six i 
eight Lord Aberdeen and I were with the King. At 
quarter past eight all set out to see Cologne illuminate< 
We embarked on the steamer before nine o'clock, proceedio 
down the river about five miles, as far as Bothenkirchei 
Many houses, bridges, and gardens, were illuminated, th 
splendid river reflected the lights on the vessels; at th 
appointed spot the vessel turned, and an indescribable seen 


XII. To the Same. 

Castle of Stolzenfels (in the room just left by Lady Canning) : 

Saturday, IGth August, 1845 (after the departure of Queen Victoria 

My Beloved, — I take possession of the only sheet ( 
paper left behind by the late amiable occupant, to tell yc 
in continuance of the letter sent from Coblentz by the mei 
senger) that I am promised my audience of leavetaldng fi 
to-morrow, and then on Monday intend to proceed to Bonn 

The clouds coUect, darkly and heavily. The telegraph h 
just brought the intelligence of an insurrection at Leipzig,: 
which thirteen men were killed and many wounded ; Priiw 
John having with difficulty escaped. I was with the Kii 
when the news came. He lamented deeply that with tl 
much-talked-of ministerial declaration of right of protectii 
over the Evangelical Church, a resolution of Government hi 
not been promulgated, announcing the most entire freedom 
religious confession, and for the formation of religious coi 
munities, based on constitutional right. * The commotion a 
only be met and overcome by freedom, absolute freedon 
Grolden words ! in the sense of which may God maintain tl 

Queen Victoria has given 500Z. towards the completion 
the Cologne Cathedral. Prince Albert gave 100/. to t 
building of a new Protestant church at Bonn. Having be 
informed by Lord Aberdeen of the Queen's intended g 
(which she would have made l,000i., but Aberdeen thoug 
that too much), and happening to come across Archbish 
Geissel, I was enabled to teU him the good news, as a secp 
for which he thanked me warmly. The King was alarmed 
the effect which this might produce in England, and coi 
missioned me to tell Prince Albert of his anxiety. T 
Prince replied : ' That does not concern it«, the responsil 
Minister is here,' — a state of composure which astonisli 
the King. 

The most striking moment of the journey was the passfi 
of the Ehine between Ehrenbreitstein and Coblentz. F( 
thousand men stood on the lines, and, as the royal ves 
approached the nearest batteries of Ehrenbreitstein and F 
Aster, commenced firing, which continued gradually ale 
the whole line, Coblentz, the forts called * Franz,' ' Alexand< 


CHAP, that I should at once accompany him on the vessel ; of which 
^^ no mention had been made before. I said of course I was 
ready, if such were his commands, but I should think it was 
better to go by Cologne and await him at Berlin. He left 
me free to decide, and I remained standing on the pier as he 
stepped into the vessel, which instantly departed. StoUberg 
had been entirely of my opinion. Mettemich and Badowitz 
were both on the vessel, the one to go to Johannisberg, the 
other to rrankfort. The King was indescribably excited 
by the telegraph news just arrived from Leipzig, and by 
another report from Posen, showing that his commands 
(forbidding Czerski to go about from place to place) had not 
been carried out ; therefore, amid such a variety of thoughts 
and of opinions my presence could only have increased the 
existing disturbance of spirit. The King's last words were, 
*At any rate, we meet at Sans Souci,' from whence, on 
September 6th, he will go to hold a review at Stettin. 

In all this you will have felt what my thoughts are. What 
has taken place is as much without any preconceived plan 
on the part of the King as it is against my arrangements. 
What is the fate of man ? Is it true that a man fulfils the 
fate appointed him? 

I go, of course, by Corbach, Gottingen, Halle, Leipzig, 
Wittenberg, to Berlin. I should gladly go to Carlsruhe also, 
only that I should have no time for Christiana and Rothe, 
because I must necessarily wait upon the dear Grand Duchess 
Stephanie, and present myself at Court, besides seeing Bado- 
witz. My stay (at Berlin) will certainly not be a long one ; 
the King's heart is like that of a brother towards me, but 
our ways diverge. The die is cast, and he reads in my 
countenance that I deplore the throw. He too fulfils his 
fate, and we with him. 

I return ten years older, but unbroken in spirit of life, and 
in the faith, which God has given me, and which may He 
preserve to me ! My heart longs after the invisible world 
and its eternal centre — after the secrets of the human 
mind, their products and results ; but in humble conviction 
that no mortal can attain to the knowledge, otherwise than 
as in a mirror or image. Latria, patria, atria,* Church, 

• ITie ancient motto of the Port family (of Ham, Staffbrdsliire), to which 
Bun8cn*8 mother-in-law belonged. 


CHAP. To-morrow I drive to Cassel with my siBter — I am to arrive 

^^' at one, and go on directly to Gottingen, where Liicke and 

Beck expect me. On Thursday to Halle ; on Saturday, 30th, 

in good time, at Berlin. When I have had the audience 

in Sans Souci, I depart forthwith. 

To the Same. 

Brunswick : Thursday, 28th August, 1845. 

My Deaeest, — Make haste and see Kotzebue's * Stranger,' 
and, when I come back, you must go with me to Bulwer's 
* Lady of Lyons,* and weep a whole springflood of youthful 
tears; for those writers are heroes in comparison with the 
poetasters that now rule the stage, even in Germany ! Yes- 
terday evering, not finding Schleinitz at home (here Minister 
of State), I went into the theatre only to look at my dear 
^Cousin Michel^^* collected in one locality — for I never can 
see him, except in church or in a theatre — otherwise T must 
have tried to glide incognito into the Singing Association, or 
into the Assembly of the Friends of Light, for there crowds 
are to be found ; but incognito is no longer possible, for I am 
astonished to find myself a marked personage, recognised like 
a spotted dog. The piece given came from Paris, translated 
from St. Hilaire — the plot of the ' Lady of Lyons,' but spoilt, 
and thereby a pickle-sauce of religious sentimentality and 
blasphemy, a la Victor Hugo and Co. And instead of seeing 

Vetter Michel, I had close under my eyes Counts , &c. &c., 

with officers and officials right and left, all busy in their 
attentions to a handsome and animated lady in high station, 
the centre of attraction, while Vetter Mich^^l, high over their 
heads, was weeping over the catastrophe of the piece — the 
husband stabbing himself to make the heroine happy. I 
perceive the newest fashion is to compress a novel of three 
volumes into five acts for the stage : in short, the epic drama 
in its lowest degradation. But, in good eartieM, you must go 
with me to see the * Lady of Lyons.' 

Now to return to last Monday. You have had my report as 
far as the pilgrimage to the Eisenberg, the Sinai of my boyish 
years. We went through the flourishing plain (Dr. Curtze, 

• Vetter Michel serves to designate the German people, as John Bull 
does in England. 


CHAP, verb, *Grod forsakes no Waldecker' — and of its connection 
^^- with that other, still wider saying, * God forsakes no German.' 

With Herr von Hadeln I conversed till late at night : he 
has both head and heart in the right place, and therefore 
both ache ! 

After a short rest I drove at five o'clock in the morning 
towards Cassel, breakfasting with Schumacher at Arolsen by 
the way. Everywhere do I find the same condition of mind : 
the same highly-developed intelligence, the same honest 
striving in the greater part of the nation — in too many ex- 
asperation, depression in all. From the Bhine to the Spree, 
one feeling, one speech ! — ^the officials being not less excited 
than the rest. 

Near Magdeburg I met Humboldt, with whom I drove as 
far as Gothen, learning much that was remarkable. He per- 
fectly understands and approves my intention of leaving im- 

{Finished at Berlin.) All Mends absent, except Pertz, 
Lachmann, and the faithful Boestell. I am to see Bockh to- 
day. As soon as the King arrives I am to be announced for 
audience of leave. 

The weather is heavenly ; the harvest on the whole good ; 
the heat Italian, 

Monday^ Ist September. — The King did not aiTive tiU 
this morning early, and goes on Friday morning to Stettin 
to meet the Empress. I have had a long audience of the 
Prince of Prussia. I have taken a place to-day on the 
steamer from Hamburgh, for Thursday morning, the 4th. 
Deo gratias I All right ! 

Contemporary Notice. 

Slst October, 1845. 
Alas for the loss of dear Mrs. Fry ! She fell down insen- 
sible, on Sunday, the 12th, and expired early the next morn- 
ing, was heard to utter words in prayer once, but otherwise 
she gave no sign of consciousness. It is believed to have 
been the dropsy which was gaining ground upon her, and 
threatened lingering pain, which suddenly affected the brain, 
and thus terminated at once a life which had been a continual 
preparation for death. The consciousness of an irreparable 
privation is blended with much thankfulness for her having 


cilAP. many kind friends to see that we were bonnd to hurry on. 

. ^™' The simple Bible reading vdth which the day begins in Mr. 
Gumey's house, short and earnest, accompanied by deeply 
thought comments, wUl, I trust, not easily be forgotten. He 
took us to see Norwich, and Mr. Hudson Gumey at Keswick, 
one day, and the next accompanied us half way to this place, 
showing us by the way Blickling, once belonging to the father 
of Anna Boleyn, and still in a good state of preservation, 
as the house was rebuilt in the seventeenth century. After 
enjoying the hospitality of the Dowager Lady Buxton at 
Northrepps, and seeing many of her &jnily assembled, we 
were forwarded to Mr. Daniel Gumey's at Buncton, where 
I am now writing ; having been kindly greeted at Fakenham, 
half-way, by Mr. and Mrs. Hammond. We are received 
and cherished in this good county of Norfolk with a fulness 
of kindness and of considerate attention to all possible wants 
and wishes far beyond what I can describe. You will believe 
that we were struck with admiration of Anna Gumey I The 
victory of the mind over sufiTering never surely was more 
complete ; for the countenance does not retain a trace of the 
conflict, beaming, as it does, with a fulness of benevolence 
and intelligence. Her linguistic talent is a matter of wonder, 
rising in proportion as it is examined into by those com- 

On Monday, the 17th, we hope to return home, leaving this 
friendly and charming abode in time to allow of our seeing 
Ely Cathedral on the way to the station. 

The Oregon question is become a tale of other times, 
and it may be beyond the power of readers at the pre- 
sent time to conceive with what force it throbbed through 
all minds devoted to that which concerns the weal or 
woe of nations. Speaking, writing, seeking a way out of 
the complication of claims and interests in this matter, 
occupied Bunsen much, until, by the wisdom and mode- 
ration of the Governments on each side of the Atlantic, 
the chaos was subdued into order, and the beautiful and 
promising colony of British Columbia was the unexpected 
result. The two honoured brothers, Joseph and Samuel 
Gumey, were urgent with the members of the Society 


CHAP. But as practical men we must not attend to feelings. I 
^^^ hope on Thursday to see Lord Aberdeen and Mr. M^Lane 
""""""^ (the American envoy), the latter for the first time. But I 
fear that little is to be done here. Humanly speaking, my 
hope is beyond the Atlantic, in the good sense and Christian 
feeling of the New England States. My opinion therefore 
is, that the principal field of your operation is there and not 
here, but you must act quickly. My services are at your dis- 
posal, but I fear it is too late here to urge the plan I have 
submitted to you. 

What I propose to you is, to adopt my idea, if you continue 
to approve it ; make it your own, and that of the Society — 
convince your friends — write and send to America — through 
publicity alone can success be hoped for, 

I do not believe that an entire cession of the country (with- 
out reservation of ten or fifteen establishments as forts, in 
block-houses, and of the best part of Columbia) is the prac- 
tical and the right thing. My feeling is this : — 

A nation and a government in a Christian State are 
bound not to suffer wrong and untruth without openly de- 
claring what they think about it; nor ought they (in my 
opinion), in conscience, to pander to a grasping ambition, 
trampling upon the rights of mankind, and violating the law 
of God and man. God willed the being of States, therefore 
He willed that they should maintain, in His name. His prin- 
ciples of right and truth, defensively ; for governments are 
placed by God for that purpose. Besides, the whole nation, 
(or nearly so) is opposed to the theory of applying to such 
public cases, the charge of our Lord with regard to private 
wrongs ; and even in tiie latter case they consider it not only 
a right but their duty, to stop the thief, and to call to the 
police to prevent the robber ftx)m conveying away your pro- 
perty, or beating your children I 

But I persist in believing that something practical might 
be made of my idea; for England can afford to take no 
offence, she can also afford to give way. I intend to write 
to two influential friends at Boston, and in South Caro- 
lina merely to perform a duty. One of them is already in- 
fected with the Oregon and universal occupation fever ; thet 
other is one of the heads of the old Federalists of 1814. 


CHAP. here. Bat cdl institutions of the law, and all prophecies, are 
Xll. Messianic, and thaty Christ has said Himself. 

The formula of the old Church differed not much from the 
practice of ancient Borne in consulting the Sibylline books, 
as indeed the Sortea ChristianoB were literallj the same. The 
Reformation did not overthrow that formida, but prepared 
its death, and the life of the new ona 

To the Sa/me. 

Oakhill : Slat December, 1845. 

[In the interval since the letter of 18th December, Bunsen 
had spent a few days with Hare at Herstmonceaux Eectory.] 

In these concluding hours of a year which has been full of 
blessings to me, I feel the want of conversing with you, at 
least in writing, and of dwelling upon some of the happiest 
hours which were spent under your hospitable roof. They 
have been a real refireshment to me, and I hope will be a 
lasting benefit. I delight to reflect upon all the affection, 
and charity, and piety, and thought, which I there beheld, 
and pray that your happiness may be long preserved. I 
thank you for all the affection you bear to me ; of which I 
had a new proof on my arrival here, where I found your 
and your dear wife's corrections of my letter to Gladstone, 
which make me say exactly what I wished, but had failed 
to express exactly. 

Contemporary Notice. 

Oakhill : 12t}i January, 1846. 

Inscriptions in the arrow-headed (cuneiform) character, 
a short time since considered hopelessly sealed, have been 
read, and wonderfully confirm statements of Herodotus with 
reference to Darius Hystaspes. With what renewed interest 
we shall behold the ancient Persian bas-reliefs in the British 
Museum! But, apropos of these, I must mention that 
Bansen saw three days ago, at Sir Robert Peel's, just un- 
packed, two specimens of the sculptures of Nineveh, presented 
to him by Sir Stratford Canning, to whom they had been 
sent by the Consul at Mosul. A male and female head of 
exquisite execution, and without a particle of barbarism 
except the conventional mode of representing the eye in full 


CHAP, horn, Wachler, and Hallam. I suppose, on the contraijy 
^^^' that the Taylorian Professorship is to be institnted for 
the advancement of the knowledge of modem literatures 
based upon the philological knowledge and philosophical 
analysis of the languages of modem Euroi>e. For it ii 
exactly this union which has made modem philology a 
fruitfiil, and modem literature a solid study, and which has 
led to many important discoveries in the last thirty yean. 
Now it is such a union between the language and literatare of 
modem Europe which seems to me to characterise the course 
and scope of your studies. 

Of the four great families of Europe, the Q-ermanic, the 
Romanic, the Slavonic, and the British or Celtic, you have 
directed your attention to the literary remains, and the in^ 
teresting questions of origin, affinity, and history, of all of 
them. You have availed yourself of those researches of 
£opitar, Dombrowsky, and Szaferik, of Talyj and other 
German authors, which have given such an importance and 
interest in Grermany to Slavonic studies, and made us ac- 
quainted with the beautiful Servian and Bohemian epic and 
lyric national poetry, as essential elements in the history of 
the European mind and art. You have equally followed the 
researches of Schultze, Meyer, Yillemarqu6, Leo and others, 
respecting the origin and history of the diflferent branches of 
Celtic language and literature, hitherto buried in confusion 
in fables and imposture. 

But as to the two remaining most important families, the 
Germanic and Romanic, you have, as a worthy disciple of 
Grimm, first made yourself thoroughly acquainted witii the 
two principal dialects of the Germanic tongue, the German 
in all its bi-anches, the Gothic and Anglo-Saxon, the Old, 
Middle, and High Dutch (to use the word in its true sense), 
the Low-German or Dutch, and the Scandinavian, in its 
mother-language, the Icelandic, and its daughters the Swed- 
ish and Danish. Your edition of the Icelandic granmiar, 
3'our Prose-Edda, your researches into the Runic inscrip- 
tions, and your other works, give ample proofs of the success 
which has attended those studies. Thus you will be able to 
give lectures partly philological, partly literary, on the Edda, 
on Beowulf, and on the Anglo-Saxon laws, on the great 
epic poem of the Germanic tribes, the Niebelungen, on the 
Minnesanger, and finally on the literature of Lessing, Gothe^ 



BwMen to a San and Dimghter^in-LaWy staying at Borne. 

OakhiU : 16th April, 184a 

How often in spirit do I fly over to my beloved Borne, and 
to the house of the deax £riend^ who has received you with 
such affection — to the Capitol, to the chapel and the hospital ! 

We have passed the quiet and holy week in such quiet as 
could be had in London. Our dear child went through her 
preparation for Confirmation by the venerable Steinkopf, in 
deep seriousness and concentration of mind ; and on Palm 
Sunday, in the name of herself and her companions, pro- 
nounced composedly her profession of ftith. On Easter 
Sunday we partook with her of the Holy Communion, It 
was on Easter Monday that I peculiarly thought of you in the 
beloved chapel on the Capitol. Through all this course of 
serious thought, I had a very anxious affa^ir to fight out, 
relating to the noble-minded Gobat, named by the 'K'^Tig as 
the Bishop of Jerusalem, which has drawn upon him much 
envy ; and, moreover, I have had something to complete in 
my MS. of the two volumes of * Ignatius,' which are to be 
sent off to the press to-morrow. 

Contemporary Notice, 

Monday : 2(Hli April, 184a 

The book enquired about, which Bunsen gave to the Princess 
Sophia, was a copy of the new edition of his Hjrmn Book. 
Many years ago she had wished for the original edition, hav- 
ing become acquainted with a copy given (by you) to the late 
Princess Augusta ; but the enquiries made after it were in 
vain, as similar ones from many quarters had long proved ; 
more purchasers having appeared for the former Hymn Book 
than copies could be found. We were longer than we had 
intended in delivering the book to the Princess, having twice 
driven to Kensington in vain, finding her engaged with royal 
visitors ; a third time, however, we succeeded in seeing her — ^I 
thought her much altered and aged, but as usual conversible, 
and entering into every subject with interest and intellig^ce. 

* Kestner, the Hanoverinn Minister Resident, who had found an apui- 
Dient for the travellers under the same roof with himself; and in eveiy way 
cherished them. 

Sit. 54 LETTER TO A SON. 107 

It is edifying to behold the mild and benevolent expression of CHAP 
her countenance, knowing that she lives in ceaseless pain, r ^^' 
aad has but sorrow and trial to look back npon. 

Bunsen to one of his Sons, 


London : Thursday morning, dOth April, 1846. 
(32 years after the taking of Paris.) 

. . . The more I reflect upon the present time and the future, 
npon my own generation and yours, and upon the laceration 
and dismembermentof intellectual and popular life amongGer- 
mans, the more do I groan in spirit over human foil j. Where^ 
fm labour to be possessed of the key of all knowledge, only 
to open therewith syllables and letters and trifles of antiquity ? 
or else, whether consciously or unconsciously, to prove that 
nothing is likely to be discovered which could remunerate 
the labour of opening or forcing the lock 9 Who has a right 
to break down, unless he possesses will and the power to build 
np again ? No man has a calling to deal with History, who is 
not clear in his own mind as to Beligion, the social system, 
and that of the State ; and how should he become so without 
having studied theology and law ? Between reality of know- 
ledge and pretension to it, careful discrimination is essential, 
which, however, is not difficult to a Gterman philologer, who 
might as easily interpret the Bible and the Pandects, as 
Theocritus and Eustathius, and far more easily than the Ra- 
niagona and Menu ; but first of all, he must have learnt to 
interpret Homer, Plato, and Thucydides. 

Take hold of the thing with spirit, my beloved son ; and 
drive out of your head all useless self-contemplation ; in its 
place let your mind dwell on reality , the God-created object 
of intellectual contemplation, Leave alphabets and stones 
to others, from whom you may learn their just interpre- 
tation, and plunge into the history of the revelation of 
God in humanity, the centre of which is the Bible, and its 
outward enclosure the Pandects. The antiquated magic 
spells, by which historical revelation was to be conjured up, 
are broken, or at least powerless ; not certainly because their 
object has ceased to exist, but because spells more potent have 
l^ome visible on the mental horizon, in consequence of the 
more rapid revolution of the intellectual universe. In like 


CIIAP. manner is the Roman law svstem Terging to its decline, to 

J L make room for a more perfect edifice. 

Religion is to the Christian, in the nearest sense {not ai 
with the Jew, the Hindoo, the Arabian) , that which ent^s into 
his flesh and blood ; just becaose it is the religion of humamiff 
and not a part of nationality. In other words one might saj: 
therefore shall Christianity pervade both nation and tio^— 
the oaiov shall unfold out of the Upov : not as with the Jewi^ 
by direct revelation and tradition, but as by the Jontan mtwl 
popularly worked out, fi?om the Grod-giveu essentiaUy hnikUMi 
feeling. That is what I should call a regenerate nationalilj! 
But there are, alas ! mere shadows of Christianity in the 
world ! Such is the Book of Common Prayer to the English- 
man, and the General Assembly to the Scotchmaxu 

It is said that a Jesuit pupil has this advantage over the 
disciple of Deism, that revelation is of real worth to him. 
That is distorting the fact. Neither of them, neither the 
believer in authority, nor the believer in an abstract God, 
take into consideration historical revelation. But inasmnch 
as inward subjective religion is a moral conviction, and there- 
fore a belief in reason and self-responsibility, the folbwer 
of Eant has an incomparably firmer hold on the truth of life 
than the scholar of Loyola. K the latter be actually heliemijj 
then he is a converted Christian ; and of such I am not here 
speaking. But the person or the people, proceeding fix>m tiiftfc 
school, as natural men (not as bom again in the Spirit of 
God), are the first to sink into unbelief of Christianity, and 
that all the more easily if of intelligent mind and refined cul- 
tivation ; for as all was to them authority ^ not inward c<m- 
scimisnessy nor revelation evidenced by competent testimonj, 
they cannot avoid becoming aware of the deceit and hoDoif- 
ness of their foundation. But the Deist, under the same 
conditions of moral energy and intellectual activity, although 
on the domain of the natural man, is drawn into a straggle, 
which brings Christianity essentially near to him. Compaic 
the history of Germany and of Spain since 1780. 

I am resolved to encounter the school of Tiibingen, to the 
fuUextent of their exertions ; in order to tear asunder the veil 
of romance in which they have enwrapped the history of the 
two first centuries with their web of self-delusion. 
I have written afresh my long-commenced work on 



Pastoral Epistles, after having worked through De Wette's CHAP. 

commentaryy exceflent in its way. I am quite convinced that L 

Paid wrote the First Epistle to Timothy, as well as the second : 

(De Wette says, *as little as the second') — first, because it does 

not in the very least fall in with the later period (neither with 

the year 100 nor 160) : secondly, because although it must be 

rated beneath the Epistles of St. Paul to congregations, it is 

throughout Pauline. Thus I go through the epistles that 

have been called in question, and close with the few undoubted. 

Then I shall work through Domer's new book on the person 

of Christ; and then we shall see what the Spirit moves me to 

write ; as to which I am very curious. 

Our complication of difficulties lies in the seventeenth cen- 
tury; and that of the seventeenth lies in the second; the 
solution of the first is the nineteenth ! 

May Grod guide and strengthen you ! 

Bunsen to Platner {Charge d^ Affaires of Saxony in Rome). 


London : 6th July, 1846. 

Mt deab Feiend, — I cannot let my friend Mr. Harford go 
to Borne, without sending a sign of life to you. He is an old 
Roman, since 1817, when he spent a long time in Eome,in great 
intimacy with Consalvi. His ample fortune is shared between 
the needy and the fine arts ; he possesses many fine pictures of 
the grand historical school, and the object of his chief venera- 
tion is Michael Angelo, to whose especial history he has devoted 
most persevering research. He caused your articles upon the 
subject of art in Rome, upon the Arazzi, the Sistina, &c., in 
our work, to be translated for his particular study ; and has 
the greater wish for your personal acquaintance. 

I and mine are struggling on through these months of tur- 
moil as well as we can, securing to ourselves hours if not days 
of rest ; and if one has but inward tranquillity, and a happy 
family circle, one may maintain independence even in the 
midst of the bustle of this world's metropolis, although ever 
longing after the comparative quiet of the remaining nine 
months of the year. My occupations are a pleasure to me : 
I have learnt much here, and daily learn more, principally 
Wthe contemplation of the grandest political existence of 
modern times, and a close observation of the great statesmen 



CTIAP. of this country. I like the nation, and the nation likes m^ 
^^' But never was I a more thorough German than now, or mon 
proud of being one. In eyerything relating to intellecioii 
and scientific progress, the preponderance of Germanj k 
ever increasing ; other nations begin to discoyer that ihflf 
haye much to learn from us, and that Grermanj in the hrt 
sixty years has worked through a revolution in the world of 
intelligence, like that of France in political life, but whidi 
may well prove of still greater influence and duration. Upon 
this truth I have dwelt much in a small book, published tt 
the beginning of this year, with the purpose of cutting short 
much empty declamation both in Germany and here, entitled 
the ^ Church of the Future.' In process of years more will be 
heard from me on this matter, if God shall preserve to me life 
and health ; but my ^ Egypt' must first be completed. With 
the part that is about to come out you will be more interested 
than with the first portion, except the general introduction. 
I hope to live and die here. 

May God preserve you ! With afiPectionate g^etdng to all 
yours, I remain ever your faithful friend, 


Bunsen to his Wife. {At WUdbad.) 


Carlton Terrace : Monday, 13th July, 1846b 

You will have heard of the two great days — the Con- 
secration of Gobat on Sunday, the 5th, with the Bishop of 
Calcutta's memorable sermon ; and the dinner-party (extem- 
porised) on Monday, the 6th, with all the speeches and after- 
dinner songs from the ' Messiah.' The excellent Grobat left 
us on Thursday for Antwerp; the day before we had got 
through all business matters satisfactorily. Friday and Satur- 
day were very lazy days. Saturday evening I felt the spirit 
of composition and thought, which had sadly left me, to 
be returning, and next morning I rose soon after five and 
worked at Letter VI. (to Neander) successfully. After five in 
the afternoon I walked with Meyer and Beumont to Ken- 
sington. To bed by ten, and this morning I went on where 
I had left oflF. I hope to read the whole letter this week to 
Hare — whose volumes are real treasures of thought and 
erudition. He and Mrs. Hare were among those most in- 
spirited by that Monday ^^uner, when the Spirit fell uponns, 


including the Primate of the Church of England. Hare is CHAP, 
fell of wrath at an attack made upon me in the * Christian ^^^' 
Bememfarancer * — in a very Jesuitical way, insinuating that I 
ought not to have so much influence allowed me. Another 
aitide execrates the bishopric of Jerusalem as an abomina* 
tion. This zeal savours more of hatred than of charity. 

I have succeeded as to Lord Westmoreland's remaining at 

The Bishop and Elders of the Moravian Brethren, on June 
25, m their meeting at Berthelsdorf, have decreed to present 
to me through Latrobe a copy of the new edition of Zinzen- 
doif 8 poems. I prize the gift higher than ten academical 
bonours or orders. 

To the Same, 

London : 23rd July, 1846. 

. . • My life here is full of important and varied interest, 
^lih the new Ministry I am on a very good footing. Palmer- 
ston is like an old fiiend : he in the palace like a brother. 
The Queen's half brother. Prince Leiningen,lias also shown me 
much confidence ; there is a new and popular spirit arising 
among these mediatised peers of the empire — a proof of the 
resistless impulse of the German nation towards unity and 
freedom. The Synod shows an excellent temper, good inten- 
tions, just appreciation of time and measure. Theiner has 
declared against the so-called ' friends of light ' and Ronge. 
The fermentation of minds is great, spiritually and politi- 
cally : great events, as they are preparing, create a pressure 
against inferior men, without bringing them forward — they 
win therefore be either overthrown or pushed aside. 

I have worked out Letter VL, and made new researches, 
OP rather renewed older ones, in order to write that letter 
Biore effectively. It is not to be said what a comfort I feel 
it, to have my books and my children all about me. 

2,1th July. — The greatest event of the day is the proposi- 
tion of the First Committee of the Synod (the constitutional 
'^'ne), Nitzsch being chairman. It is this: — 1. At the first 
examination of the candidates pro facuUate prcedicandiy no 
subscription of any Articles. 2. At the second examination, 
the vocatum to a given parish, the subscription is to be accord- 

'^ to the usage and wishes of that congregation. 3. At the 


.,^j ^p final examination, subscription of a new, nniyersal. Protests 
XII. declaration, embodying the belief in Christ as the Son < 

God, the authority of Scripture, and justification by faiil 

That would be the signal of a new Beformation^ which tb 
worid wants everywhere. We Germans, alone, can give fb 
formulce of the new consciousness of Christianity. 

To the Syndic 8ievekiiigy in Hamburgh. 


London : 8th September, 1846. 

Among the latest events nothing interests me so neariy 
as the Evangelical Alliance, and its coincidence with tiie 
General Synod at Berlin. The fact that 150 and 180 dn* 
senting ministers, of both hemispheres and of all coloixii^ 
should have knelt at the communion-table of the En^iik 
Church, on two successive Sundays, to receive the elementi 
from the hands of Baptist Noel, speaks for itself. About 800 
clergy of the Church of England were among the 500 Britiih, 
Lord Wriothesley Bussell, brother of the Premier, being ona 
of the number. 

The Alliance has originated a Society for evangeUsatioa 
among the foreigners here collected. Lord Ashley being 
President, and I have publicly advocated the measure. 

I hail, with you, the emigration of our countrymen to 
North America (the land of the Anglo-Saxons and of our 
own kindred), towards the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf rf 
Mexico. I have daily the map before me, and contemplate 
the Rio B151V0 del Norte, of which I take possession finom 
Santa F^ and San Felipe, and then the two Califomias * and 
the fine desert land between North California and the Eio 
del Norte as the connecting tract ; and then I draw a line 

* Whenever the citriosUies of Bunsen^s diplomatic life in London see the 
light of publicity, hia plan of accepting the offer made by the rulers of 
Mexico in 1842, to purchase California far the King of Prussia will 1» 
reckoned among the most original. Humboldt dissuaded His Majesty, and 
the matter was dropped. The Prussian Envoy at Washington, Bazoo 
Ronne, on the other hand, warmly applauded the project * The time htf 
come,' he said in a letter to Bunsen, ^ when we oufifht to take a grand and 
independent attitude. For this we must be united, and we must posseM* 
fleet and colonies. Your idea of purchasing Califomia is ezceUent I 
never ventured to express such far-stretching desires. But I pointed out ift 
1837 already, when reporting upon the condition of German emigrants ber^ 
that Mexico would perhaps resolve upon ceding a portion of Califonut- 
Your plan of purchasing the whole is better in every respect' 


CHAP. The Princess of Prussia arrived yesterday (28th), and m 
. are to dine with her at the Queen Dowager's to-morrow. 

Contemporary Notice, 
Cesbiobury Park : Monday morning, 14tb September, 1846. 

... A few words about our pleasant visit here may pe^ 
haps be written before luncheon — after which we return to 
town. On Saturday, the 12th, the Princess of Prussia came 
again to London, and after seeing the new Houses of Parlift- 
ment and Westminster Abbey she took luncheon at Cailtoa 
Terrace, and we were fortunate in getting Lord Palmerston 
to meet her, as he was in town for the day. After haying 
conversed with everybody, she went to some shops, and ihea 
to the station, where we were awaiting her. Then by special 
train, we reached Watford station in half an hour, the PrinceM 
talking and listening to Bunsen all the way — although wben 
she entered the carriage she looked as if she were quite ex- 
hausted. It is inconceivable how she keeps up an incessant 
activity of body and mind, although perhaps less surprising 
than in the case of the Queen Dowager, who is an habitoal 
invalid ; but she must be much the better for her journey, or 
the fine season, or both, for she is very rarely heard to cough 
at present. The weather was beautUul, and I enjoyed tie 
sight of Cashiobury — the picturesque house and garden and 
magnificent trees in the park. Queen Adelaide was as kind 
to us as possible ; and I found, as I have always experienced 
at her dinner parties, that her good humour and good nature 
seems to pervade the company. 

Tuesday, loth September, — ^After all, this letter could not 
be finished yesterday. When, in the morning, the Queen 
Dowager had the kindness to send us for a drive to Lord 
Clarendon's (the Grove, adjoining Cashiobury Park), we found 
Lady Clarendon, as usual, very pleasing, and she showed us 
the valuable collection of Van Dycks and many other pictures 
of the friends and descendants of Lord Chancellor Hyde. 

Bunsen to his Wife. 

Windsor Castle : Wednesday, 23rd September, 1846. 
Here I am, all day in conversation either with one or the 
other of the royal personages, or with iny excellent philo- 


sophical friend [Stocti^ar]. The Queen is most gracious: CHAP. 
last night I had the honour of her taking my arm to be con- ^^' 
ducted to dinner, the Queen Dowager going first with Prince 
Edward of Saze Weimar, then came the Queen, and then 
the Princess of Prussia with Prince Albert. The Queen spoke 
much to me of the Sing's kindness to herself this day a year 
ago, and was very conversible. 

I reached the station just five minutes too late ! the train 
to arrive at 5 o'clock, being a Sunday train, all other days 
at 4 45. As I arrived, the whistle sounded, but the super- 
intendent stopped the train, and had my carriage put on ; 
off we went, but only tor two seconds, for then there appeared 
Lord Pahnerston, and for him there was a second delay. I 
learnt the state of the case at Slough, where I invited Lord • 
Fiilmerston into my carriage, and had a good long conversa- 
tion with him. I have been two hours with Prince Albert — 
the subjects being Spain and Prussia. 

Contemporary Notice. 

Windsor Castle : Friday, 26th September, 1846. 

I arrived here yesterday at six, and at eight all followed 
the Queen in to dinner in the great hall hung round with the 
Waterloo portraits. The band, so placed as to be invisible, 
played exquisitely, so that what with the fine proportions of 
the hall, and the well-subdued Kghts, and the splendour of 
the plate and decoration, the scene was such as fairy tales 
present ; and Lady Canning, Miss Dawson, and Miss Stanley 
were beautiful enough to personate the ideal attendants of 
an ideal Court. The Queen looked well and rayonnante^ with 
that expression that she always has when thoroughly pleased 
^th all that occupies her mind — which you know I always 
observe with delight, as fraught with that truth and reality 
which so essentially belong to her character, and so strongly 
distinguish her countenance, in all its changes,, from iYie fixed 
Ti^mlc only too comm< >n in the royal rank of society. 

The many interesting objects in the Corridor always cause 
Bunsenandmyselftolingeron the way back to our rooms. . . 
In the afternoon the Queen took a long drive in the Park. 
I was in one of the open carriages with Lady Palmerston 
and Lord Edward Howard, and very glad to see so much 

I 2 


CIIAP. of the grounds, and the Tarioos esta^^lishments as thej were 
^^^' shown to the Princess, the fine collection of dogs, and that 
of fowls, and the perfect arrangement of each, the dairy, Ac., 
to say nothing of the fine trees everywhere. I am now 
(Saturday, 26th) returned to Carlton Terrace, after accom- 
plishing a visit undisturbed by any contretemps. Bmuen 
remains at the Castle as long as the Princess stays, that is, 
till Tuesday : on Wednesday we are both invited to dine at 
the Queen Dowager's at Marlborough House ; it is the Prin- 
cess's last day, and her birthday, for which festival Bunaen 
and I have been at much pains (in which I wish I maj 
succeed) in getting together an Album, with views of tki 
various places she has visited during her stay in England— 
a matter of greater difficulty than could have been imagined, 
as the poverty of London in the representations of London 
can scarcely be believed. I have taken my share in hunting 
through print shops, and I found most of what would at aD 
serve the purpose in a little shop of no show, very near 
St. Martin's Church. But of Marlborough House and of 
Cashiobury, two of the principal resting places of the Prin- 
cess, no representation was found to exist : so I have made 
views from nature of them, as well as I could. The diffi- 
culty when at Cashiobury was to find an opportunity to draw 
unobserved ; but the early morning proved fine, and I fonnd 
my position and made my sketch, before the grandees were 
up. So little was I perceived, that it has been reported of 
the Album that Bimsen had been at great expense in employ- 
ing a regular artist for its decoration, and Lord Edward 
Howard looked incredulous when I answered his question, 
that I had been out drawing at eight o'clock in the morning. 
The Princess intends to depart on the 1st October. 

Saturday^ 3rd October. — On the 1st we saw the Prin- 
cess of Russia glide off from Woolwich, in the Black 
Eagle steamer, in the finest weather imaginable. She had 
been much affected at parting from the Queen Dowager, 
who has been like a mother in kindness to her ; and 
altogether her visit to England has turned out as well as 
possible. She accepted the Album with great kindness, and 
gave every proof of being much pleased with it. The 
catalogue raisonne, in verse, by Meyer, was very ingeniously 
adapted to give spirit and connection to the contents, and 


CHAP, midshipman from thifl moment, if be desires it after ' 
^^- information. I gave the other day a similar admissioi 
the son of Lord Francis Coningham, bnt he is only thirte 
Ist June. — I have just received the appointment 
your great-nephew, in an official packet, which . should 
forwarded immediately, as H.M.S. Dido is fitting < 
according to Lord £.'s note, which I hare enclosed 
shall be in town from to-morrow till Saturday, and \ 
glad to present Mr. F. F. Waddington as soon as he airi 
On these three days, the two last of May and first of Joi 
consider it a peculiar blessing to have been enabled to gn 
a wish of yoors. 

Ckmtemporarjf Notice. 

14th May, 1^ 

At the annnal dinner of the Literary Fnnd last nigh 
which Bonsen took the chair, the Bishop of Lincoln 
Kaye), in proposing Bunsen's health, made, of conrs 
great eulogy upon him, and wound up by observing tb 
might be presumption in him to dwell upon this or 
point, but that he must be allowed to bear testimony U 
being ^ one of the ablest divines of the day,' which is a si 
stroke against the Puseyites, who are very angry with Bu 
for his letter to Gladstone, and for having caused the 
pointment of Grobat as Bishop of Jerusalem. They ac 
him of heresy on account of the work on Egypt, in the 
number of the ' English Review ': for which condemnatio 
must be consoled by the &vourable tone of the ' Edinb 
Review,' of the ' Journal des Savans,' the ^ Prospective 
view,' and others, and above all by a good conscience, 
unusual for a foreigner to have been invited to preside f 
English anniversary dinner like that of yesterday evei 
Bunsen would have felt bound to decline the distinctic 
he had not regarded it as a compliment to his King 
country, and to the diplomatic body in general. 

Bunsen to Baron Stochnar. 

Carlton Terrace : Saturday moming, 2Srd May, 1€ 

I must breathe a warm welcome to you, ^though I dc 
venture in person so early to break in upon the qtdet of 
Palace ! First of all I hope that the journey will have < 


CIIAP. i^ Meyer as his librarian and private secretary, in fhe 
XII. place of Dr. Pretorius, who does not return, owing to hii 
wife's ill health. Thus has Providence helped our excellent 
firiend, for which we have reason to be tmly thankfoL I 
have suggested that Meyer should have a leave of absence 
occasionally, that he may in Ireland and Scotland study the 
remains of Celtic antiquity, as he has done already in fhe 
matter of the Welsh manuscripts. 

Bunsen to Baron Stochnar. 

4 Carlton Terrace : Iltli Xovember, 1840. 

It is the more welcome to me to have matter of businees 

' to communicate to you which obliges me to write ; for the 

^ fair days in Aranjuez ' still exercise their influence, and the 

habit of exchange of ideas draws me in spirit often back ta 

the proud towers of Windsor. 

The bomb has burst over Cracow. Not even the idea of 
giving to it the character of a fi'ee imperial city (which 
according to the despatch was offered for consideration) has 
been reckoned possible. 

A certain Montesquieu said once, that the principle of ft 
certain form of government was * la peur.' We have made 
such progress in principle that *la peur de la peur' is 
become the principle of modem rulers. 

Bunsen to Mrs, Waddington. 

4 Carlton Terrace : 18th November, 1846. 

... I have a message for you from the Duchess of 
Gloucester, to whom I presented Prince Lowenstein the 
other day. She enquired after you, and said she wished 
you to read the sixth volume of Madame d'Arblay's book, 
as containing an excellent character of the Princess Sophia. 
I was invited to Windsor Castle to spend the birthday of 
the Prince of Wales, for the first time, as it is not usnal 
with the Queen to have foreign guests on that occasion. In 
the morning I accompanied the royal party to the terrace, 
to see the troops, who fired a feu de joie in honour of the 
Prince of Wales, who enjoyed it much, in extreme serious- 
ness, and returned duly, by a military salute, the salutation 
he received as the colours passed. I enquired of Prince 


CBXP, matter for her own advantage, and for that of France. A 
XII. sanction waa wanting for what she has done, and intendfl to 
do. Incorporation ! the only thing not yet proceeded to witii 
the Kingdom of Poland ! 

I hope the German press will demean itself with dignify. 
Here we have done nothing farther than to give in the N<^ 
of the Conference with an accompanying memorandnm : tbe 
only thing that could be said was that Cracow did not falfil 
the condition of her existence — that is, steady nentralitf : 
having joined the Polish insurrection in 1830 ; and that the 
attempts made in 1883 and 1836, to govern with a modified 
Constitution, proved fi*uitless ; but even this is not sucoesi- 
fuUy brought out. For a State paper it is too long, and wi 
documentary statement it is insufficient, unless assertioBi 
can be accepted for fia^ts. Here there is but one voice ai 
lamentation. Peel is deeply concerned, both by the outrage 
itself, and then by the tragic complication of the preseoi 
moment, which destroys our best prospects. 

Your * Florentine Histories ' have been latterly our fiunilj 
treat in the evening ; when they proved an initiation for my 
eldest daughter's journey to Florence, where I hope she may 
arrive in a fortnight. 

The enclosure explains the wishes of the society. An 
attempt to collect the wandering sheep of Germany out of 
this London abyss is the matter in question : and we hare 
need of itinerant messengers of faith. The City Mission 
employs 200 such among the natives in London, who are 
fuUy occupied ; but they mostly belong to the class of Scr^ 
ture-readers or colporteurs. What we more especially need 
would be one of the brethren trained by Wichem. He would, 
of course, receive a competent salary, &c. Wintzer conducts 
the Young Men's Association, which he and Kind (now gone 
back to Switzerland) together founded. The Association 
flourishes ; but Wintzer has not leisure for exploring the 
east endy where by far the greater number of Grennan 
mechanics are employed. 

Bunsen to Mrs. Waddington. 

Windsur Castle : the last day of the year 1846. 
... I have passed some happy and important days again 
in this beatiful Palace, often turning my eyes towards the 
spot below the Castle where you used to Uve. . . . 



CHAP, preaching, in his conversation, in his actions. We shall 
^^- never see his like again on earth ; we must look up to Him 
in whom all redeemed spirits live and are united togetlier! 
Your brother's memory will live also on earth, in his £Eunilj, 
in the Society of Friends, among thousands of Christians of 
all tongues and creeds. He found the key which opens all 
the secrets of faith, and he spoke the language which openi 
all hearts — love. And there was with him a living witnea 
of the Spirit, a certain majesty of Christian gentleness aiid .i 
truth, which struck even persons who were not in the habit of 
seeing him. I shall not easily forget, how Sir Kobert Peel and 
Lord Aberdeen spoke to me of the impression he had made 
upon them, when presenting the peace-petition which liad 
such a blessed effect. I should desire the privilege of being 
present at the funeral, but that I am ordered, on accomit 
of a relapse into influenza, to keep to the house. 

Bunsen to Baron Stochmar. 


London : 8th February, 1647. 

The Constitution is made : as I said, it has appeared on 
the anniversary of the late King's summons to his people, 
February 3, 1813. 

It is much better than the original design. 

The foundation is laid for a House of Peers. 

The right of petition is not infringed upon : and that is 
the new point gained, which was not promised by Frederick 
WiUiam III. 

So far, so good. Pray come soon to your faithful, 


To the Syndic Sieveking^ at Hamburgh. 


London : 16th Marcb, 1&47. 

Again I close my post-work to-day with a few lines to 
you, for my refreshment and invigoration. 

I have not yet replied to your declaration, * that for the 
alliance of England you would give up the German Naviga- 
tion Act.' That would I not. Either England will abrogate 
her own, and then we are not affected ; or she will maintiiin 
it, and then oiu^ is the only possible means of bringing 


Et.55 peel on the PRUSSIAN CONSTITUTION. 125 

about moderation and fairness. The wish of the Government CHAP. 
is to do away with the antiquated ordinance ; but first there ^^^- 
must be a new Parliament, and the friends of Government 
will be rigorously catechised on the hustings. John Bull 
is au egotist ; we must not take it ill of him (for others are 
equally so, only not so openly), but we must not allow him 
to indulge in this egotism ! I tell him so plainly, with a 
shake of the hand, but seriously and decisively; and he 
does not take it ill of me, but remains on the best terms. 

The prohibition of the * Weser-Zeitung ' ought to be re- 
moTed ; but I cannot write again to Berlin on the subject — 
the security in which they remain there is appalling to me. I 
hare surely told you already, that Peel wrote to me an ad- 
mirable letter of twenty-two pages in quarto on the subject 
of the Constitution, in answer to a letter of mine with 
questions.* He is of opinion that the Government may be able 
to maintain the Constitution, if only sincere in desiring its 
due development, and prepared in mind for that develop- 
ment. That is here the general conservative opinion; the 
French assertion, * que ce sera une constituante ou la revo- 
lution,' finds no more response than the Orleanistic animosity 
in the ' Debats.' 

Another request ! A German society of young working 
men has been formed here by Wintzer (as I believe I must 
have already written to you), for whom I have procured (un- 
ostt^nsibly) support from the Prussian Government ; these 
gocnl people want good books — the accompanying letter will 
explain everything. May I request you to take the thing 
to heart ? I should supj)Ose the excellent Perthes and Besser 
vould undertake it. The package might be addressed to me, 

aud I will be answerable for immediate payment. It is a 

Blatter deserving support and sympathy. 

Burisen to Baron Stockmur, 


London : Easter Monday morning, 1847. 

I hasten to announce to you, that I shall be with you by 
'^ncheon-time. I can the less resist your invitation, as I 
^m to go the day after to-morrow to my Archdeacon. 

This letter has heen sought for in vain. It must have been transmitted 
^"^ the King. 


CHAP. That Facheco would be Prime Minister I eommimicatecL 
^^^ as a supposition, to Berlin a fortnight ago. To hxn 
Espartero here as a colleague I think would be arnusmg; 
Narvaez at Paris would cause a scene half comic, half tngk. 
Fancy the three persons — Louis Philippe ; Marie Christine; 
Narvaez, the representative of a Ministry anti^raneeBodol 

To the Same. 

Thnnday in Paadon Week, 1847. 

It would be very popular, and indeed meritorious, if tlu 
Prince would undertake to bring Shakespeare again on tb< 
stage, where he hardly ever appears now. In Drury Lane 
where once Garrick and Mrs. Siddons reanimated his cr» 
tions, elephants and horses are now performing ! Macreadi 
would be the man. The aristocracy has never done anythinf 
for Shakespeare, which would have been so easy. If ^ 
Queen would be present at a Shakespearian performance, tb 
entire aristocracy would flock thither the first day, folloTrec 
by John Bull on the second. 

The ^ Times ' have placed couriers between the east m 
west railway (Hanover and Cologne) and ordered speda 
trains, to receive the King's speech before all other papers 
I told the sub-editor that the King would never read fl 
speech, but speak it as the Spirit should move him at the 
moment. He fancied that I might perhaps already have ih< 
speech in my pocket, or at least should receive it on the daj 
of the opening of the Chamber. On Thursday, for the seconc 
edition, he expects to receive it. 

Bunsen to his Wife. 

Ilerstmonceaux Rectory : 9th April, 1847. 

I have been thinking much of you here, where eveij 
step brings back to me the memory of past days and yeaia 
happy times, happy above all through you ! I feel that I an 
growing old, for when this afternoon I walked by the side o 
our former house and the Castle (both in equal desolatioi 
now) I was overcome by my feelings, and could scarcely repres 
my tears. I was therefore doubly happy to have a lette: 
from you to-day. Now for the various messages ! The firsi 
is from the assembled primroses, daffodils, and violets wliicl 


CHAP, and hints, which will give matter for people to consider. 

^ • Some of my historical statements will be attacked, and I 
shall reply to such attacks bv my volume on Ignatius. I 
find only a part of the seven epistles attributed to him to be 
genuine, the rest interpolated or absolutely foiged. Bat 
before the work on Ignatius (now printing) reaches 
England, I intend to appear before the English public wiiik 
an Introduction to my work on Egypt, entirely written kf 
myself, instead of that prefixed to the German editioo. 
Three translations were attempted of that, but I tni 
obliged to declare against all, and to tell my own tale. I 
well remember what you once told me (and I was struck hj 
the acuteness of the remark), that you could not he^ 
smiling, in reading what I had written in French, at my 
assuming a French character. Indeed, it is very true, tiist 
one identifies oneself to a certain degree with the nation 
whose language one is writing ; and in writing French I 
am conscious of taking certain airs and allures which I 
should forego if writing Grerman. But in English I hsfe 
more courage — I shall leave out all that is metaphysical, 
but expatiate more on what I can make tangible to my dear 
and worthy friend, John Bull, or rather to his ladies, for he 
himself has given up reading books, and even sets his ladies 
to write what he would have written. Therefore, my dear 
mother, bear patiently with all Grermanisms in this book, and 
you shall soon see me quite a steady, sober, arguing English- 
man, in opening Egypt to the English public. In reading 
this translation you must retranslate into German — which 
you know by intuition, through Madame de Stael. 

I send you the copy of Kay Shuttleworth's pamphlet 
which the Prince Consort gave me; I am for the plan, 
because it is the wedge for introducing a better, and the last 
chance of introducing any reform in the midst of the terrific 
crop of ignorance, immorality, and infidelity, growing up 
yearly among and around us. There is one weak point, 
which Dr. Vaughan has spied out, and you will find out 
yourself; but the very weakness of the defence in the 
pamphlet shows that the Coimcil are prepared to be mort 
liberal towards the Dissenters, if the Clergy of the Church 
and Managers of the National School Society will not be too 


CHAP. do. He was not in health before his departure; a 
^^' the tidings of his sudden death, in the month of Nove: 
ber following, were a severe blow to Bunsen. He ^ 
much beloved by him, and his growth had been watch 
over and rejoiced in by Bunsen almost as though he b 
belonged to him by ties of blood. 

It may not seem irrelevant to the mention of Me 
delssohn to add a * contemporary notice' from the reo 
lections of a son present on that last and memoral 
occasion. The last song accompanied by Mendelsso! 
was selected by himself from his Oratorio of ' St. Pac 
saying, ' We will have this for a close ! ' It was t 
grand composition to the words, * Be thou faithful ub 
death ' {Set geireu bis in den Tod) — and having play 
the last note, he started up, and precipitately left t 
room and the house, exclaiming to those who follow 
him, ' I cannot take leave ! God bless you all ! ' It 
not known what cause produced this unusual sense 
the solemnity of parting ; but whether or not he mi 
have been possessed with some foreboding, he was c( 
tainly about to be met on his return home by t 
tidings of his beloved sister's sudden death — the gift- 
Fanny Mendelssohn Bartholdy, wife of Professor Heiu 
— a loss most peculiarly afflicting to him. 

It was on this last occasion of Mendelssohn's presen 
in London, that he was requested to conduct the exec 
tion of the Oratorio of ' St. Paul,' when the Queen ai 
Prince Albert had promised their presence at Exet 
Hall. It is well remembered how striking was the effc 
of his reception by the orchestra, filled with musicia 
unusual in amount of numbers and of talent, who, 
lie entered, struck up the air of triumph, ' See the co 
quering hero comes ! ' — after which, on Her Majestj 
entrance, ' God save the Queen' was given with thrillir 
effect. The Oratorio had (and has) but the one impe 
fection (shared with the ' Elijah ') of over-tasking hunw 
powers of taking in the abundance of musical meanin 


—half the piece would be quite enough for thorough Q^^* 

enjoyment. L 

Later, in the last month of this year, the ' Elijah ' was 
finely performed at Exeter Hall, the whole orchestra 
and most of the audience being in mourning for the 
death of Mendelssohn. On this occasion the rare powers 
of Jenny Lind called forth the full effect of the soprano 
passages, so grand in the last act. 

Bunsen to one of his Sons. 


London : Sunday, 9th May, 1847. 

.... For me, God ordained from earliest childhood a 
rigoTons training, through poverty and distress ; I was 
compelled to fight my way through the world, bearing 
nothing with me but my own inward consciousness, and the 
firm determination to live for my ideal aim, disregarding all 
else afi insignificant. 

Bunsen to Mr. Oraff^ the Missionary. 

4 Carlton Terrace : 3rd June, 1847. 
.... Although I hope soon to have the pleasure of seeing 
you again, I cannot refrain from expressing my thanks for 
the papers entrusted to me, and my gratification at their 

Yoiir observations on languages show that you have ap- 
plied true philosophy to the most original and primitive 
province of the human mind. Your memoir on the con- 
nection of such linguistic-philological studies with the labour 
of a missionary, treats of a most important subject, which 
has occupied my mind for many years, and a clear under- 
standing of which seems to me the indispensable condition 
of further progress in our missionary work. We have been 
Wg enough behind the Romanists in this respect, and we 
Seem to have lost sight of the great and divine type held 
out to us, in this respect too, by the outpouring of the 
Spirit. For the firstfrait of that Spirit was the sanctifi- 
cation of the native tongues, hitherto only used for the 
purposes of common life, into hallowed organs for praising 
^e ' great things of God.' 

K 2 


CHA P. I agree with you, as in the whole tenonr of your Memoir, 
XII« so in particular in the five points with which you conclude— 

"*"'"" with the exception of one. Tou say (3) * Send home the 
raw niaterials.' I would answer, Do no such thing ! Too, 
and all who have similar gifts among your brethren, aie 
perfectly capable of, and in a certain degree alone com- 
petent to, digesting those materials for the two purposes in 
point : — 

1. A clear and complete representation of the grammatieal 
forms, preceded by such remarks on the race and country, to 
which the language belongs, as the observation offers. 

2. A dictionary, preceded by such general remarks on Uie 
formation of words and the connection of roots among each 
other, as the study of the language itself suggests. 

I suppose both such works would be eagerly printed bf 
the Society, for use both in Europe and Africa. Thej 
would not be very bulky, and the more they are made in a 
uniform, general, and clear plan, the more succinct and more 
useful will they be. The grammar will be logic to the tribes 
themselves, and both grammar and dictionary will fix the 
ever-floating element of speech among them. 

Of course the Gk)spels will be printed at the same time, 
and gradually the whole New Testament, and finally the 
whole Bible. I should recommend the Psalms among the 
first objects of translation in the Old Testament. The great 
point in all these is a reasonable system of transcription. 
It is impossible to take the English pronunciation as a 
standard; it is not only in contradiction to that of all 
eontinejital languages, but in itself too full of contradic- 
tions. Almost all scholars have, therefore, agreed in the 
system of transcription used by Humboldt, Bopp, Ac., and 
adopted by the French. It is capable of simplification and 
of improvements which Lepsius intends soon to publish. The 
principle is, to express every unity of sound by a wnUy of 
sign. The Latin alphabet — on the whole according to Italian 
pronunciation (which for ancient languages was originally 
used also in England) — suffices for all simple sounds, with 
exception of the Greek x (Chi) for which the Latin alphabet 
has no corresponding letter. The modifications are to be 
expressed by additional signs, as for instance -y- or -*^, and 
similar ones. Lepsius proposes to adopt a peculiar sign for 


erery organ of speech, viz. guttural, lingual, palatal, dental, CHAP. 
naflaL You will find that the Hebrew Keph and Koph differ ^^' 
by the one being guttural, the other dentaL So do many 
oilier letters in different languages. Take the German ch in 
awh and in ich. The African languages will, of course, have 
many nasal sounds, according to the specimen* I will send 
joa Lepsius's treatise as soon as it appears, — he intends 
laying it this summer before the meeting of Orientalists. 

What we upon such foundations can do in Europe, is to 
find out the analogies of languages, and deduce consequences 
from them. But here, too, you must put us in the way* 
You will first find out the languages which are connected by 
immediate affinity. By this expression I understand the same 
iimdamental elements in the grammatical forms. The gra- 
dations are made clear by the Indo-Grermanic philology. You 
how that they give us the following general scheme, starting 
torn the Teutonic stock : — 

Bider Limg%tages, G^muuL Scandinavian. 

DiaiecU, Saxon, Franconian, Suabian, Danish, Swedish* 

with all their infinite varieties, 
including Dutch, Anglo-Saxonj 
Frisian, AUemannian (Swiss), 
Burgundian (Berne). ' 

All these we bring back to the most ancient forms, known 
to us : — The Gothic of Ulphilas, of 380 of our era ; the 
lulandic of the Edda, of about 900 of our era. These two 
most primitive forms, then, we bring in connection with the 
most ancient forms of the languages of common origin : — 
Sanscrit and Zendy Greeks Latin^ Slavonic^ Lithuanian^ Celtic 
(with Persian). 

The next higher step is to take all this Japhetic stock as 
ow, and to compare it with the Semitic in all its most ancient 
forms — Hebrew^ so-called Chaldaicy Syriac, Arabic, Abys- 
sinian, with Samaritan. Lastly, you know we have found 
the original language of Ham — for Ham, Cham, is the name 
of Egypt in the Egyptian language. I have published all 
forms, and such of the roots as are known to us, in my work 
on Egypt, and in the first volume of the English translation 
there will be a complete dictionary of roots. These I con- 
aider as the hey stone of connection between the Asiatic and 
African languages. 

134 m£:moirs of babon buksen. \^ 

CHAP. But we must proceed in all this' systematically. No 
^^^' jumps — ^no crude comparison of single words (which profe 
nothing), — gradual comparison ascending from the lanr 
guages of immediate affinity to those of less immediate coa* 
nection, and always showing the constant analogy (as Grimm 
in his Lautversetzung). The subdivisions in Africa are greato 
than in Europe and Asia — in America they are still greater. 
But affinity of grammatical forms, not only in the genenl 
system, but in the material itself, is necessarily a sign of 
historical connection. Single words may differ much, pir- 
ticularly in degraded languages. Finally, the phyaiologM 
element must not be neglected. Pritchard's works have 
done much in that. You should also get his ^ Ethnc^fraphie 
Atlas,' imperfect, of course, though it be. 

Japhet's son must kindle the divine fire, as one of Japhef e 
sons, Prometheus, is said to have done of old ; but ib 
children of Ham must keep it up. Train African linguiiU u 
well as African preachers ; both will serve the cause of the 
Gospel, and both testify that the Spirit of God is with us, as 
Luther says of that Spirit : — 

Er ist bei uns wohl auf dem Plan, 
Mit seinem Geist und Gaben. 

Contemporary Notices in Letters. 

26th June, 1847. 

On Wednesday, the 23rd, Bunsen went to Oxford, and 
returned on Thursday. To-day the Count and Coont«« 
St. Aulaire will dine with us, quite alone. It is a sad leaTe- 
taking, for they go away for good next week. 

SOth June, — Bunsen went to Oxford again yesterday, to 
the meeting of the Ethnological Society, having dined 
and slept at Cuddesdon Palace. Meyer is said to have 
acquitted himself admirably, and to have produced much 
effect, having been listened to with extreme attention. 
The end of the week Prince Waldemar is expected, and there 
will be little regularity of life until he is gone into the coun- 
try. On Monday, July 5, he will go to Cambridge (to be 
present at the reception of Prince Albert as Chancellor), 
Bunsen having contrived for his being received by Dr. Wort- 
ley at Downing College. On Wednesday all return from 


CHAP, for the journey to Cambridge) stood guarding the Prince'i 
^^^' portmanteau, when, close by, talking across Aaron and his lug 
gage, stood three Princes and a Bishop ! As we shot along 
every station and bridge and resting place and spot of shadi 
was p^pled with eager faces watching for the Queen, an( 
decorated with flowers, but the brightest and gayest and mos 
excited assemblage was at the Cambridge station itself, anc 
from thence along the streets to Trinity College the degre< 
of ornament and crowd and animation was always increasing. 
I think I never saw so many children before in one morning. 
I felt so much moved at the spectacle of such a mass of life 
collected together and animated by the feeling, and that a 
joyous one, that I was at a loss to conceive, how 'anj 
woman's sides can bear the beating of so strong a throb,' aa 
must attend the consciousness of being the object of that ex- 
citement, and the centre of attraction to all those eyes ! But 
the Queen possesses royal strength of nerves. We met the 
magistrates and yeomanry riding forth to await tho Queen, 
and as they desired to fetch her from the station, and go in 
procession before her to the town, her arrival took place 
rather later than intended. We saw her entrance into 
Trinity Lodge, as we stood at a window in the Lodge, and 
the academic crowd, in picturesque attire, were as loud in re- 
joicing as any mob could have been. Soon after, I went 
with Mrs. Whewell, Lady Hardwicke, and Lady Monteagle, 
to take our places in the yet vacant Great Hall of Trinity, 
whither the Queen came to receive the Chancellor's address, 
and a few minutes after she had placed herself on the throne 
(an armchair under a canopy at the raised extremity of the 
hall), the Chancellor entered from the opposite end, in his 
beautiful dress of black and gold, with a long train held up 
— made a graceful bow, and read an address, to which the 
Queen read an answer, with peculiar emphasis, uttering ap- 
probation of the choice made by the University. Admirable 
was the command of countenance in both ! and she only 
smiled upon the Prince at the close, when all was over, and 
she had allowed all the Heads of Houses to kiss her hand, 
which they did with exquisite variety of awkwardness, all 
but two or three. Afterwards the Queen dined with the 
Vice-Chancellor in the hall of a small College, where but 
few comparatively could be admitted — Bunsen was among 


CHAP, the Qaeen's table the names were marked on places, ud 
^^' anxious was the moment before one's place was fonnd— I 
was directed by Lord Spencer to one between himself and 
the Duke of Buccleuch. In the evening the Queen received 
the ladies belonging to the Universitj, and some not belong 
ing to it — which was an occasion of much criveceewr. I 
was instrumental in explaining in some quarters, what I hope 
was believed, that the Master of Trinity and Mrs. Witt- 
well had nothing to do with the whole matter of reception— 
the Queen being at Trinity Lodge (a royal foundation) it 
home, in her own house. 

Yesterday (Wednesday morning, the 7th) I walked wiBi 
the Duchess of Sutherland and Lady Desart through ike 
Library, King's Chapel, Clare Hall, and the beautiful avennei 
and gardens, with combinations of trees, architecture, green 
turf and flowers, bridges and water, such as, under such a 
sun and sky as we had, could nowhere have been found 
superior. The Duchess was conducted by the Master of 
Trinity (Dr. Whewell), Lady Desart by Lord Aberdeen, and 
myself by Meyer (in uniform, as all had been attending the 
Chancellor's lev^), and he passed, among the admiring 
crowd who followed us at respectful distance, for the hero 
Sir Harry Smith — as being tall and weather-beaten, as 
Lord Fortescue was supposed to be the Duke of Wellington, 
having a large nose and wrinkled countenance. At one 
o'clock the Queen set out upon the same round, through tiie 
cloisters and entire domain of Trinity College, connected 
by a bridge with St. John's — and we foUowed, thus seeing 
everything to the greatest advantage, and particularly the 
joyous crowd that grouped well with the splendid $tiU Ufi 
objects. Then the Queen sat down to luncheon under a tent, 
and we were placed at her table : the only other member of 
the diplomatic corps being M. Van de Weyer. The Queen 
returned to Trinity Lodge, and took her departure finally at 
three o'clock : as soon as we could, we drove away with Prince 
Waldemar, to share his special carriage, and got well back 
to London, though not very rapidly, on account of the great 
length of the train. 


^ , . „.^ CHAP. 

Bunsen to his Wife. XJI. 

Osborne House : MoDday, 19th July, 1847. 

Here I am, well cmd quiet y just as if taken away from a 
seething cauldron, or awakened from a bad dream. The jour- 
ney and the passage over the beautifrd sea, and then a good 
walk which your good Queen took us, did me a vast deal of 
good. We arrived at Portsmouth in two Tuywrs^ saw the 
Victory (Lord Nelson's ship), going thither in a boat; 
then got on the Fairy, and passed the splendid fleet quite 
near, greeted by all ships with the royal salute, the men 
drawn up, and the band playing alternately the English and 
Prussian national melodies. Prince Albert was awaiting 
Prince Waldemar on the shore, and conveyed us all in a sort 
of char-a-banc. We drove between rows of laurel and myrtle, 
as m Italy, and on arriving found that the Queen herself had 
come towards us on the lawn, but had not been perceived by 
the party ! for which omission I was made responsible as 
being the only one wearing spectacles ! Now, my dearest, 
forgive me all my fretting, and impatience, and crossness, 
and all other things unamiable of the latter days. Something 
may be laid to the account of indisposition ; but the greater 
part of it I must take seriously to myself, and so I hope I 
do. The night's result, when I awoke, was this — and you 
know all good thoughts come over night, — I shall write (I 
think) to the King, stating that I need one yearns leave of 
(ilsence. So did Esterhazy — so did Bjornstiema — regularly. 
• . . I must and will go away from London ; but I will 
take advice as to the manner. I have steered my life's bark 
Hitherto alone with my God, in all the great emergencies of 
my course ; and thus I will do to my end, whenever the price 
of my life is at stake. I never weighed secondary con- 
siderations, and always found I was right. This is my night's 
thought. We shall see how it will bear the scrutiny of the 
day. But I will not withhold it from you. 

Osibome : Monday y two o^ clock. — Let Ernest and Elizabeth 
know that there will be a great naval manoeuvre to-morrow, 
Tuesday, I believe by three, certainly not earlier, as Her Majesty 
takesluncheon at two. The Prince has taken Prince Waldemar 
and myself over the New House, which is delightful. The 
^ce's own room contains well-chosen paintings of the 


CHAP, old school, from Duccio and Fiesole to Lorenzo di Oedi 
^^^- The Queen's own room has a beautifol prospect from a bat 
cony towards the sea, Spithead and the fleet : all deooratioiii 
everywhere show good sense and real taste. Prince Lowen- 
stein is in the former apartment of Prince Albert in the (M 
House, and I am allowed to occupy that of Her Majesty, which 
the Duchess of Sutherland had just left. So we ore ropHj 
treated ; and yet the Queen expressed last night her Tefftfi 
that I had to cross the open place (20 yards) between the (M 
and New House ! Prince Waldemar is quartered at the 

Contemporary Notice. 

Slat August, 1847. 

... I send Lamartine's remarkable speech, in nuu^ 
parts so beautiful, and even where that epithet does not 
apply it is memorable as a monument of the time in which 
it was spoken. When you get to the end, you will need bo 
explanation to understand that I objected not to the reason- 
ing (as you had been told), but to the wretched narrownen 
of mind in a man of such intelligence, to wind up a speech, 
showing such a strong sense of his nation's moral misery, hj 
pointing out ^ la raison* as the means of relief. One should 
think, a Vheure qu^il esty that people were past thai. ISie 
history of the world shows that human reason struggles inef- 
fectually against passion, and corruption, or the power of self- 
ishness ; and Lamartine does not propose to them any sorter 
kind of religion, nor any aspiration after the invisible; m 
short, he does not name Christianity, to subdue self and its 
dictates, and sublimate all energies into the love of God and 
man, but only that same reason, in the force of which I can- 
not suppose he believes, any more than do his hearers ; only 
he wished to flatter them, and feared to excite ridicule hy 
naming anything higher or less commonplace. 

Bunsen to a Son. 


Osborne House : 22nd July, 1B47, five ajn. 

The news of Sieveking's death struck me unawares, in spite 
of mournful anticipation, on my return, the evening of the 
7th, from the Cambridge Installation solemnity. To Cam- 
bridge I had gone with an ever-strengthening feeling of op- 



CHAP, existence, connecting the present with splendid recollectionB 
^^^^ of the past ; — but what is it to a German ? 

Thns I returned home ; with the prospect of another fort- 
night's waiting upon the kind-hearted Prince Waldemar. The 
first letter I opened on my return home told me of the death of 
Sieveking. That evening passed amid manifold reflections. 

When I awoke next morning a means of escape presented 
itself before me, which I had not before perceived. 

T had often previously stated to myself the question, If 
continuing here becomes impossible, might not a less op- 
pressive position be found at Berlin P As Minister of State, 
certainly not. A private position near the King, like that of 
Humboldt, was manifestly impossible. The course taken by 
the Chamber makes it clear that the King will be obliged to 
choose his next Ministers from among persons belonging to it ; 
and no more than I can, and will, and ought to work with the 
present set, do I perceive a calling for myself to work by the 
side of the next Ministry. I have no position in the country, 
and only with such an independent position can a Minister do 
what he ought, viz., help the King, support and defend him. 
Lastly, it is become ever clearer to me, that, by nature and 
circumstances, I am so constituted as to be only then politi- 
cally serviceable, when, watching from the prow or topmast^ 
I can give timely notice of storms or rocks appearing on the 
horizon, but 7iot if placed at the helm. As often, therefore, 
as I ruminated over the Berlin projects, I found myself within 
the thick walls of a prison, out of which I could discern no 
way of escape ; and at the end of such contemplation I was 
ever thrown back upon London. 

On that morning, then, Bonn appeared before me ; and 
after contemplating that image for half-an-hour, I declared to 
your mother (who was up and dressing) my determination to 
give up London and diplomatic life, and retire to Bonn. 
Without a moment's hesitation, she replied, ' That would be 
ideally desirable.' But other difficulties remained. On 
Saturday evening, the 7th, therefore, I found myself again 
between the four dark prison-walls ! 

That evening and Sunday morning belong to the darkest 
times of my life. When I rose in the morning I found that 
Tonr dear mother had placed close by my bedside the Hymn 
Book, open at Paul Gerhard's hymn — * Commit thy ways unto 


the Lord,' which I thoroughly felt all through. I went to CHAP. 
Steinkoprs church, and came out much tranquiUised. A ^^' 
quarter of an hour afterwards, I was obliged to be at the 
railway station, to accompany Prince Waldemar hither. 

With a heated head and overclouded spirit I accom- 
plished the journey. The spectacle of the sea refreshed 
me. The noble fleet at Spithead saluted the royal flag 
of Prussia with far-echoing thunder ; the musical bands 
of the five vessels of the line, as we glided past, played 
i^rnately *God save the Queen,' and the * Landesvater ' 
(which I had introduced in England in 1842), and the whole 
did me good. Seeing Prince Albert and the Queen, in their 
beaatifdl tranquillity, in the isle of the south, overlooking 
the sea, rejoiced me. I am heartily devoted to them both, 
and thev showed me all their accustomed kindness. 

I considered my plan yesterday, calmly and clearly, and 
I write it to you as it now stands before me. Now enter 
thoroughly into what I fim about to write, make the coi - 
dition of things entirely clear to yourself, and then read on. 

[The particulars follow of a plan, never executed, of a 
removal from London to Bonn.] 

Tou ask where the place is in history for the languages of 
Ham ? The following formula contains my reply : — 

Cham = African humanity = the first great joint of the 
Caucasian language-formation. 

All our languages have at one time been Chamitic ; as 
the human embryo passes through a period of fish-existence. 

To this joint y or knoty as their given basis, the African 
nations have, more or less, added on a stump formation. I 
developed lately at Oxford * the elements of this science — 
aa it were, thus : — Every language consists of at least two 
fonnations — the one, that of the now dead, dissolved lan- 
^[uage constitutes its basis (as Latin is the basis of the 
Bomanic tongues), and the second formation, which pro- 
duces the new tongue itself (e.g. the Romanic). But ac- 
cording to the nature of the crisis, which causes the de- 
struction of the first formation, we observe very divergent 
results. The crisis may take place in so organic a manner 

* See TTiree Linguistic DtssertaiionSj read at the Meeting of the Bt-itith 
^^^fociation in Oxford, by Chev, Bunscn^ Dr. Charles Mci/ery and Dr. Max 
^«/fcr; reprinted from the Report for 1847. London : 1848. 


CHAP, as greatly to promote expansion of consciousness ; inasmuch 

J ;_ as by the destruction, i.e. volatisiJig of many words (nouns 

and verbs), it constructs particles, and syllables of inflection, 
without which the language would be a very imperfect organ 
of the mind ; and at the same time spiritualises the sub- 
stantial roots ; thus doubly furthering that self-consciousness 
of the intellect, which is the aim of development. This 
Shem has accomplished once, discreetly restricting his 
impulse towards form in the roots to the triliteral system, 
and to much that is conventional. Japhet, on the other hand, 
has performed the process twice ; the last time being in the 
Iranian (commonly called Indo-Germanic) tongues. 

The opposite pole to this is brought about in the following 
way : — A tribe, isolated and thrown back to struggle with the 
rigid needs of physical existence, loses a large portion of 
its word-consciousness (commonly called language), and not 
till after a thorough darkening of the earlier perceptions 
(i.e. after the loss or corruption of the inherited mothei^ 
tongue) can the instinct of speech throw out a new shoot. 
This new formation may be full of luxuriance (like the fresh 
growth round the trunk of a felled tree), but it is and re- 
mains a stump-formation, such as a narrow basis only can 
yield, which is insufficiently penetrated by the spirit of life. 
Examples of this kind are found in the fiightful con- 
structions of tlie American (falsely called Indian) tribes, 
whose stump-formation is so vigorous, that even neigh- 
bouring races, with equal or closely-allied forms of speech, 
often exhibit hardly any similarity in their roots. 

* Ham ' passed through many degrees of these formations; 
the speech of the Bushmen is its condition of lowest degra- 
dation ; the speech of Abyssinia is a Semitic variety. As to 
the rest, this (juostion remains : — which point of Caucasian 
linguistic formation constitutes their basis ? The chronology 
of the various branches must be arranged in accordance with 
the variety of views in fixing this point. That is the highest 
and most difficult point of scientific, linguistic enquiry. 

I am truly pleased that, in the case of young Sievekinj 
and yourself, the friendship of the fathers has passed over to 
the sons. The Oregon question belongs now as entirely to 
the past as the Seven Years' War. The office of arbitrator ist 
that case had its difficulties. I should have decided for th» 



fortj-ninih degree as regards the coast of the Continent, 
(witiiout separating Vancouver's Island from the British chap 
possessions) because the more southern land is suited to ^^^ 
tillage, and the colonist (American) deserves preference, on 
general grounds, before the huntsman (Indian and English). 
The agricultural title (this is my English formula) is superior 
to that of the hunter : else, where is our title to our own 
soil, and where our right to divide a land not ours 9 That 
dear admirable man ! How have I loved him, and how much 
affection and friendship has he not ever shown me ! Bemem- 
ber me most kindly to his son, and tell him he must look 
upon our house, wherever it be, as his home. 

I must close this letter now. I write it in the Queen's 
room, which she used to inhabit before the annexed, newly- 
boilt Osborne House was built, in sight of the sea-mirror 
gflded by the sun, and inhaling the breeze from it, the back- 
ground near Spithead being formed by the ships of the line, 
under whose salute we passed yesterday. To-day, within a 
few hours, we shall cleave the waves again, to inspect the 
Aneoal and Dockyards at Portsmouth; then the IMnce 
Waldemar goes to Oxford, and on to the north, but I with 
Prince Lowenstein go homewards ; Prince Waldemar returns 
to London in the beginning of September for three days. 
He is a highly amiable and chivalrous character, of sound 
political views. 

Contemporary Notice. 

20th November, 1847. 

We shall have Mr. Brooke (the Rajah of Borneo) to dinner, 
and many others ; Lady Raffles comes to meet him. 

22nd November. — The review in the ^ Quarterly ' of Captain 
Keppel's ^ Journal of H.M.S. Dido ' is written by Lord 
Ellesmere. The account is most interesting of all that 
Mr. Brooke undertook and executed for the benefit of the 
people of Borneo, following out the notions of Sir Stamford 
Baffles, formed so many years earlier, and which had not 
been acted upon by any Government. Both by the original 
^ork and by the review a great interest has been excited about 
Mr. Brooke, which we have warmly shared ; but it cannot be 
said that after having seen him the feeling has been kept up 
at the same pitch. However willing one may be to make every 
allowance for his desire to shrink from being made a show 



CHAP, of, yet still, every allowance made, he proved * dry as a re- 
^^- mainder-biscuit after a voyage/ The favourable appearances 
are to be characterised by negatives ; he is unassuming, un- 
pretending, imobtrusive: but the degree of curiosity that 
remains is only as to whether he can warm or kindle, he 
warmed or he kindled. An attempt proved unavailing to-day 
to be present at a meeting relating to the Mission to Borneo ; 
the crowd overflowed from the large Hanover Square Booms, 
and it is only to be hoped that the subscriptions may be in 
proportion to the zeal displayed in listening to and cheering 
Mr. Brooke. 

Contemporary Notice. 

10th November, 1847. 
The death of Mendelssohn has been a great shock to us, 
and it is a sad breaking up of human happiness ; he and his 
very charming wife were attached and united in no common 
degree. He was full of energy and power and talent, in 
every respect happy and fortunate in his position ; indepen- 
dent and active, and having no views, no habits, no occupa- 
tions, but those of a noble and refined nature. He has quickly 
followed his accomplished sister, the wife of Hensel, whose 
death was also frightfully sudden. And our poor dear 
Neukomm remains, to drink out the dregs of life in blind- 
ness! inscrutable are the ways of Him whose dispensations 
are only for the good of His creatures ! 

12th Novemher. — A passage in the ^Times' relating to 
Mendelssohn does credit to the writer, whoever he be. It is to 
be wished the account of his funeral might be given entirely 
by the English papers. After a solemn service at Leipzig 
the body was conveyed to Berlin for interment, and by night 
for privacy ; but it was watched for at the railway stations in 
two places, and met by processions of the principal inhabi- 
tants singing hymns. At Berlin there was another solemn 
service, hymns and a funeral address, and two of the choruses 
out of his own Oratorio of ' St. Paul ' were performed, tha 
words of which, from Scripture, were suited to the occasion. 
Here, the Harmonic Society wish to have his bust executed ia 

marble, and placed at their expense in the British Museum. 
Saturday, ISth November. — On Monday, the 15th, we are to 

have at dinner the Due de Broglie, Lord Westmoreland, 

Lady BafiEles, and Sir Robert Inglis. 


CHAP self, and he is stopped short. He has jnst learned kow k 

learuy and has just acquired knowledge enough to be awan 

that he knows nothing, and his eyes refuse their aid ! Hii 
mind and character have evidently grown under this trial 
beyond his years ; he is resigned, and yet hopes even lea 
than I do. 

You shall have, in an English lecture, what I have to mj^ 
in another garb, in my fifth book (of the Egyptian worl). 
Politics and some other (disagreeable) business have fcft ft 
fortnight and more not allowed me a moment's freeii60 
of spirit to finish my lecture. I hope I settled an imporiaiit 
point in the course of last week : the general outlines of ft 
rational system of transmission of the sounds of foreign lan- 
guages, and in particular of non-written tongues, for the naa 
of the African stations. I enclose to you my correspond- , 
ence with the excellent Mr. Venn on the subject, together j 
with a letter of Graff, who with Koelle (a good SanBcrit 
scholar) went the other day to Sierra Leone to be directxKi 
of the new College. 

To Julius Schnorr von CaroUfdd. 


London : Sunday, 20th November, 1847. 

(Last Sunday in the Church Tmt.) 

. • . The present day brings to mind afresh the solema 
intelligence which you communicated to me a year agO| 
and with it the feeling of the debt I owe you ; together 
with the consciousness of undisturbed affection and friend- 
ship faithfully preserved in my heart. Whatever letter I do 
not answer at the very moment, alas ! falls directly into ii6 
mass of things heaped up and put by to the hoped-for timft 
of alleviation of my burden of official and social avocations. 
But we have indeed all mourned with you, and at the sanoe 
time hailed the grace given to you to receive the heavy blow 
as a child of God from the hand of a Father. 

This day brings many precious dead to our remembrance; 
and last of all, my truly-beloved Felix Mendelssohn. With- 
in our family circle we have lost Elizabeth Fry, who by 
Ernest's marriage had become his aunt. On the other hand, 
the house-circle has been widened : Ernest's Elizabeth, the 
beloved of all, has made me grandfather to a fine boy* 

Et.56 audience of THE QUEEN. 149 

Henry's dear wife is also a real daughter to ns, and Henij CHAP. 
IB as happy as man can be — ^with a Christian congregation, ^ ^' 
in a beaatifol conntj of England, enjoying and spreading 
aronnd him that foUness of blessing which makes the position 
of a oomitry clergyman in England nniqne of its kind. We 
old ones are in good health, and in onr accustomed cheer- 
fiilness. I have lately published the newly-discoyered ancient 
Ignatias, with some letters of my own to accompany it; 
and I have desired the Bauhe Hans to send you a copy. 
Other things are in hand. The ciiticaJ state of the eran- 
gelical Church in the fatherland urges me to declarations : 
I am not satisfied with the manner in which the King's 
ideas of Church and State have been carried out. Free- 
dm fmd Ijove have I inscribed upon my banner, against 
the heads of parties, each and severally. I praise the in- 
tentions of young Thiersch, but he is too green and too 
narrow. The Swiss concerns have for some weeks dis- 
turbed me day and night: there, also, great sin has been 
committed — ^that efiFusion of blood might have been pre- 
Tented. Jesuitism and Badicalism are two seyeral masks of 
the same destroying spirit ; but the former poisons the very 
[ geniiy misusing the name of Grod. Wrong is on both sides ; 
bat if on the one side there is a false life, on the other there 
is actual death. The pinion-stroke of Time just now out-tones 
the cries of petty considerations. No one can hinder the 
inevitable : the endeavour must be to soften and turn it to 
good purpose. I earnestly hope, that the two great Protes- 
tant Powers may herein go hand in hand. 

I cannot give up the wish to receive you in this house, 
and to see the magnificent cartoons of Baphael with you. 
; The journey is so easy ! You would find here many who 
I admire your works. Now forgive your old fidend his long 
I negligence in wiiting, and accept, with all yours, from us all 
I the heartiest greeting ! 

The following transaction referred to a private letter 
of the King, addressed to Queen Victoria, which it was 
tis desire that Bunsen should deliver in a private 
aucQence to Her Majesty: at the same time Bunsen was 
informed by a letter from the King to himself, that the 
wibject of the communication was political, relating to 


^xu' N^ufch&tel. Bunsen having requested instructions firon 

1- Prince Albert, received in reply an invitation in thi 

name of the Queen to come inunediately to Osbomi 
House, in company with Lord Palmerston (to whon 
Her Majesty's invitation was simultaneously despatched] 
that the letter might be read without inMngement c 
constitutional rules. This statement will account fc 
the emotion with which Bunsen announces having saiel; 
steered between conflicting difficulties. 

Bunsen to his Wife. 

Osborne House : Simdaj, 5th December^ 1847. 

My Beloved, — Gk)d be thanked ! All right ! Better thi 
could be hoped ! I delivered my letter last night, in -pimi 
audience, to Her Majesty, — ^not speechless, but without 
speech — after eight, before.dinner. 

I had desired Lord Palmerston to tell me what he wishe 
me to do. As an abstract Whig, he said, ^ It was mihean 
of, quite imusual, that a foreign Sovereign should write i 
the Sovereign of England on politics.^ *But,' said I, *yo 
praised the Queen and Prince Albert for their excellent letlx 
on politics to the Queen of Portugal.' *Tes, but thatwi 
between relations.' * And this between friends. Bat yc 
are informed of the arrival, and of the contents of the lette 
and will learn all that is in it. I shall, in handing over it 
letter to the Queen, say nothing but a few complimentai 
phrases, and plead the King's cause in the way the Quec 
will direct, in your presence the next day. Will that do! 
' Perfectly,' he replied. And so I did. The Queen read tl 
letter before dinner, and came down ten minutes before nin 
After dinner, Prince Albert told me that the Queen and 1 
had had Lord Palmerston with them before dinner (from s 
to eight), and that we should to-morrow settle the answe 
In the morning, the Prince translated the political part 
the letter into English, and then discussed with Lonl Pfl 
merston the heads of an answer. Then I was called in to » 
the letter, and plead the King's cause, for which I was qui 
prepared. We all agreed : — 

1. That conferences on Swiss afEairs, on the basis of m 


diation between contending parties, were out of the question CHAP. 

now. But the Queen wished to say (and Lord Pabnerston L 

saw no harm in it) that she would have accepted Neuf- 
ciatel in preference to London, as a place of conference, if it 
could still be thought of. 

2. That (as I had proposed) the Neufchdtel affair was now 
the object with respect to which Her Majesty would try to be 
of ose to her Mend and brother. (I had demanded media- 
tion with arbitration, between Neufchatel and the Federation ; 
l)ut Pabnerston observed, * That could only be done upon the 
gronnd of general treaties, and then the three other Powers 
would come in too, and spoil the whole.') So I was to be 
satisfied with * bons offices^^ in consequence of the instructions 
already given to C, * based upon the detailed Memoir 
written by your Majesty's faithful Bunseny as your Majesty 
allows me to call him.' Circumstances would show what 
further could be done. 

This the Queen will write in Englishy beginning and end 
in German. I ought to add, that she answers, besides, to 
the point, on the coming forward of the German confederacy 
in a worthy manner on this occasion. She says, ^ She and 
ier Government wish nothing better ; but as ike only point 
now in discussion resulted from general treaties not regarded 
bythe Confederacy, this was perhaps not the right opportunity. 
(Of course there are weighty reasons against it besides.) 
But that she was sure the English public would with great 
sympathy see the German Confederation take a prominent 
part in European affairs — only that it would make a very 
niaterial difference in their eyes, if the councils of Germany 
were directed by the enlightened Cabinet of Berlin, and not 
by Prince Mettemich.' 

All this is now already written out fair, by Prince Albert, 
nnder Lord P.'s revision, for the Queen, who will write it 
herself to-morrow, when the letter will be despatched by 
express messenger. As soon as we hear what the Diet of 
Berne has decreed against Neufchatel, Lord P. and I shall 
confer further. 

If the ground swell was strong in the mind of Bunsen 
during this occasion, of experiencing the accustomed 
gracious kindness of the Queen and Prince Albert at 


^xn^' Osborne, his return from thence in company with Lord 
Pahnerston was attended by serious commotion of the 
elements without. In the boat which brought them to the 
shore, Lord Palmerston was requested to take the heUn, 
as it would seem, to enable all hands to help in rowing 
through the unusually rough sea. Bunsen observed, 
that he had not been before aware of the necessary con- 
nection he now observed between steering the vessd of 
the State^ and steering a common boat — ^whereto Lord 
Palmerston answered, * Oh ! one learns boating at Cam- 
bridge, even though one may have learnt nothing better.' 
They landed in safety, but the train was gone. IxMti 
Palmerston declared that he must return to London on 
pressing business, and must have a special train. The rail- 
way officials protested that the risk of collision was too 
great for them to undertake. Lord Palmerston insisted, 

* On my responsibility, then ! * and thus enforced compli- 
ance, although everyone trembled but himself. The 
special train shot past station after station, and arrived in 
London without causing or receiving damage, the Di- 
rectors refusing all payment from Lord Palmerston, as 
having transgressed all rules in order to comply with his 
desire, and considering themselves overpaid by the happy 
result, and their own escape from serious blame. 

Contemporary Notice, 

22nd December, 1847. 

A Puseyite clergyman said to a friend who informed ns, 

* You know whom we have to thank for Dr. Hampden's 
appointment? it is all Bunsen's doing, he prevailed upon 
the Queen to lay her commands upon Lord John.* 

The fact is, that Dr. Hampden is as much unknown among 
us as a person can be, who has been brought before the public. 
At Oxford Bunsen saw him once^ among many other people? 
but had neither conversation nor correspondence with him — ^io 
short, no acquaintance, and he had been inclined to think 
Dr. Arnold too violent in his defence, in the * Edinburgh 
Review ' of 1838. But now, he has set about examining his 


CHAP, gallery divided into four compartments, the middle < 
• occupying two-thirds of the length: there the compe 
meet, or occupy themselves separately. The Dnchess » 
a golden key, with directions to Stafford O'Brien to condi 
me to the gallery of statues, a detached building in i 
midst of a garden, like the Braccio Nuovo ; a beautiful h 
wide and long, with statues antique and modem ; the Lai 
Yase (from the Villa of Hadrian) and the Sarcophagoa 
Ephesus form the principal ornaments, with a sptem 
mosaic from Bome, which occupies the centre. At the t 
extremities are flights of steps, each conducting to an exeA 
or sort of temple : in the one are the Graces of Caniy 
which I did not worship ; but the other, the Temple 
Liberty, the sanctuary of the Whigs, interested me miM 
The present Duke's predecessor had the heads of the fnesn 
Fox and Grey modelled, and executed in marble, and 
planned the temple ; when dying, he disclosed the secret 
his intentions to his brother, who executed the idea fiiit 
fully. Opposite the entrance is the colossal bust of Chad 
Fox, with verses on the pedestal written by Greorgiaz 
Duchess of Devonshire. On each side there are two bai 
of smaller dimensions — Lord Grey's is the only very fi 
head; a certain Fitzpatrick looks like a satire upon a sen 
torial countenance. I admire and relish the idea, so w 
suiting the residence of the head of that illustrious fam 
of Bussell, with the martyr and his angelic wife amoi 

I saw besides, Wobum Church, built by the Abbot whc 
Henry VIII. put to death, with a beautiful churchyai 
We passed by the farm, which is like a village, where t 
inhabitants, i.e. oxen, pigs, cows, occupy corridors of stal 
and styes, opening into spacious well-aired rooms, a regal 
convent of animals ! In the afternoon I shall bury myself 
the Archives, to try to find the traces in explanation of t 
destroyed monument at High Wood, of which there is 
tradition in the family. The Duchess expresses the wi 
that another time you may not be prevented from comin 
The kindness of the family is indescribable. 


CHAP, honse-music lias been spread afar, partdcularly by Lady de 

1_ Clifford, who says she always comes out on the teirace when 

told that music is going on, especially to hear the singmg 
of the tenor. 

I yesterday read letters of Sarah, Duchess of Mari- 
borough (incredible), where Mrs. Pendarves' letters to Swift 
are mentioned in a marginal note. I studied also three 
volumes of John, Duke of Bedford's life and embassy to Farii^ 
1763, to conclude the peace : he was a clever man, and did 
the least evil he then could to Prederick the Great. I alio 
saw the conservatory, and the unique evergreen walk, planted 
by that same Duke 100 years ago : rhododendrons, lameli^ 
&c., as underwood on each side of the walk. 

To the Same. 

4 Carlton Terrace : Slst December, 1847. 

Here I am, faithful to my dear children and myself; under 
other circumstances, I certainly should have remained tQI 
Monday, as I was indeed very much pressed to do. The de- 
cision of the Hampden affair made the time yet more interest* 
ing. You will see in a few days an excellent letter of Lord 
John's, an answer to an address of the clergy of Bedfordshire 
in favour of Hampden. He had waited for such an oppor- 
tunity in order to speak fully his own mind on the subject 
Yesterday I went with Lord John to the Gallery of Sculpture 
and the Temple; then he played at tennis with Stafford 
O'Brien, and on returning to the house was met by the Dnke, 
with copies of the letter to the clergy and other papers, 
which he, the Duke, had been revising for him. It is the 
Duke's glory to help his brother, in whatever way he can. 

In the evening after dinner, Lady Rachel Bussell (who iB 
my great patroness) gave me a playbill on satin, and the 
Duchess another, which she offered to me in order that I migbt 
send it to you, but which I declined, saying I should send you 
mine. (All other such bills were on paper.) The plan of the 
charade had been arranged that morning ; oidy the sceneB 
made out, the rest left for improvisation. The first word, 
Nightmare^ was represented by Knight (the dubbing of Sir 
Walter Raleigh), and Mayor (the Mayor of an unreformed 
borough near Wobum Alley) admirably acted. The next you 
must guess from the four parts. 1. Thetis (Lady Rachel) 

JlT. 56 BUNSBN'S visit TO WOBURN ABBEY. 157 

about to dip the infant Achilles in the Stji. 2. An old Tory CHAP, 
country-gentleman (Milnes) complaining of the Whig admin- ^^- 
ifltrationy and of the low state of fands, of commercial enter- 
prise, of rentSy of agriculture, and what not, and hoping 
that, for some comfort, Dr. Posey will be the new Bishop ; 
on hearing the name of Hampden, he swoons. 3. A JIfaypole 
-firls and boys, headed by Lady Bachel, dancing round it, 
and singing an old national May-song (very fine). 4. A 
jonng actor, Mr. Pantwell, offering his services to Madame 
Testris (Lady Bachel), as a peculiar proficient in bringing 
out a ngh. The whole was Diplomacy y — represented by my 
three colleagues, of Russia, Austria, and France, holding a 
secret conference, and signing a protocol without me ; the one 
saying, when he last heard of me, I was in Egypt ; another, 
that when he last saw me, I was in search of what I called a 
Church. When they are just about to sign, the genius of 
Great Britain (Lady Bachel as Britannia) appears, and after 
tearing the paper in pieces, advances to the audience, address- 
ing verses complimentary to me, on the relations between 
the two countries. As no foreigners were present, the joke 
could do no harm. I have gone thus into detail, thinking 
the particulars might amuse your dear mother. Nowhere is 
hospitality practised on so grand a scale, or at least nowhere 
grander, than at Wobum Abbey ; every room is the perfec- 
tion of all credible and incredible comforts for the guest — 
all meals in inconceivable perfection of arrangement. The 
Duchess enacts visihly the Queen and Duchess, and invisibly 
(in the intervals, by her directions) the supreme Maitresse 
d'Hotel. The Dowager Duchess assists her with much tact. 
The day after my arrival, a banquet was given in my honour, 
with a display of all the wonderful silver services, gifts 
of Louie XV. to Duke John : the other days all was more 
simple. I have reflected much on the position of a Duke 
of Bedford or of Sutherland in the nineteenth century, and 
do not think it could be essentially more than what the pre- 
sent representatives make of it. The charm here is the his- 
torical and political standing of the House of Russell. The 
liouse is evidently the work of the first Duke, and then of 
Duke John, who made the Peace of Paris. I find all that 
^^ good in it was his merit, against Bute and Egremont ; 
^ffl Lord John justly blames him for having consented to 
Iteepbg secret the transaction from Frederick the Great. 


CUAP. My plans are these, D.V., — 4th January, to Althorp ; Sth, 
^^^- to Castle Ashby ; lltii, to Peel ; then home, and one or two 
days at Broadlands, with Palmerston, who returns to towi 
on the 20th, as do the Bussells, who want to see Prinee 
Lowenstein at Richmond Lodge before that date. The grief 
of the House is the abstraction of the Marquis of Tavisiock^ 
who writes daily most intelligent papers on political subject 
but will not live at Wobum, nor take any part in actiye lift. 
On the whole, I would not be the Duke of Bedford for all 
his income, if I was to lead his life but for one year. 

To the Same. 

Althorp : Thursday, 6th January, 1848. 

I have been very lazy here, and that even since I had your 
precious letter ! The fact is, I have so much here to Mqf) 
and to doy that I scarcely have time to limp out for an hour, 
and then I must rest till dinner time. Be not uneasy about 1 
me, — it is nothing but flying rheumatism, one day in oneleg^ 
another in the other, with toothache, sometimes to the left, 
sometimes the right. The library is unique ; so is the gal- 
lery for family portraits, and originals of illustrious men, 
Montaigne, Arnauld, also Sacharissa and her husband, who 
resided here. Van der Weyer and I live in the library. Host 
and hostess very kind and agreeable. To-morrow George 
and I go to Lord Northampton's, Tuesday to Peel's, from 
whence home on the 15th, and not stir a step, unless I must 

Carlton Terrace : Friday , 7th Jammry. — Here I am, my 
dearest ; my last evening and night were so uncomfortable 
from the pains I mentioned, that I resolved to cut short the 
proposed visits. Whether or not I go to Peel must depend 
upon the pain ; but what I can say already is, that I feel very 
comfortable here, at my desk, in my room, in our dear house, 
with the good faces around me. 

Saturday, 8th JaniLary. — I read last night Bancroft, wiih 
increasing admiration. What a glorious and interesting 
history has he given to his nation, of the centuries before the 
Independence ! The third voliune is a masterpiece ; after 
having displayed all the plans and decrees of the monarchfl 
of Europe from 1741 to 1748, he brings in *the son of » 
widow, gaining his livelihood by surveying land in remote 
and uninhabited districts — Greorge Washington.' 


Mrs. Bancroft read to me a beautiful passage out of a letter chap. 
to her from Paris — the writer alluded to the atheism of 
Laplace and other astronomers in France, adding. ' Let them 
studj man^ and his history ; on eTery page they wiD trace 
the hand of a protecting and loving PioTidenee directing the 
world. This is the lesson which every day draws more and 
fflore from history. Man advances, and €rod protects the 
advancement of humanity/ This reminds me of a fine ex- 
pression of Bishop Lee, this morning, respecting the Uni- 
tarians, ^ The belief in salvation through Christ, and the 
opinion respecting the nature of Christ, are two quite 
distinct objects.' This is what in other words Schleier- 
macher says, * The faith of the Christian rests essentially. 
Dot on that which took place in or triih respect to Christ, 
—what befel Him or befel TTini not, — but on that which 
Christ did and performed as the Eedeemer. His accom- 
plished work of redemption — actuality of redemption, — is 
the single essential object of the &ith in which is blessed- 
ness ; the contests about its nature belong to the past.' All 
rights in my opinion, where there is a Christian, that is, a 
spiritual, philosophy. But what is to be done in a nation 
where there is no such thing ? 

I shall not go to Peel at Drayton, alas ! My toothache re- 
turned after I had made a dozen steps in the damp air. 

Contemporary Letter. 

Carlton Terrace : Friday, 14th Janaaiy, 1^8. 

. . . Just come in from calling upon Lady Louisa 
Stuart. I wish I could write every word of her conversa- 
tion. She was quite well, assured me that she ' had no 
complaint but extreme old age,' and that ' sometimes her 
head went like a cradle at sea.' I succeeded tolerablv well 
in making her hear, and asked her about Lady Sundon (Mrs. 
Clarton), of the Court of Queen Caroline, as to whose 
Correspondence (lately published) the ' Quarterly Review ' 
X)mplained of the incompetence of the editor, — and that 
»rought her upon the subject of the Court of George 11. , 
rhen she recollected and repeated to me a humorous ballad, 
ttributed to Arbuthnot, on the occasion of the King's 
aming the Duke of Newcastle as godfather to a Prince just 
len bom to the Prince of Wales, at which the latter took 


CHAP, great offence, and objected to his standing in any other wa 
^^- than. as proxy for some German Prince,. -The ballad isi 
parody on * Chevy Chase ' : — 

To name a child with might and main| 

Newcastle took his way : 
The child may rue that ia unborn 

The christening of that day. 

The Duke is ill received ; other noblemen are sent ; amo^g 
others the Duke of Roxburgh, — in vain. They bring warJ 
to the King (of whom it was said that he had learned but 
three French wards wherewith to hold converse with hii 
English subjects — *bon!' * comment?' ^diable!') — sofhej 
\report that they have waited upon the Prince — *BottI' 
that he objects — ^ Comment 9 ' that he has been fnrioQ% 
and sent them off — ^ Diable ! ' After this exclamation, tb 
King sent orders to the Prince to turn out of St. Jamefl% 
with his spouse, his men and maidens, his trunks and al 
trumpery, exc&pt his children (I am sorry not to remember 
the rhymes), and the ballad goes on to say that the nev- 
born Prince took the thing so ill, that he removed at once to 
another world ; and the writer (a Jacobite) winds up wilk 
the pious wish that the country may profit by such rojil 
quarrels, and all the family seek domestic peace and xmioa 
by voluntary secession to — Hanover ! 

Contemporary Letter. 

Carlton Terrace : 10th January, 1848. 

Yesterday I called upon Lady Louisa Stuart, who had 
been reading Alison's ^ Life of Marlborough,' which I had 
lent her. She told me the only daughter of Cardonnel, the 
Duke's secretary, was a remarkable woman, whom she had 
seen, as the wife of a Peer whom she named, but whose 
name I do not remember. This lady showed Lord Macartnej 
many papers, one being the copy, made by herself, of ft 
letter to the Duke fi*om her father, remonstrating against 
the practice of granting safe-conducts, or protections, for 
money, to secure individuals or districts in Flanders fit»n 
free quarters and plundering. Cardonnel declared he could 
have nothing to do with the transaction, and remonstrated 
with the Duke on such acts of rapacity. 


Contemporary Notice from Diaries of Darighiers. ^^^• 

Carlton Terrace : Saturday, 27th January, 1848. 

My father spoke much at breakfast in a very interesting 
manner, — first on the objections to entails, which tended 
to the absorption of landed property in a few hands, and 
to the exclusion of the only efficient means of preventing 
poverty, by giving the poorer classes the means of making 
themselves independent by having a share of the land. 

On Sunday morning, the 28th, the conversation turned 
upon the natural gift of healing, apart firom all medical art 
or science ; then upon the wise man^ or wise womaUy in almost 
eyeiy village ; then upon the evil eye, which my father said 
was the oldest superstition in the world, and one which was 
to be found among all nations : he thought it belonged to 
the secret religions of mankind, on which he said he had 
written a good deal himself. Then he spoke of the secret 
societies, — the Freemasons, about which he gave us a 
most interesting account. He said Lessing had been the 
first to give a true idea of them, and that he had proved 
Freemasonry, as it now existed (although there might have 
been something of the kind among the Knights Templars), 
went up no higher than the time of Sir Christopher Wren, 
and not (as most Freemasons insist) up to the time of King 
S^Joinon. In the time of the former, party spirit ran so 
%h, both in religion and in politics, that there was a general 
feling of the want of having some common ground to meet • 
upon, and with Sir Christopher the idea originated of form- 
ing a society, the members of which should be initiated with 
tie ^eatest secrecy, as well as of adopting the signs used 
V the Guild of Masons, as common means of recognition. 
Then my father made a digression on the subject of Guilds, 
tow when he was a child they were flourishing, and each had 
peculiar signs, into which each apprentice was initiated 
previous to setting out on his wanderings, to secure admis- 
sion to all members of the Guild. The signs among masons 
referred to the peculiar curve of the Gothic arch, whereby 
the secret of construction had been preserved through 

Vol. II. M 


XII. * Bunsen to his Wife, [At lAUesliaU.) 

'^~~' [Translatioii.] 

Carlton Terrace : Saturday evening, 29 th January, 184& 

. . . There is a comforting report from , of presei 

good-fellowship, where the contrary prevailed before, i 
expression used is, ^ I now like this place very much, becaoi 
people are kind to me.' The hardness of the natand mf 
is broken through ; that divine spark of love which exis 
in every human heart, but which has need to break throng 
the tough shell of self has been kindled, and so she no 
feels the love which surrounds her: she supposes it 1 
be something neti;, because she was not aware of it befor 
and she feels it now, because she is now capable of affectic 
in herself. The kindness, whether of God or man, is a 
felt or estimated but by the heart which is capable of loi 
in itself: in the hardened mind, discontent, hatred, ai 
spite, are rather generated. You know that we have lu 
occasion to observe in other instances the first burst of tl 
divine being which is in man : not as a creature (as oi 
German theology of the year 1400 has said), not as self^ h 
as God'« ima^e. How hard was the shell in one soul (y( 
know which), and yet how has meekness and affection ai 
humility and kindness burst through that rind of pri( 
and obstinacy and discontent which presented itself outsi 
for so long a time ! Depend upon it, that rind is just bun 
ing in the other soul. Many struggles will still follow, b 
1 hope He who kindled the lire will keep it up ! 

Letter to Bunsen. 

20th .January, 1848. 
Has the appeal made by Mrs. Fry to the King of Demna 
for the persecuted Baptists, and for liberty of conscience 
general, been of any avail ? The quantity of actual peraec 
tion under Protestant Governments, on account of diversi 
of religious opinions, weighed heavily on Mrs. Fry's spir 
The details of those last years of her life, when we lived net 
and from time to time felt the sunshine of her presence, a 
deeply interesting ; but the epithet is very tame to expi-ess tl 
charm of her heavenly-mindedness and the pain of knowii 


more of the anguish of body and spirit that she was called CHAP. 
upon to endore. Mrs. Fry was so essentially feminine ! the ^^' 
full growth and development and perfection of womanhood, 
with strength and power and firmness to preserve equipoise, 
such as woman rarely had before ! Other women, when thus 
powerful, have often something harsh and masculine about 

How little is one conscious of the ^ joy and the bitterness 
of the heart,' even in those in whom one takes a deep 
interest! What ^abimes de douleur' were in that heart, 
while the countenance and voice spoke only of peace and 
lo?e! not an atom of self-compassion was there — no shrink- 
ing from anything she was called upon to bear, even though 
the keenest native susceptibility gave her peculiar capability 
of intense suffering.* 

Bumsen to his Wife, 


4 Carlton Terrace : 3rd February, 1848. 

This is a grand day for politics ! I can hardly keep my 
pen in order. The King of Naples has proclaimed, on 
Saturday last, January 29th, for his whole kingdom, the 
Constitution of Lord William Bentinck, given in 1812 to 
Sicilj. O the Nemesis ! 

This rather crude, but not democratic, copy of the British 
Constitution, was given in spite of Caroline (who fled under 
execrations), and of Ferdinand, who abdicated. Francesco 
sanctioned it. 

Then Napoleon fell, and Castlereagh disowned the work of 
Bentinck. The Constitution was abolished. Ferdinand pro- 
Diised a Charte, a In Louis XVIII. ; we know the scheme of 
it,— it was never even finished, far less introduced. 

In 1815, the King, instead of all Constitutions, after a pre- 
amble, confirmed the * privileges granted to the Sicilians,' 
and gave an Edict of Administration, a la mode de V Empire. 

In 1820, that reaction produced a revolution, which was 
put down by force in 1821. 

Then a quarter of a century, twenty-six years, absolutist 
^isgovemment, which we have seen ! 

' This passage is introduced as containing the sentiments of Bunsen in 
the Words of another. 

M 2 


CHAP. And now, up to January 12, the Sicilians wonid have 
^^ been satisfied, as well as the Neapolitans, with reforms d la 
Pio Nono. January 12 was to be the day of decision. All 
was prepared for the outbreak ; no publication appeared ; the 
people set to work; Palermo was bombarded forty-eight 
hours, but resisted. The King's heart sank, and he yielded. 
One eminent characteristic of this King is his fear — an heir- 
loom from &ther and grandfather. 

The consequences may be immense — incalculable. Lega 
Italiana — the Pope driven to secularise his government; 
Sardinia and Tuscany to give a Constitution ! I am afraid 
that the waves set in motion by this event may be too 
boisterous for the frail Italian vesseL May God lead them 
to wisdom! 




Contemporary Notice. 

Carlton Temoe : Monday, 28tb February, 1SI& 

• . . We are all awe-struck and melancholy at this terribli 
state of things in France ; and how is such a mob govenunenl 
to go on without war to employ the idle and flagitious haoidi 
demanding mischief P 

On Saturday evening we were rejoiced to see our fried 
Max Miiller arrive fix)m Paris safe and sound. He had gtnK 
there a fortnight before to examine a manuscript, ad 
found himself caught in the midst of a revolution. He weni 
about the streets, and saw all he could, and got away <» 
Thursday night by climbing over three different barricadei 
in the direction of the railway to Havre, which, close to the 
station, had been broken up, but further on was in a cofr 
dition to be used. The description he gives of the Pande* 
monium in the streets, the aspect of the savages, the wantoi 
firing of shots aimed at quiet spectators, sometimes by men 
boys (one of whom was heard to boast, ^ J'en ai tu6 irois!*), 
brings very close to us, as it were, scenes from which we be- 
lieved ourselves separated by a long course of years. It m 
said that robbery is not to be apprehended, but destmctioii 
is the object. 

On Saturday, Bunsen dined with Sir Robert Peel, and 
went afterwards to Lady Palmerston's. I wanted to be toH 
what people said — what people expected. He answered: 
* Everybody is stimned.' ... It would seem as if the MiniB- 
terial difficulties would be much helped by the 'wars, and 
rumours of wars ;* people will feel that if the money had been 
spent it must be made up for somewhere, and in contempla- 
tion of a French debordement, the idea of national defences 
being put in repair will not seem unreasonable. 

Friday^ 3rd March. . . The French Gouvemement Provmir^ 
can hardly continue long paying the rabble to be quiet — and 
then, what can employ them but war? 

Contemporary Letter, 

Carltoii Terrace : 8th March, 184S. 

Yesterday morning, very early, a request came that J 
would hasten to the library. I went, prepared for waJkingj 


CHAP, have judged of the tendency of that work, in nnconscious- 

J '_ ness of effects which were so near at hand. 

I know not which way the Duchess de Montpensier is en- 
deavouring to get to Spain ; she came to Neukomm at Bouen, 
in her flight from Paris, to ask an hour's shelter while the 
Comte de Laste^Tie sought out a conveyance to take her 
further. Neukomm's sister-in-law gave her luncheon, whick 
she ato like one half-famished, having had nothing for Bome 
hours. Neukomm had been present at the royal d^enner 
given on her arrival from Spain, and it is remarkable thit 
he should be the person to show her the last hospitality in 

On Tuesday, 14th, we dined at the American Minister's. 
I contemplated Lord Carlisle, and heard Macaulay tiXk 
almost the whole dinner through. i 

Bniisen to Usedom, 


I^mdon : on the 22nd dav after the Second Deltisff 

ir,th March, 1848. 

My Dear Friend, — Your arrival and that of Stockmar in 
rnmkfort, as it were on the same day, has been the fulfil- 
ment of two of my unceasingly cherished wishes of two 
months' standing. Stockmar is one of the first politicians of 
Germany and of Europe — the disciple of Stein — army-super- 
intendant of the medical department in chief, during tie 
war— preceptor of Prince Albert — ^the friend and private 
adviser of Prince Leopold, afterwards King of the Belgiaitf 
— finally, the confidential friend both of Lord Melbourne and 
of Sir Robert Peel : — that is the man who now represents 
Coburg at Frankfort, to advocate which measure I earnestly 
advised, and Prince Albert as urgently entreated, Stockmar 
himself to undertake that position. Pray go to bini directly: 
after an hour's intercourse you will part as friends. So 
nnu-h for the present. I love Stockmar sincerely, and he 
loves mo. I have no secret from him. 

Day and night I ivpeat : Only unity with one accord,— 
within three weeks at most. . . . 

No one in England any longer believes in our future. 


Contemporary Notic^. 

Thursday, 23rd March. 

. . . Prom the papers as much may be known as we 
know of the awfiil scenes at Berlin : the result — the break- 
ing up of the Ministry, and the King's awakening conscious- 
ness of the realities and necessities of things, in which he 
could not bring himself to believe, when for years so many 
and Yarious faithful servants have tried to obtain a hearing 
for their statements — rouses Bunsen's sanguine nature to 
hope for the future. The choice of Ministers is on the whole 
that which it was to be hoped the King would have made, 
at the close of the Diet (Vereinigte Landtag) last summer, — 
they being the individuals who commanded the confidence of 
that popular assembly. But now that they have been set 
a-going they have an immense work to do, which, had they 
been at it for the last eight months, the whole insurrection 
might have been prevented. The shadow of this event came 
beforehand, in the shape of a report from Paris of the King's 
ha?ing abdicated, which many people believed in London 
the day before yesterday, and there was almost need of an 
eitra servant to take in all the notes and visitors and in- 
quiries at the door. Several of the notes contained kind 
offers of hospitality, if the King was coming to England — 
houses in town and country placed at his disposal. But 
everybody was answered that the King had certainly not 
deserted his post, — would certainly not sneak away ; and that 
has proved to be a fact. I cannot get the awftd scene from 
Wore my mind's eye, when the slain were carried in solemn 
procession before the windows of the King's Palace — within 
the very court-yard ; the bearers singing a hymn usual at 
funerals : calling upon the King, who not only appeared at 
the window, but came down, uncovering his head at sight 
*>f the funeral procession — spoke to the people, was cheered, 
aud, after a pause, all sung the hymn of thanksgiving (for 
promises received) which you have heard my children sing. 
People and King are made of diflFerent stuff to those of 
Paris ! 




XIII. Bunsen to StocJcmar. 

— [Translation.] ^ 

Tendon : Saturday evening, 25tli March, 1848. 

A solemn seriousness ought now to fill the heart of eveij 
German : for without that, without self-conquest and self- 
control, we fall into the hands of Nemesis. 

On the morning of March 27, at eight o'clock, Ui 
Royal Highness the Prince of Prussia aiTived at No. 4 
Carlton Terrace, unannounced, and causing as much 
surprise as if, on reading the notice in the papers two 
days before his having retired from Berlin, the posri- 
bility of his directing his course towards England bd 
not occurred to the mind of Bunsen. The Prince ym 
pleased to accept the proposal to make a speedy a^ 
rangement of rooms for his residence in the abode of 
the Prussian Legation. Some members of the family 
were at once quartered \vith friends, to make room 
for part of his Royal Highness's suite; Ernest Bun- 
sen, wMth his wife and child, having been received 
under the hospitable roof of Mr. and Mrs. Hudson 
Gurney, in St. James's Square — therefore, so close at 
liand, as to enable Ernest to assist his father in daily 
attendance upon his Royal Highness, and in ordering 
things, as well as circumstances allowed, to lessen the 
inconvenience of such a provisional mode of life to the 
honoured guest. Prince Lowenstein remained the only 
inmate of the house — being Counsellor of Legation. Ex- 
tracts from letters, written during the period following 
this event, will furnish a slight sketch of the external 
circumstances at a time of great commotion and excite- 
ment, almost to distraction, in Bunsen's life; — a time 
memorable in tlie annals of Prussia by the close and 
appreciating study which the heir presumptive to her 
CroAVTi applied to the working of the British Consti- 

The dignity, the manly cheerfulness, the gracious 
kindness, the constant regard for others' convenience, 


CHAP. One longs to perceive in what manner a bridge can k 
^^^^' constructed for his return home. He expresses much con- 
cern and scruple about the trouble he occasions ; but now ths 
arrangement has been made possible, it is infinitely pre- 
ferable that he should be here, where we can watch ovar 
everything and know what is wanted, rather than his ban, 
to hire a place of abode ; and it is also much fitter for Im, 
to stay here than anywhere else. I have had a walk in flt 
park, while Ernest attended on the Prince at his lunehooivi 
The Prince reminds me much of his father the late King, il 
the expression of truth and kindliness in his &ce. 

. . . We have had our prospect again for the last week— 
the park and the Abbey becoming visible after three months' 

Contemporary Notice. 

Carlton Terrace : dOth March, ld4& 

I have been glad of the comparative quiet of this day, i8| 
Bunsen being compelled to stay in bed, I sat in the room t8 
defend it as well as I could from invasion of business. The 
doctor came early, and enforced his lying still — and indeed 
he is not fit to do anything else. The whole of the last montk 
I have expected his having an illness, for it was not possifah 
to live on beyond a given time without suflFering, in that con- \ 
tinual ferment of news, and talking, and vrriting. 

The Prince breakfasted again with us in the morning, but 
our presence was not necessary at his luncheon, to which Mr. 
Barry was invited, as well as to show the Prince afterwaidl 
over the New Palace at Westminster. I feel truly sorry fcr 
him ; for opinions, right or wrong, that have been held, and 
honestly held, during life, cannot suddenly veer round to the 
opposite point of the compass, just in proportion as they are 
honest. This would be my own case if I were he. He beare 
up, with dignity and feeling, but in a manly manner, agamit 
the daily shocks of newspaper intelligence. But I wondor 
that some persons should at once leap to the anticipation rf 
the Royal Family emigrating ! Tliere never has been aa 
idea of the Princess of Prussia or her son coming here ; and 
I am sure they will not stir from their residence at Potsdam* 


CHAP. Naumburg, without awaiting the end of his rheumatic fevei 

XIII .... 

' so stiflFened in his limbs as to need being helped like a ehil^ 
Not till all had departed could I go and welcome him, an 
was shocked at the sight. He had received most benevolen 
help from a Danish gentleman, with whom he crossed ove 
the sea, and who saw him safe into the conveyance whicl 
brought him from the steamer. This proved to be a we] 
known political writer, against whom Bunsen had been hoxim 
in duty to defend his King and the acts of Prussia in m 
mild manner. No one was ever more incapable than Bunsei 
of blending personal with political animosity ; and assured!; 
in the case of the political antagcmist in question (as a man 
entirely unknown to him) no such feelings existed. But it 
was with one of the many pangs attending this period of 
political feud that Bunsen had to discover in the kind and 
helpful fellow-traveller of his invalid son, to whose truly 
Danish good nature he paid a heartfelt tribute of gratitude, 
the keen opponent whom he had keenly met in the battle- 
field of opinion.* 

Contemporary Notice, 

Carlton Terrace : 10th April, 184a 

I had a walk before breakfast with T round the park 

this beautiful day, which, God grant, may close tmstainel 
with bloodshed ! Nothing was to be remarked but a fe^ 
more policemen and not so many passers-by as usual. At 
breakfast, the Prince's aides-de-camp expressed surprise 
that I should have ventured out. I declared the impossi- 
bility on my part of believing that any disturbance would 
take place. On Saturday evening we had all been at Lady 
Palmerston's, when Bunsen approached the Duke of Welling- 
ton, saying, ^ Your Grace will take us all in charge, and 
London too, on Monday, the 10th? ' (This day being that of 
the expected Chartist disturbance, on the occasion of pre- 
senting to Parliament the monster petition.) The Dnte 
answered, ^ Yes, we have taken our measures ; but not a 
soldier nor a piece of artillery shall you see, unless in actnJ 
need. Should the force of law — the mounted or unmounted 
police — be overpowered or in danger, then the troops shall 
advance — then is their time. But it is not fair on either 

• The Danish gentleman's name was Urla Lehmann. 


CTf.AP. Sheriff might enter as an intermediate authority. The ib- 
/^^^- stitution might, in my opinion, be of great use, more espedillj 
for Ireland, if managed with prudence. 

CoivteiYvporary Notice. '*^ 

Monday moming: 17th April, 181& 

Our dinner-party went off well, I think. Lord John mi 
very lively — so happy in his wife's safety. The Prince ii 
going to Osborne to-morrow, to stay till Thursday, Bonflei 
with him. I am glad he should have the sea air — and being 
with Prince Albert and the Queen always is a refreshment 
to him. The sympathy and interest with which they recdie 
and encourage all his outpourings is as remarkable in itsdf 
as it is rare ; and his consciousness of the insight and judg- 
ment of Prince Albert grows in proportion as he becomw 
better acquainted with his manner of thinking on varioa 

Conte^nporary Notice, 

Monday morning : 30th April ; Totteridge. ' 

How we have enjoyed being here since Saturday afternoon 
I cannot describe. We were out for hours after retaining 
from church, sitting and sauntering and reading in the 
charming garden, and in the finest weather. ... I am glad 
to have waked early this moming, thus being enabled to 
wi'ite ; for as soon as we have breakfasted, I must drive to 
town directly, and plunge into the turmoil — going to the 
Queen's Ball in the evening. 

Pray read the ' Nemesis of Faith.' I have not for a long 
time been so occupied with a book ; but I wish no young 
person to read it, and have kept it out of sight wliile I hud 
it in hand — only E. looked at it on the way from the circu- 
lating library, and was greatly shocked, which impression 
I wish her to retain, and not to make the allowances for 
the unhappy writer that I can. It is impossible not to fed 
that he writes his own experience in sentiment and opinion, 
though not in outward events. 

Totieridije : 2nd May, — Yesterday, after disposing of much, 
lousiness, we were surx)ri8ed by the appearance of Ernest 
and his father. Count P(jurtales, and Harry Aniim (nephew 
of our ti-iends sent over as courier), who came to stay all 


CHAP. Bunsen to Henry Reeve^ Esq. {On the Draft of a CofntiMm 
^^^' for the German Confederacy.) 


Saturday morning : 0th May, 1848, half-past fleven o'do^ 

With heart and mind thus prepared, jou have taken ilie 
Draft and its great object into consideration ; joa haye con- 
ceived both in their relative import to the world's histoij; 
you render justice to both, — and yet you have not attained 
to a belief in our future. 

What is with you essentially opposed to this is jm 
rigorously conservative view as to the origin of the present 
Constitutional movement. You say poetically, * The trul^ 
animating principle comes from above — the shades of Endor 
rise out of the abyss.' 

Let me follow up this idea, in order to convince you that 
our struggle for freedom has rightly originated — that is fion 
the Spirit — desceiidit cwh. Was not its beginning indeed 
from above ? in the minds of the great thinkers, who, ftm. 
Lessing and Kant down to Schelling and Hegel, have, in 
conflict with the materialism of the past century and the 
mechanism of the present, proved both the reality and 
essentiality of reason, and the independence and freedom of 
moral consciousness, and have thereby roused the nation to 
enthusiasm for the ideal of true liberty ? And did not poetry 
and the fine arts take the same way ? What is the signifi- 
cation of Giithe in the world's history, if not that he had 
a clear intuition of those truths, and the art of giving them 
due utterance? Wherein consists the indestructible cham 
of Schiller's poetry, but that he has sung as hymns to the 
supernal, preternatural, those deductions of philosophy? 

Now to proceed to the time of our deepest depression, and 
of our highest elevation, — from 1807 to 1813. That which 
now wauhl and should and must enter into life, was then 
generated, in the midst of woe and misery, in blood and in 
prayer, — but also in belief in that ideal, to the true recognition 
and realising of which, the feeling of an existing fatherland 
and of popular freedom is indispensable. Truly prophetical 
(as the truth must always be) are the words of Schenkendorf 
in 1813, 'Freiheit, die ich meine,' &c., and * Wie mir deine 
Freuden winken,' &c. And also Amdt with his grand 
rhapsody, ' Was ist des Deutschen Vaterland ? ' and Komer 8 


CHAP, amid the raging of nations, the yain fears and imaginations 
XIIL of Princes, the scorn and mistrust of France and of England, 
of actual insurrection, and latent anarchy. 

Descendit ccelo. — Our Draft of a Constitution, the firstfroit 
of German political energy, is not a ^ Declaration des Droits 
de I'Homme,' it is not one of the numerous transcripte 
of the parchment Magna Charta upon continental blotting- 
paper — it is not the aping of the American or even of the Bel- 
gian Constitution ; it is as peculiar as the nation to which it 
offers a form. A nation 1 rather, many nations : — ^no nation, 
and yet a nation ! and, so may it please the Almighty, a great 
and a free nation ! not one of yesterday, but of a thousand 
years of fame and of suffering. I cannot claim from you the 
enthusiasm I feel for the work which is the weighty subject- 
matter of the Draft in question : but I crave belief in it from 
you, for the very same reason that you, the true disciple of 
Burke, demand confidence in your own political faith. 

I am ready to give up to you the Committee of Fifty, and 
the seventeen ^men of trust,^ and the entire Diet: but thougli 
the Fifty, and both assemblies of Seventeen were blown to 
the winds like the free corps of Herwig and Hocker, yet the 
rock around which they collected will remain, — that is, Ger- 
many and the German people, even though humbled and torn, 
in pieces for a thousand years, to many a mockery, to all an. 
enigma ! 

Bunsen to Baron Stochnar* 

15th May, 1848. 

. . . Pray let the utterances of Peel and of the others be 
read to you. The Prince does all that is possible to help tie 
German cause : but no one has faith in it. 

Contemporary Notice, 

Totteridge : 15th May, 1848. 
. . . The Drawing Boom of last week was entertaining — 
the number of new presentations was great, and there were 
many very pretty faces : the eflfect of dress was all the worse 
for the command that, with due regard to the general dis- 
tress, only English manufactures should be worn — ^the time 
not having been sufficient for preparing or ordering on pur- 



I I 







^lll ' Bunsen to Usedom, 

'^ [Translation.] 

London : 17th May, 184a 

. . . Peel said to me three weeks ago : — * Let not Germanj 
attempt to speak a word in European politics for six weeb 
— not till you are constituted. You speak in the feeling of 
a fiiture in which we do not believe.* 

Thus, we must with honour, but quickly, close the Schles- 
wig affair : — ^that is, here on this spot, by means of a protocol, 
conclude an armistice. 

Contemporary Notice, 

Carlton Terrace : Wednesday, Slst May, 1848. 

. . . The amount of flurry and fatigue of Saturday, the 
27th, almost passes description; as, after the long Drawing 
Eoom, I had hardly taken off train and head dress, when 1 
found that I must drive to the Biding-house in Hyde Park to 
see the arrangements for the German Hospital Bazaar, and 
decide in what part I and mine were to set up our stall I 
came home and dined, and worked all the evening with my 
daughters, at making out lists and prices. To bed late, in- 
tending to drive off at seven to Totteridge for refreshment 
and quiet on Sunday morning ; but as I was rising at six, 
Bunsen woke me, and informed me that the courier, who had 
arrived late the night before, had decided the Prince to start 
immediately. Therefore I remained over breakfotst time to 
take leave. The Prince spoke most kindly and touchingly— 
* thanking for kindness received' — and sajing that ' in no 
other place or country could he have passed so well the period 
of distress and anxiety which he had gone through, as here, 
having so much to interest and occupy his mind both in tiltf 
country and in the nation.' This was my share of the ever 
memorable farewell. Then I and F. drove to Totteridge; fto® 
that time to Monday we did nothing but enjoy the glorious 
weather in the garden. After witnessing the departure of the 
Prince of Prussia, Bimsen came here late on Sunday night, the 
28th, and on Monday took his share with us of the luxury oi 
sun and air, and rest and quiet, after walking with me in th( 
morning (a rare treat — to go out in the very glory and per 
lection of the day, and such a day !) to High Wood, to fetcl 
Lady Raffles. We sat on the dry turf, under the shadow o 


CHAP, among others. Sir Bobert and Lady Inglis. The park and 
^™' country are said to be interesting, not far from the New 

Bunsen was with ns at Totteridge &om Saturday to Monday, 
when he retnmed to town, Ernest and Elizabeth being there 
for him to have recourse to in any interral of business. He 
enjoys highly this Totteridge garden ; pacing up and dofwn 
on the turf, and writing in the fine large room which he I188 
for a study, and of which in his absence we make a drawing 
academy — many good casts belonging to the house being 
arranged on a long table. 

Monday morning^ 2l8t June. — On Friday, the 18th, Bonsen 
and I dined at the Queen Dowager's, and it was an agree- 
able party. Lord Clarendon keeping up an animated conTe^ 
sation, stimulated by questions from the Grand Duke of 
Weimar, the same that came to visit us at Palazzo Caffiuelfi 
in 1835 ; he is now here with his young wife, a daughter rf 
the King of Holland, a lively clever person, with a most rojal 
power of locomotion and enjoyment, dancing late, up eariy, 
for the British Museum and other sights, and aU day out. In 
answer to a question from the Queen Dowager, Lord Clarendon 
expressed himself as anything but cheerful in the prospect of 
his impending Viceroyalty in Ireland : things were in a bad 
state now, he said, and he could not expect much alteration 
for the better for a long time ; important changes, difficult of 
accomplishment, must be and would be made ; but content- 
ment and satisfaction would hardly follow, as they should in 

Bunsen to Mrs. Waddmgion. 

Carlton Terrace : let July, 1848. 

My dear Mother, — I should long since have written to 
give you a sign of life, from the midst of this Second DelugC) 
if I had not believed you had intelligence sufficient to con- 
vince you that we were still above water. But on the morn- 
ing of this anniversary, I must address a line to her, whose 
dear, kind image is always before me on the recurrence of 
that blessed day which made your Fanny mine, without 
• tearing her away from your heart. Who would not be thank- 
ful ? — and I hope I feel so more than ever in this fateful 
year. In the midst of the crushing of thrones, administra- 


tions, and fiEiYOuriteSy in Germany, in the abeyance of all CHAP, 
authority, in the birth-pangs of a nation of forty-five millions, ^^^ 
I not only have not been crushed, but I have received proofs 
of confideiftje more than ever, not only jfrom successive 
Governments in my own country, but also from the nation at 
lai^. If I am thankful for all this, I am still more so for 
being conscious of perfect tranquillity of mind (which is 
Grod's own gift), in looking to the future for myself and all 
mine, and for my dear country. It is not the tranquillity of 
apathy, but of conviction that all will be right in the end, in 
Germany, because country and nation are sound in heart, 
bnt only in the end. 

My beloved King is in the position of one who, not hav- 
ing acted at his own time and opportunity, when present, 
now is obliged to see the nation act for him. . . . With 
all the fiicts that support my hopes, it is too possible that 
as long as I live, I may not see the great work of regene- 
lation complete : but at least I have seen its beginning, such 
as I looked forward to with all the friends of my youth, and 
with all my honoured elders — Stein, Niebuhr, Gneisenau, and 
others — ^thirty-four years ago, when it ought to have been 
accomplished, and when it could have been done in peace. 
In this country, the cause I have at heart has to encounter 
two great enemies : first, a commercial jealousy of one united 
Germany ; and secondly, that apathy which is the offspring 
of egotism and the parent of ignorance. I have unspeakable 
satisfaction in saying this openly, when I hear radotage 
about Germany. . . . The English press has done but 
too much to make the name of England an object of hatred. 
Fortunately, it must be the interest of both countries to stand 
well together ; and we can dispense with English sympa- 
thies. As to myself, although all delusions have been des- 
troyed as to the politics of England, I shall never cease to be 
attached to it, and never forget the kindness I have received, 
and am receiving, from so many persons in this country, or 
cease to be grateful for the practical understanding of life 
which I owe entirely to my stay in it ; and the blessings, 
I above all, which through my connection with an English 
J family, through your and Fanny's kindness and affection, 
: bave become my portion ! 
\ And so I end as I began, with the assurance of being 


CHAP, your truly gratefiil and attached son, of thirty-one yearf 
'^™^- standing, BuKSEV. 

To the 8wme. 

Carlton Terrace : 4th July, 184& 

My heart is too mnch moved by one of the kindest and 
most loving letters I ever was blessed -with, not to yield to 
the impulse of responding to it immediately, hoping, hoir- 
ever, that you will never think of sending me any answer 
except from time to time the single words, * My dear son,* 
* Your affectionate mother.' How these words penetrate to 
the inmost of my heart ! I was afraid of having worried 
you with details of opinion, but I wrote what was uppermost 
in my mind, hoping on that account to be forgiven. Hoir 
kind in you to take so encouraging an interest in all I hate 
communicated to you ! . . • 

After the election of the Archduke John as Eegent, the 
seventeen Plenipotentiaries of all the German Powers (form- 
ing the Diet, hitherto constituting the Federal Grovermnent), 
agreed upon a congratulatory letter to the Archduke, in 
which they inform him that they had been all beforeliond 
instructed * to express the cordial consent of their respectite 
Governments.' People here cannot understand this; they 
say, * Why consent to be mediatised ? ' not conceiving that 
to do so is the saving of all of them. Baron Hiigel ha8 
already been recalled to Baden ; in Wiirtemberg, the Par- 
liament has insisted upon the giving up at once the preten- 
sion of keeping up diplomatic representation ; Baron Beust, 
from Saxony, is in the same position ; Baron de Cetto ex- 
pects his recall from Munich ; and Count Dietrichstein has 
sent in his resignation. 

I send for your kind acceptance a copy of my * Egypt,' 
in English, out of which your daughter, when she arrives, 
will read to you some passages containing thoughts which 
may interest you. . . . 

Contemporary Notice, 

Carlton Terrace : Saturday, 8th July, 1848. 

I must give some account of the multitude of impressions 
received in these days of bustle, which form such a contrast 
with the life of Totteridge, unwillingly left on Tuesday. Or 


CHAP, animation, of her bodily movements, and of her voice, taken 
XIU. together, all seem the result of one impulse. No essential 
beauty, and yet the result of grace and unceasing suitable- 
ness, making the whole appearance beautiful ; accounted for 
by the mind, whose softness harmonised the whole ! But 
all words are flat that would describe such an union of 
exquisite, highly-finished representation of feeling, with the 
most perfect modesty, chastity of deportment; one must 
rather try by negations to separate the idea of her fix>m 
that of any actress ever seen; she has not a single gesture or 
posture of the common stage sort, and the flow of action is as 
original as the flow of her voice. The long-sustained, ever- 
varied, piano passages, in which the softest, lowest tone was 
as distinct as the sharpest and loudest ; the long-continued, 
rich, subdued, sotto-voce shake, followed by a swelling note, 
without any appearance of taking breath — ^in short, the whole 
of her singing was ^on^, without any admixture or imitation 
of an instrument. I should think her's the perfection of the 
* voce di petto,' almost without recurrence to falsetto. Her 
walking in sleep, gliding like a ghost, scarcely seeming to 
lifb a foot, moving along a high beam over a mill-wheel, and 
descending a steep — sinking on her knees, rising again, — all 
forming the most complete contrast to her light, elastic, 
lively motions when awake, showed the same extraordinary 
command over powers of body, as her ' Sonnambula' singing 
over her voice. One never heard singing from a sleep-walker, 
but one feels her unearthly tone to be a just representation 
of it. After this inexpressible enjoyment, we stayed on, oi 
being once therey to see the ballet, graced by the celebrated 
names, Eosati, Marie Taglioni, and Cerito. I know not which 
was which, but one was beautiful — all were wonderful. The 
style is quite different from what I used to see in girlish days; 
all is naw slow and soft, not springing and twisting and 
flying. The body and arms most graceful ; the rest sinning 
as much against lines of beauty as against rules of decency. 
It is a disgrace to a civilised country, that pleasure can be 
taken in such a spectacle. The Greeks would have turned^ 
away in disgust from such ugliness in positions, althougfai- 
they would have allowed of exposure yet more complete. 


xuj ' Btinsen to his Wife. {After receiving a call to Berlin.) 

— [Translation.] 

25th Jdr, 184a 

. . . Beust writes to Kielmansegge, that the post is to be 
offered to me, which Kamphausen has refused — ^that of Hmu- 
ter of Foreign Affairs for the Grerman Empire. Who knowi 
whether there be any truth in this P 

Whoever now accepts the post will leap into the abjM 
of Curtius. It may be a duty so to do ; but, oh ! not firait- 
lessly. • . • 

Bunsen to his Wife. 


Cologne : Sunday morning:, half-past six ; 30th Julj, 18IS. 

Here I am, sitting with my three sons, the glorious beDs 
of the Cathedral ringing in the Thanksgiving for Grermaay's 
ReichsverweseVy or Administrator of the Empire (the Ca- 
thedral itself is to be ready for opening on August 14, 1848, 
the first time since August 14, 1248) ; all soldiers with the 
citizens going about in their gold, black, and red cockades. 

When I alighted here, I saw Greorge with Helmentag. He 
brought me a message from the old Oracle — ^Accept. I have 
declared that I will accept the Premiership, if you take the 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs/ Thile writes the same. But at 
Berlin they are not at all desirous I should. 

Here all is German. I saw ]tfevissen last nigrht— tlie 
Liberal deputy — with mutual satisfaction. (Jermany for 
ever ! I would rather die for my noble country than Uve for 
anj^hiiig else ! What a difference ! I at Cologne in 1887, 
and now in 1848 ! I am quite fresh. Hollweg I met at 

Contemporary Letter, 

30th July, 184a 

, . . After you had departed on Friday evening, Lord 
Ashley came in, direct from the chair of a meeting about the 
Ragged Schools. Nine young people, seven boys and two 
girls, who had distinguished themselves by good conduct, 
were to embark for Australia next day, and Lord Ashley was 
going to Deptford to see them off. He believes that serious 
measures will be taken to help off the young generation of 
these helpless ones to another soil. The night before, he 


had been at the meeting which the 270 thieves had entreated CHAP, 
him to give them : he and Jackson, the distinguished City ^™^' 
Missionary, and the thieves constituted the assembly. The 
unhappy men were quiet, respectful, and thankful, — commu- 
nicating particulars of their wretchedness, representing that 
they would do any work, submit to any labour, — but that, with- 
out character as they were, no possibility existed for them of 
access to the overstocked labour-market. Lord Ashley pro- 
mised them another meeting, after he should have had an 
interval in which to consider and consult as to a plan for 
helping them. The greater part were individually known to 
Jackson — he had talked to them, read to them ; but it was not 
Ids suggestion that they should apply to Lord Ashley — ^they 
thought of it, and consulted him on the subject. When this 
communication was finished with reference to the criminal 
population of London, and their miseries. Dr. Sieveking stated 
that he knew of a sphere of wretchedness yet more affecting — 
that of industrious, respectable tradespeople and mechanics, 
peoplewho had never begged, or committed any offence against 
society, who yet knew not which way to turn for employment 
and means of subsistence. He had a district in the parish of 
Si Pancras — where it would seem that much was done for 
the poor ; but the families whom he attended as a physician 
had more need of nourishment than of medicine : and the 
distress was not to be described of seeing want and privation 
which had not been incurred by any misconduct. 

Alas ! for the state of the world ! May it please God to 
move the hearts and enlighten the understandings of all 
classes and individuals, so circumstanced as to be capable of 
lipplying the remedies needed, — and thus renew the face of 
the earth ! 

This passage, like many other 'contemporaiy notices,' 
is inserted to mark some images in surrounding scenes, 
through which the track of Bunsen's life was laid, which 
excited in him intense interest and sympathy, but as to 
^any of which no written words of his own are to be 
found. With respect to the conditions of misery here 
ii^dicated, mtich was done in alleviation : and the many 
pt^yers which accompanied the eflForts of Christian 


CHAP, charity, in well-conceived and zealously-effected plans, 

L have been heard and answered — even though ' the poor 

cease not from the land,' and, wherever man is found, 
evil of every kind remains to be striven against. 

Letter to Archdeacon Hare, 

2nd August) 184& 

Deab Friend, — Bunsen charged me, on the morning of Ui 
last day at home, to write and express his regret not to im 
had time to take leave of you, and explain the circamstanoee 
attending his departure. 

A letter arrived on Tuesday, the 25th July, to signify offi- 
cially the commands of the King, that Bunsen should come 
immediately to Berlin, * for a few days' consultation,' — at the 
same time letters from more quarters than one, and pnUk 
report even in newspapers, declared the intention to be to 
offer him the Ministry of Foreign Affairs for the * German 
Empire.' Still, of this nothing has been communicated offi- 
cially. I shall not attempt to describe the complication of 
feelings called forth by the suspense of the crisis, nor how I 
dread his being dragged into the Maelstrom. I can only beir 
witness to hi-^ determination not to accept any apparent dig- 
nity, without the power essential to usefulness, and suitable 
instruments, should be granted with it : and he continued of 
opinion that he was more likely to be able to serve his coon- 
try at his post in England than anywhere else. He waa ex- 
pected at Berlin on the 26th, the day when the Archduke 
John was to be there, — the meeting of course was impossible, 
as the summons reached him only the day before. 

The Queen and Prince Albert desired to have seen him at 
Osborne House before his departure, but he did not feel at 
liberty to delay another day. He lost no more time in setting 
out than could be avoided, but he had promised to be present 
at the German dinner in celebration of the appointment of 
the Archduke, as Reichsvenvesery and in honour of German 
unity, which took place on Thiu^day, the 27th July. Bunsen 
embarked on Friday night, the 28th. 

The renewal of hostilities in Schleswig will prove Bunsen 
to be right, in a way he will deeply regret. After he hai 
been authorised to treat through the mediation of England 


(which his own personal weight with the Ministry here was cHAP. 
chiefly instrumental in obtaining, for they frowned on the ^m. 
whole concern, and were not willing to have anything to do 
with it), and when, through that powerful mediation, favour- 
able and possible terms were made out, to establish the prin- 
ciple upon which preliminaries of peace might have rested, 
Bunsen refusing to consent to an armistice till that should 
be settled, — suddenly did the Government at Berlin, as if 
forgetting what had been authorised to be transacted in 
London, arrange an armistice, without settling prelimina- 
ries ; thus causing the withdrawal of England's mediation. 

Bunsen to his Wife, 


Berlin : Thursday, 3rd August, 1848, 

This day (as the papers mention the Frankfort offer) I 
liave delivered to the Minister von Auerswald my written 
declaration : — * That, in the present condition of conflict be- 
tween Berlin and Frankfort, I should never think of separat- 
ing my fate from that of Prussia ; whether or not an offer to 
that effect should ever be made to me/ 

I saw the beloved King yesterday, and passed four im- 
portant hours with him, experiencing all his former undis- 
turbed confidence. 

All the rest by word of mouth. 

I shall not return by way of Frankfort. All Prussia is in 
a great state of irritation against Frankfort, as one man. 
The affair was not well managed from the beginning. 

I shall reward myself this evening with Gothe's ' Iphigenia,' 
and Beethoven's ' Adagio,' in the theatre. 

God be with you, and all our precious ones ! 

Bunsen to Stockmar, {At Frankfort.) 

I [Translation.] 

* Berlin: 4th August, 1848. 

6. will have communicated to you the motives which have 
dictated my resolution ; on that subject there will hardly be 
^y difference of opinion between us, for no spring of action 
^^ be suffered to enter into contention with honour and 


I find a conflict existing, apparently not to be reconciled. 

^OL. II. 


CHAP. I must consider Berlin, in seyeral points, to be in the right. 

xni. I perceive the impossibility for Prussia to act otherwise than 
is demanded by the truly spontaneous and natural popular 
feeling ; and how can I tiien be doubtful what I have to do, 
having served Prussia thirty years, having interwoven my 
own interests most closely with its good or ill fortunes, being 
bound to the King by every tie of gratitude and affection "? 
Still T feel the need of opening my heart entirely to you upon 
the thing itself. 

Now, my deeply-honoured friend, for our meeting again in 
London ! I do not intend to go through Frankfort ; it could 
be of no use, and, besides, I believe that as soon as Biilow 
shall have come back with the reply, it would be well for me 
to be in London without loss of time ; things do not stand 
well with us there since the refusal of the ratification. 

Continue to me your affection and friendship, so infinitely 
precious to me ! 

Contemporary Account. 


Berlin : 6th August, 184S. 

... So much for the enduring alterations in Berlin ; as to 
those which regard the population, they cannot easily be de- 
scribed in a few words. Here, where one was accustomed to 
behold in every third person in the street a soldier, the entire 
absence of them is striking and startling — as that of the 
Guards in general society, where they used to give the tone. 
At the theatre the other night, there was not a lieutenant 
nor a dragoon to be seen, to help in applauding the opera 
dancers ! What would such an individual experience could 
he see the civilians, in most neglected attire, and without an 
attempt at deportment, mounting guard at the well-known 
stations ? Here, where one was as much used to hear the 
calling out of guards to salute the passing members of the 
Royal Family, as in England to hear the ringing of bells — 
now to perceive no such sound is very strange. Ajid as to 
the literature of the day, the ancient lime-trees are pasted 
full of all kinds of street literature, and at every comer is a 
board where old women sell the last publications in that 
class ; besides which, hundreds of street boys are for ever 
roaring out the news. Almost every evening large gather- 
ings of the mob take place, ' unter den Linden,' before the 


CHAP, of the rabble of all sorts, and of the boys more parfciciilarly. 
XIII. The spirit of agitation roles the town. 

" I am going to-day to Potsdam, to Humboldt; then to 

Babelsberg, to the Prince of Prussia ; then to Prince Charles ; 
and return here. 

12th August — ^The Frankfort people are in the vrrong. I 
set my conscience and common sense against them all, being 
at the same time their best firiend, and convinced that they 
will repent not having followed my way. Too late, perhaps ! 
but yet I hope the best. 

I hope for peace in Italy, upon the old basis. Verona and 
Mantua forming the frontier : at any rate, a constitutional 
Upper Italy, with national institutions of its own. 

Contemporary Notice, 

Totteridge : Monday, 2l8t August, 1848. 
On Saturday, 10th, Bunsen and Charles landed safely, and 
by seven o'clock made their appearance here, in flourishing 
health and spirits. A happy party, thick on the ground of 
sons, daughters, and grandchildren, as well as Lady Eaffles, 
were ready to receive him. The general impression of what 
he related was satisfactory, but, as little as before, can any- 
thing be stated of probable conjecture as to what is to be, 
publicly or privately. However, Bunsen has been enabled, 
by this most providential journey into Grermany, to see and 
know the state of minds, the bearings and specific gravity 
of individuals, and thereby to form some judgment of what 
he has to do, and how to do it, instead of feeling his way in 
the darkness and vagueness of distance. When he is asked 
the ever-recurring question, *What is to be the future of 
Austria, of Prussia, of Hanover?' — he answers, *No mortal 
man can form an opinion, and the less, the nearer he looks.' 
The expression of Maximilian Von Gagem alone denotes the 
state — ' Ce sent tous des chiffres mal groupes.' With the 
King he had the most confidential communications, and was 
treated with the same affection as ever ; but they meet in 
closest collision, like circles that touch each other at one 
point, and fly off in separate directions for the remainder of 
the circumference — that is, in principles and opinions. 


CHAP, zum LebmJ* The jerSmiade extends to Frankfort, wluch he 
^^' believes only to be exulting for a moment, on the verge of 

the yawning gulf of the Red Republic, about to swallow it 

up. But we will hope for better things. 

Bv/asen to Archdeacon Hare. 

4 Carlton Terrace, 9th November, 1848. 

My dear Fbiend, — I have been long silent, but you never 
will have doubted that my soul is continually with you, as I 
know, to my inexpressible comfort, that yours is with me. 
But I suppose, that there was little correspondence in the 
time of the Deluge, at least between those who were aware 
it was a Deluge. I feel that I have entered into a new 
period of life. I have given up all private concerns, all 
studies and researches of my own, and live entirely for the 
present political emergencies of my country, to stand or to 
fall by and with it. Et; olcovhs apurros {IL xii. 243). Saint 
Hector's creed is mine. In this spirit I have written a small 
volume of about fifteen sheets print, — ^Deutschland^s Ver- 
gangenheit tmd ZuhmfV It consists of three parts, as an 
introduction, two chapters — 

Wohin geht Europa ? (whither tends Europe ?) 
Wohin geht Deutschland ? (whither tends Germany ?) 

Then twelve chapters on the past, to prove that the Germans 
have ever been one nation, and that a federal one; and 
explain why their constitution was not completed and per- 
fected before. The last part contains a political analysis of 
the principles according to which the Federal Constitution 
of the United States may be applied to Grermany. Of course 
I agree with Gagem that the German Empire cannot now 
include the Austrian provinces, but that the two Empires, 
Germany proper, sensu strictum, and Austro-Germany, may 
be connected by a compact of eternal peace and unity 
{Bimdesverwcmdt) . 

Bvmsefii to his Wife. [At Totteridge.) 

London : 28th November, 1848. 

I have had an important note firom Lord Palmerston on 
the contention between the (jrovemment of Schleswig-Holstein 


^^^' To Bunsm. 

Totteridge : 8th December, 1846. 

. . . We all lift up hands and eyes in wonder at the 
intelligence received ! May the suspense only not be 
long ! I grudge your being disturbed in the composure 
which you had reconquered. Now I must express the 
heartfelt satisfaction with which I have contemplated the 
effect of the workings of your own mind through a trial very 
irritating to flesh and blood; and witnessed the complete 
conquest you had obtained over feelings most natural and 
allowable. Such a conquest could not fail of its own proper 
reward, in renewed consciousness of the never-failing aid from 
above, which can command a calm in any tempest of human 
affections, if only appealed to in humility and admitted power- 
lessness. But the external reward, and harmless triumph 
in being contended for, I hardly expected so speedily, even 
though events are proceeding now at such railway pace. 

May God bless and guide you, through good and evil re- 
port, through exertions of friends and machinations of ene- 
mies, to the one end of your being ! 

* Tufecisti nos ad Te, et inquietum est cor nostrum^ donee 
requiescat in Te /* 

Bnnsen to his Wife, 

London : Saturday morning, early, 9th December, 1848. 

God be thanked ! the Constitution which the King has 
given {octroy e) is not the old project, but a much-improved 
one ; and has much of that which I desire. I thank you for 
your letter. To have your approbation and agreement in all 
that I do is my highest reward, and therefore my pleasure in 
your expressions has been indescribable. 

Now the news — the Emperor of Austria has abdicated in 
favour of his nephew. 

The King has dissolved the Assembly, dismissed Manteuffel, 
retained Brandenburg as President, and in the other Minis- 
terial posts has placed men of Liberal principles. The Consti- 
tution is octroyee, to be in future discussed. Prussia saved, 
and Germany too ! 


xni. Bunsen to his Wife. {At Totteridge.) 

London : ^vq o'clock, Monday, 18th December, 1848. 

I have received a messenger ; they are greatly disturbed 
and dissatisfied that I should have made conditions, as they 
made none : but declare, in reference to the instructions, all 
things shall be combined after my views, and that no one 
shall be appointed here by my side. 

As HeSh Von Gagem is Prune Minister, tinngs may 
get righted. I send oflF the messenger on Wednesday, and 
come over to you that same evening. Mrs. Rich will come 
next week. 

To Bunsen. {In London.) 

Wednesday night : 20th December, 1848. 

A line, against to-morrow, to utter the anticipation that 
you will stay in town till Saturday. Glad as we should be to 
see you, you could have no peace here in the present crisis : 
and before Saturday surely things must be clearly seen 
through. Gk)d bless you, and compose your spirit ! 

Letter to Bunsen, from Hein/rich Von Oagem. 


Frankfort : 25th December, 1848. 

I feel a real need, while yet the probably short period shall 
last of my being in the Ministry, to enter into personal and 
confidential intercourse with your Excellency. With grati- 
tude I recall the obliging manner in which you greeted me at 
Cologne in the Giirzenich, — that was a greeting which com- 
prised a whole future of friendly relations : and the necessity 
becomes even more pressing for men who have mutually re- 
cognised each other as friends of the common fatherland, to 
draw closer together. 

I have entered the Ministry at a moment in which no other 
man here was within possibility of choice : but yet there re- 
mains the question whether the decision as to my programme 
will turn out favourably for me, — and what, after me, will be 
possible ? All parties are silently agreed to put off till after 
the New Year the discussion of the Ministerial proposal, 
which I enclose. The state of passion is already somewhat 
cooled, and I despair not of success, — I despair not even of 
the determination of a majority to place the King of Prussia 


CHAP, enclose his letter, which met me at Potsdam. As soon as we 

^^l' were closeted, I said to the King, I was sure he could not 

believe I had meant what he at first supposed, by the words 

of my letter. * A kiss,* said the King ; ^ it is all right ' — and 

a hearty kiss was my ^ yes.' 

I reserve aU farther particulars till my return. I feel 
almost certain that I shall depart the 19th or 20th for 
Frankfort, and be with you the first week of February. 
There is nothing now for me to do here. The 22nd February 
may change the face of affairs about Easter. In the mean- 
time — bene vixit^ qui hene latuit, 

I met Count Brandenburg, the Prime Minister, at the 
King's — nothing could be more kind than his reception of 
me : and all he said was in my way of thinking. I must 
make quarantine to-day and to-morrow, to recover the shock 
of this most severe journey. This laying-up is quite a God- 
send, otherwise I should be talking myself to death. Abeken 
keeps me au courant of what passes. Lepsius, Gelzer, Holl- 
weg, Pertz, Gerhard, are talking to me — which is a great 
treat. I do not believe I shall write to you again from 
Berlin, — but Charles will, who is very helpfiil. 

To the Same, 


Frankfort, Hotel de Russie : Saturday, 26th January, 1849. 

... At length I feel my heart to be free to write to you. 
When I am in grief, I am like a horse, enduring in silence : 
and that has been my condition until a week ago, when, 
after two weeks of distress and anxiety, such as I never ex- 
perienced before, the King suddenly conceded all that I had 
been up to that moment craving and supplicating for in vain. 
In three minutes all was concluded, which it had seemed as 
if months, and even revolutions, might be required to efiFect. 
(The details you shall hear when we shall be again united — 
I hope, at the latest, in a fortnight.) As soon as this victory 
was accomplished, I resolved for once to take my fate into 
my own hands : and proposed immediately to go to Frankfort, 
whither at the same time the official Declaration was de- 
spatched. The ostensible reason of my going was * to confer 
in the matter of the Schleswig-Holstein instructions,' — and 
then receive at Berlin the definitive instruction. But I was 


^^^' ToBunsm. {At Berlin.) 

Totteridge: 2l8t January, 1849. 

. . . To-day Mr. and Mrs. Schwabe announced them- 
selves as coming to luncheon or early dinner, and brought 
Mr. and Mrs. Cobden with them, with whom I was much 
pleased. An animated conversation was kept up, and we 
parted with great cordiality — I expressing the wish that they 
would come again when you should be at home— answering 
for your being glad to see them : and they desiring nothing 
better. Cobden's testimony was gratifying, to the King's up- 
rightness and faithfulness in having kept to the letter every 
promise of concession made in the hour of revolution, and not 
having been tempted to equivocate by the consciousness of 
military power and of the return of the tide of popularity. 
As he observed, such truthfulness is rare in the annals of 

Two extracts from a Memoir by Bunsen, on the sub- 
ject of his journey to Berlin and Frankfort in the 
months of January and February 1849, and of subse- 
quent events — finished in June of the same year — 
may be inserted in this place, as an indication of the 
severe sufifering to which his feelings, both as a German 
and as a devoted friend of his King, were exposed 
during those days, and, in fact, almost to the end of his 
days on earth. 

First Extract, 

I departed from Frankfort, February 10th, in joyful thank- 
fulness for the success of my negotiations, for aU the kindness 
I had found, and for the consolation and confirmation of belief, 
which I had obtained as a provision against the awful future, 
in the heart of the German nation. Never had I been pos- 
sessed with a clearer intuition of the fact that Germany is 
one country, and that Germans have the destination, the 
means, the strength, and the courage, to become the first 
-nation of Europe. 

On Sunday morning, 11th February, at half-past seven, I 
was again at Berlin. I wrote directly a report to the King, 
that I might not later have to write one in greater detail. 


CHAP. On the same evening I wrote to Kamphausen, to whom, 
xni. -vvith Vincke and Gugem, I had given the right hand of fel- 
lowship in faithful adherence to the German cause, entreating 
that Berlin be considered the centre of gravity in Grerman 
affairs, and that he and the other Prussian deputies would 
hasten hither to the opening of the Chambers. I wrote also 
to Vincke. I took leave of the King after he rose froxa the 
dinner table ; towards the end he became as affectionate as he 
used to be formerly, and touched no more on painful points. 
He dwelt upon the comfort he had in desperate moments ex- 
perienced in faith and prayer, assuring me that even in the 
night between the 19th and 20th of March the last year, he 
had been wholly without fear or anxiety for his life. 

[The * great misunderstanding ' of the night of the 19th 
March 1848, remains a secret. An aide-de-camp (whose 
name no one knows) brought an order, in the King's name, 
*that the troops should vdthdraw,' instead of which the 
King had commanded *that the troops should withdraw 
towards the Palace.' This enigma nobody coidd or would 
solve to me ; but General N. assured me that at twelve o'clock 
on that night, the King was resolved to retreat out of the 
town with the troops, and to invest it ; — then began a state 
of wavering, until all was too late !] 

I left ihe King with tears, silently and with a heavy heart, 
Wednesday, 14th February. That evening, I was at Lord 
Westmoreland's dinner-party ; having had that morning an 
animated scene with Meyendorf, to whom I communicated 
the main points of the Memorandum. He endeavoured 
to intimidate me. ^ You know that you have never before 
spoken of Norway as an example of the form of federation — 
you have let yourself be talked over to that in Frankfort; but 
that is a state of war ! I am working against you ; my po- 
sition is inimical, &c.' I rejoined, with entire composure, 
' I request you to refrain jfrom that high tone, which makes 
no impression upon me. I could also speak peremptorily, 
but it were better we should confer tranquilly. You know 
well, that I used those same words to you, " the relation of 
Norway to Sweden must form the standard," before my de- 
parture from this place to Frankfoi-t : but, moreover, you must 
know better than I do, that CoTint Nesselrode, in a despatch 
to Budberg, expressed approbation of the ''form of Norway. 

9y > 


^^^^' where they were), even mixing suggestions relative to the 

1 highest politics. Through this channel the Emperor of Bussia 

transmitted menaces to the King, by word of mouth and in 
writing; and thus were formed within the King's inner 
Closet notions, plans, convictions, against which the Ministers 
vainly contended, and secret correspondences, which over- 
ruled politics and ruined diplomacy. Already in 1 848 I had 
discovered traces of this system of by-play, and suffered from 

it ; the malicious letter of Lady to Frau von Meyendorf 

came in this manner to the knowledge of the King ; but now 
I had penetrated further behind the scene, and could see and 
feel the destructive effects of the political agitation ceaselessly 
carried on. Of the Court in general the only positive cha- 
racteristics among many negations, was that of enmity to the 
popular cause. Humboldt's presence was a consolation, as 
well as here and there a man of worth in o£Sce, known to me 
from former times. The hatred of the official body, and of the 
party of nobles, as suchy which had persecuted me now during 
full twenty years, came upon me in yet coarser distinctness 
than ever, as well as their incapacity and the narrowness of 
their views, which the exasperation of 1848 had but more 
strongly brought to view. To Count Brandenburg I was drawn 
by his inartificial kindness, and his manly devotedness to the 
King ; but his entire previous course of action was a censm-e 
upon mine, as mine was upon his. The general impression 
made by countenances all around was that of choking from sup- 
pressed rage. A real statesman was nowhere to be seen ; and 
what could such an one have attempted at Charlottenburg, 
in the present state of things ? The King was resolved to di- 
rect all politics by himself alone, he would have a Dictatorship 
by the side of the Constitution, and yet be considered a liberal 
constitutional Sovereign ; whereas he regarded the constitu- 
tional system to be one of deceit and falsehood. The faithful- 
ness, the discipline, and the bravery of the army, being the ob- 
ject of his just pride, he reckoned upon being able to unloose 
the political knot at last by means of the military ; for his noble 
heart was corroded by habitual exasperation from the event 
of the 19th and 21st March 1848, which was more and more 
transferred to Frankfort. Often did more hberal thoughts 
and feelings emerge from the flood ; but the surrounding in- 
fluences and the secret communications from Olmiitz and 
Munich allowed not of their permanence. 


XIII. Second Extract 

That which I regretted so deeply in Frankfort, that the 
measure I had earnestly recommended before my journey 
thither had not been put in force at the right time — ^namely, 
the exclusion of the Austrian members from the debates 
upon a Constitution which, since the declaration of their go- 
vernment at Kremsier, they could in no wise accept — soon 
revealed itself as the essential occasion of ruin to the work 
which had so far proceeded. The Prussian Governments 
would not advance resolutely and firmly in the direction of the 
23d January ; the directions despatched to Kamphausen were 
good, but received no subsequent support ; the twenty-eight 
Governments acceded, in mere mistrust of Prussia, or were 
induced later, by the delay of Prussia in declaring herself, to 
act upon private and individual views. They decided for the 
second reading, in spite of all opposing considerations : and 
why? because all confidence in Prussia had vanished, and 
fear was in every heart. The representations made were not 
attended to ; and Gagem was under the necessity of yielding 
much to the Left, in order to obtain the passing of any pro- 
position. The position of Kamphausen became a difficult 
one, which difficulty was further aggravated by the appearance 
of the arrogant and inimical declaration of Austria. Some 
members determined to carry the question by storm ; but the 
hereditary imperial dignity (Erhkaiserthum) for Prussia fell 
through. At length the question of chief ruler {Oberhaupt) 
was in all form debated, and but a small majority declared 
for it, as the Austrian members (all but three or four) voted in 
the opposition. 

Up to this time I had not resumed my correspondence with 
the King ; I could not muster spirit to do so. The Prussian 
Chambers began well, but afterwards they did not keep up to 
their first standard. The entrance of Count Amim into the 
Ministry was an indication how entirely the politics of the King 
guided all. Billow became the victim of his own consistency ; 
his resignation was, perhaps, unavoidable, but the choice of 
Count Amim, the man of Mettemich, the man of Cracow, 
would have seemed impossible, save to those who knew that 
the King was his own Minister of Foreign Affairs, and only 
desired a passive instrument, which should be agreeable to 


CHAP, was no mention whatever of the accusation ; but the King en- 

J L tered kindly, and with tolerable composure, into the reasons 

for which he neither couldy nor ought to, act in the matter of 
the Imperial Crown according to m;y counsel. 

At the same time the Circular of the Ministry uj)on the sub- 
ject of the King's decision and reply came to hand ; of which 
I sent a translation to Lord Palmerston, Lord John Bussell, 
and Sir Eobert Peel, and transmitted to the King the highly 
intelligent reply of the latter, in my answer of the 17th of 
April. He expressed himself as * fiilly aware that great ob- 
jections lay against acceptance ; but that refusal might bring 
yet greater dangers, by the delay to be apprehended in accom- 
plishing a final arrangement. The King, however, had given 
a strong proof of an unambitious disposition.' I entered no 
farther into the subject of the King's decision, as that could 
have led to nothing; but argued that nothingfurther remained, 
but, in the spirit of the Constitution, to call a Eevision-Par- 
liament, together with those Grovemnents which were willing 
to unite. Li conclusion, I addressed myself to the King's 
conscience as to his expressions regarding the cause of Schles- 
wig-Holstein, and implored him not to incur blame therein. 

Meanwhile the Congress of Princes was opened, under the 
Presidency of Badowitz. I had always insisted that Radowitz 
would remain faithful to his former professions, and to the sen- 
timents he had expressed on the occasion of the voting for the 
choice of an Emperor ; no one else, however, would believe it ; 
but as for a successful result with the King, I had my doubts 
as well. Those were sad weeks ! Anarchy, civil war, insur- 
rection, on all sides ! But excess of distress brought at last a 
solution, as the Prussian army showed itself to be unbroken, 
while other thrones were shaken or hurled down. The King's 
appeal of the 15th May was a ray of light, which I joyfully 
hailed as such; but the time was gone for words to be effective ! 
The intelligence of the settlement with Hanover and Sax- 
ony arrived on the morning of Whit Sunday (27th May), not 
altogether unexpected by me; for all things indicated that re- 
sult. The first sure intelligence I received was on the day of 
the Queen's Drawing Room on the Slst, fix)m the Hanoverian 
Minister; and I mentioned it to the Queen herself, who, how- 
ever, the next day (1st June, at the concert at Court), ex- 
pressed herself as still incredulous, and full of distressed anti- 


^^^- Court-day observed during seven years), to avoid exciting 

' a supposition of keeping out of sight fix)m diplomatic 

reasons. The present period answered to that of the 
year before which followed the visit of his Royal 
Highness the Prince of Prussia, when Bunsen was also 
seriously indisposed, in a manner now becoming dis- 
tressingly frequent. But activity in official correspon- 
dence, far from having relaxed, seemed rather to in- 
crease in feverish excitement in proportion as the 
grounds of hope of any happy result diminished more 
and more. 

Bv/nsen to one of his Sons on his Confirmation. 


Ist April, 1849. 

Ton have entered into a solemn engagement, not to live 
to yourself, or to follow your own personal selfish will : but 
to take Himy whom the Lord your God and ov/rs has sent as 
the visible image of His perfections — Jesus Christ, — in faith 
and humility, as the pattern of a life of self-devotedness, and, 
if need be, of a willing and courageous death for the cause of 
right and truth. You come now, with full sense of self- 
responsibility into this world, which Grod has opened to all 
who duly improve His gifts, that they may labour to change 
and renew the face of it according to the Divine Ukeness, and 
help to raise to the * glorious Uberty of the children of God ' 
those who bend under the yoke of the necessities of na- 

I send a cornier to Berlin, with the most earnest advice 
and supplication to the King, to accept the oflfer to become 
Head of the Central Power, and thereupon to summon the 
entire Parliament to Frankfort. All things are in the hand 
of God — the hearts of Kings included. But, my heart is 
heavy, and life often weighs upon me with almost crushing 


CHAP, placed, and the moral order of the world imposes : they perish 
^^^- both, — each at odds with self, with God, and with hama:n 
society : only for him there yet remains room for further de- 
velopment. Then the curtain falls — that is right, according 
to artistic rule of composition ; true and necessary according 
to the views of those who hold the faith of the Church of 
England ; and, from a theological point of view, no other 
solution could be expected from the book than that which it 
has given. 

But here the author has disclosed the inward disease, the 
fearful hoUowness, the spiritual death, of the nation's philo- 
sophical and theological forms, with resistless eloquence ; 
and, like the Jews of old, they will exclaim, ^ That man is a 
criminal! stone him!' 

I wish you cotdd let him know how deeply I feel for him, 
without ever having seen him; and how I desire to admonish 
him to accept and endure this fatality, as, in the nature of 
things, he must surely have anticipated it ; and as he has 
pointed out and defended the freedom of the spirit, so must 
he now (and I believe he will) show in himself, and make 
manifest to the world, the courage, active in deed, cheerful in 
power, of that free spirit. 

It is presumptuous to intrude into the fate and mystery of 
life in the case of any man, and more especially of a man so 
remarkable; but the consciousness of community of spirits, of 
knowing, and endeavouring after what is moraUy good, and 
true, and perfect, and of the yearning after every real disciple 
of the inner religion of Christians, impels me to suggest to you 
to tell him from me, that I believe the spasm of his spiritual 
efforts would sooner be calmed, and the solution of the great 
problem would sooner be found, if he were to live for a time 
among us. I mean, by residing for a time in one of the German 
Universities. We Germans have been for 70 years working 
as thinkers, enquirers, poets, seers, also as men of action, to 
pull down the old and to erect the new Zion ; each great 
man with us has contributed his materials towards the sanc- 
tuary, invisible but firmly fixed in German hearts ; the whole 
nation has neglected and sacrificed political, individual exist- 
ence, and common freedom — to pursue in faith the search 
after truth. From us something may be learnt, by every spirit 
of this age. He will experience how truly the divine Plato 


CHAP, the inner man, as Antseus by the embrace of his mother earth. 
XTV. This has been my ruling consciousness since 1841, and to this, 
the closer acquaintance with the Church of England, and with 
the decidedly erroneous direction she has taken since 1843, 
has materially contributed, certainly not less than my critical 
examination of the original sources of Christianity. The 
hierarchical tendency now prevailing is untenable. 

From these words you will abeady gather my dissent from 
the policy of the Eichhom Ministry ; that is, from the present 
mode of carrying out an originally just idea of our piously- 
minded King, who, however, since 1843, has veered as much 
to the right hand as I myself to the left. He is influenced by 
consideration of the destructive energy which he attributes 
to unbelief in positive Christianity, as taught in the Churches, 
to enact limiting ordinances in the domain of conscience. I 
have done my utmost by the strongest statement of objec- 
tions to clear the law of 30th March from the stains which 
render it a mere * Edict of Toleration;' and glad should I 
have been, could I have converted it into a * law establishing 
religious and confessional freedom.' But I could not attain 
my object ; and now the mode of execution is wrong too. 

The wretched spectacle of a wholly lifeless Church, and 
theological system, as well as a clear consciousness of the 
necessary and salutary consequences of critical enquiry, has 
brought me to oppose more strenuously than ever all govern- 
ment of the Church by the State, and to advance by all means 
in my power a purified faith. In my opinion, the King has 
fallen into two essential errors, in spite of my feithfiil and 
persevering warnings : first, His Majesty did not accept the 
saving formulary of Ordination, proposed by the General 
Synod of 1846 ; far less did he introduce into all provinces 
the Synodal system. Then, he has renewed, on the contrary, 
the old system (long since untenable) of consistorial admi- 
nistration, and endeavoured to govern with it. I cannot 
discern how the King should get clear of the consequences of 
these errors as long as he lives. To turn again into the right 
way is, humanly speaking, under given circumstances, im- 
possible. I scarcely need assure you that, for my own part, 
I have long arrived at the conviction that my calling cannot 
be in this direction. 

My * Church of the Future,' and * Ignatius,' have both been 


CHAP, error and confusion ; as incorrect as its opposite, but not a 
^^^' whit more true. 

Schleiermaclier's celebrated passages in arts. 18 and 98 to 
98 are not, to my mind, founded in fact. His reference to 
John iii. 10, for fiovoyevrfs as Christ's own expression, is, to say 
the least, not quite clear. The above-named passages ap- 
peared essential to him for his argument. But that cannot 
make them true for me from the historical point of view. 
And speculatively also they are not, I believe, established. 
I can only agree with Schleiermacher's art. g.g., in so fex 
as the writer separates the necessary basis of belief fix)m the 
two facts there mentioned. 

For this reason, I consider the Schleiermacher school in 
that respect not of a durable bnt a transitory nature. Just 
as little do I perceive help in Hegel, less still in his Tubingen 
followers. Finally, Schelling's last attempts will not bear 
examination, full as they are of splendid flashes of discovery, 
which, however, cannot be denied to Hegel either. 

Thus then it might appear as though enlightening enquiry 
had not yet advanced since the days of Lessing and Kant 
(' iirziehung des MenschengeschlechtB,' and * Religion inner- 
halb der Granzen der reinen Vemtmft ') ; but all that lives 
in me stubbornly resists such a conclusion, though I am con- 
scious of standing on the basis of those two great men. 

The sel/'consciaiisness of Christ must not be assailed. But 
the question is (a question which Schleiermacher too sug- 
gests but discards), whether that self-consciousness could 
otherwise declare itself than within the general conditions of 
humanity, i.e. according to nationality and personality. And 
a second question is this, — whether, in order to believe in 
Him as the Redeemer, we must nevertheless acknowledge that 
for that self-consciousness it was indispensable to be uttered 
as of a prototype i.e. self-beginning (selhstanfdnglich), for 
otherwise, Christ cannot be considered as First Cause ? 

The Father alone is free from the limitations of the tempo- 
rary and transitory. The Son ^ was in the form of a servant,' 
as long as His appearance on earth lasted. But is it less 
Divine, to reveal the essential nature of God, in the purest, 
most universally intelligible form of human'reality, than in 
a (supposed) supernatural mode of appearance ? That which 
under the one supposition is attributed to the appearance. 


9^^ birth, however, is slow and difficult. Christ must and will 

L become living flesh and blood nationally, as He did humanly 

— as He is becoming in the community of believers. Univer- 
sal priesthood, instead of the former exclusive order ; works 
of love, instead of professions of faith ; belief in God with- 
in us, (i.e. Christ) with such awe and humility, as can 
alone preserve Him to our souls ; — that is the Religion and 
Church of the future. All besides must fall, and is already 
spiritually annihilated. The Bible remains as the consecrated 
centre of the world's history, from the standing-point of the 
individual consciousness of God. 

In England everything, except the moral principle in the 
form of the fear of God, is deathlike. Thought itself is crudely 
rationalistic ; public worship in general lifeless ; the vivifying 
spirit startles like a spectre. The fall may be terrific, like 
that of ancient Etome ; — see my * Egypt,' vol. i., the chapter 
on the Learning of the Bomans. 

With us, the theological reaction will pass away like the 
political, and the anti-theological revolution like her daugh- 
ter the Red Republic. We are still the chosen people of God, 
the Christian Hellenes. I live my intellectual life in my na- 
tive country. 

Occasional Memoranda^ in Bunsen^s handwriting. 


Julv, 1849. 

. . . Meanwhile, English conditions and the politics of Great 
Britain did not give me much occupation. Ireland alone re- 
minded the English that they had a point of mortality. All 
that is false, corrupt, decaying, decrepid, overdone in their 
whole social system, they feel but as something artificial, con- 
fused, inconvenient, without such a sense of inherent evil as 

should rouse them to a thorough change To speak 

with the English on foreign politics, is only worth while on 
the Roman question. All were agreed that Prance has 
cheated not only England, Austria, Naples, the Pope, and the 
Romans, but also herself. On the subject of Grermany the 
Tories were inimical, the Whigs apatlietic, the Radicals alone 
reasonable. Only with Peel could I speak on the subject 
quite openly and with confidence. 


CHAP, merston, I represented to him the thing bs credible, saying, 
XIV. i That is the result of your policy — ^you would not have a 
German Federal State, and thus you drive us to throw our- 
selves into the arms of Austria, therefore into those of Russia; 
an Empire of seventy millions will, at least, suffice to com- 
mand consideration for us, and the rest will come of itselfl 
To myself, of course, this turn of things is very painful, for 
if the project of a Union does not succeed, there will be end- 
less confusion and internal conflicts, while, if it succeeds, you 
and France will turn your enmity against us, as the world's 
chief anarchy; in either case, Germany loses her proper 
national course of politics — ^that of a solely defensive Federal 
State, to which her nature, language, and history have long 
been preparing her. But the re-establishment of the old con- 
nection of States is impossible ; and, equally so, the subsis- 
tence of the several Gterman States in single independence : 
wherefore nothing remains to us (as the world has conspired 
against the (Jerman Federal State) but fusion with Austria. 
See what will come of this ! Officially I know nothing, but I 
believe in the thing as announced by the newspapers. We 
may be obliged to guarantee to Austria all her possessions, 
inclusive of Lombardy and Venice, and of course of Hungary.' 
Palmerston endeavoured first to treat the matter as absm-d 
and impossible, but I would not allow him thus to dismiss it, 
and at last he said, * Well, the tendency towards a German 
Union was laudable, only it appeared merely good as a play- 
thing ; could it be realised, it would be beneficial, and it 
would entirely suit the policy of this country. But the plan 
to erect such a monster of an Empire is another thing. That 
would be a public nuisance. And what a policy for Germany 
to guarantee to Austria the possession of Italy ! It would 
produce a hostile position of England and France against it, 
— it would be a renewal of the Holy Alliance, only in a more 
practical and formidable form. That is impossible.' I 
requested that he would keep in mind what I had told him. 

That same Friday afternoon, 20th July, I took opportunity, 
when Drouyn de L'Huys paid me his visit on assuming his 
post, to'^tate to him academicamente the whole matter. He 
apprehended quickly all that I detailed, and gave me in 
return his concise and correct French formulary at once : — 

' Le r^tablissement de Tancienne confederation est impos- 


CHAP, it not be a matter of indiflFerence to me, that whether on this 
^ or that side of the sea, my convictions should be read ? It is 
long since my ships have all been burnt, and that I have given 
counsel to friend and foe, without consideration of conse- 
quences to myself ! I shall maintain my post here, as long 
as I can, as a fortress of freedom ; but I shall not withhold a 
word of warning, in order to keep off the attacks that menace 
me, nor shall I go forth to meet them. 

All that I long after is beyond these trammels ; — leisure for 
reflection on the Divine which subsists in things human ; and 
for writing, if God enables me to do so. I live as one lamed ; 
the pinions that might have furthered my progress are bound, 
yet not broken. 

Sir James Stephen is to become Professor of Modem His- 
tory at Cambridge. He intends to lecture upon French His- 
tory, and therewith to connect the general history of European 
civilisation. I observed to Prince Albert, that Stephen pro- 
bably came to this determination from the desire to make 
Guizot's work on the civilisation of France and of Europe a 
foundation for his lectures ; but that purpose was ill judged, 
for the great epochs in art and science in the modem world 
belong to the Italians and the Germans, and not to the French. 
Yet much may be said for Guizot's opinion, that the French 
have exercised so powerful an influence over the world ; they 
form the medium between the practical English and the theo- 
retical German. They have always best understood how to 
coin the gold of intelligence and bring it into circulation. 
But their influence is diminishing. 

The important thing would be, that Stephen should make 
of the Professorship of History a life-calling ; that he should 
live at Cambridge, and unceasingly labour to influence the 
cultivation of mind in the youth of the University, by a well 
carried out course of historical instruction, not only by aphor- 
istic, dilettante lectures — although even such will constitute 
a step in advance. Stephen is said to be Evangelical in prin- 
ciple, but not fanatical or narrow-minded, as is proved by his 
articles on Wilberforce and Hannah More. 

The Prince observed, when I had stated to him the theory 
of Guizot as to the relative position of the three nationalities 
to each other and to the world, that the danger of the French 
was in licentiousness; the Englishman's besetting sin was 


CHAP, he will be eight years old in November. I called his atten- 
• tion to the eagerness with which all the inhabitants crowded 
ronnd to behold the Queen, because she was so good, and 
therefore beloved. Both by the Queen and the Prince, 
Stockmar is beloved as a friend, and honoured as a great 

I communicated to the Prince my apprehensions that the 
question of Mosquitia and of the possession of S. Juan de Nica- 
ragua might cause war between England and the United Sates. 
If England will maintain her theory as to the existence of 
Mosquitia as a State, she ought to do more than has yet been 
done towards enabling the imcivilised inhabitants to become 
a nation, by attracting colonists, and forming establishments 
for instruction. The Prince possesses a memoir by one of 
Sir B. PeePs sons, who had been rowing up the river S. 
Juan de Nicaragua in a boat without serious difficulty, in 
spite of the Falls ; where such exist, a canal must be contrived. 
The upper lake (of Leon) is magnificent in scenery. 

From a Contemporary Letter. 

Mr. Adderley's, Hams House : lOth September, 1849. 

On Thursday, the 13th, we were taken over to Birmingham, 
and between seeing the process of electro-plating and the 
exhibition of manufactures, several hours were passed much 
to our amusement. It is satisfactory to see so many fine 
works of art reproduced in fac-simile in bronze and otlier 
metal, by the above-mentioned process ; but though the cost 
is much less than if they were of silver, they are still of too 
high a price to attain the object of bringing works of high 
artistic merit within the reach of those whose means cannot 
command that luxury. Bunsen went over daily to the meet- 
ings of the British Association, with Lord Harrowby and 
Lord Lyttelton, and they returned to Hams to dinner. 

On Friday we were taken by Mrs. Adderley to Merevale 
Abbey, the residence of the Dugdale family, and of the great 
antiquary of the seventeenth century, whose fine portrait we 
saw in the modem mansion, built on an elevation, in castel- 
lated imitation of a style of ancient buildings, prior to the 
Elizabethan, and not so well calculated to meet the demands 
of modem society as to space and cheerfulness. We walked 
down to the site of the original abbey, of which little remains 

232 MEMOmS OF baron BUNSEN. 1840 

CHAP, whom he was glad to converse. The same was repeated daily, 
• whether at the Bishop's, or at other hospitable honses; one 
was the house of Mr. Fairbaim, so highly esteemed by all 
who knew him ; another was the house of Mr. Schwabe, by 
whom we were invited to a dinner and musical party after- 
wards, to meet Lord and Lady Wilton and many others ; the 
music was very well chosen, Mr. Schwabe understanding the 
fine arts, as we further perceived, when by daylight we saw 
the copies he has brought from Spain, of Murillos at Seville, 
and many other fine things. In the mornings a vast amount 
of sightseeing was accomplished ; at the Asylum for the Blind 
we enjoyed a musical performance of as many portions of the 
^ Messiah' of Handel as we could stay to hear, being desired 
to select what we pleased, whether solos or choruses, as per- 
formers among the inmates were found for each and all, ac- 
companied by an organist who was also blind. At the Asylum 
for the Deaf and Dumb, the object most interesting was a 
little girl, blind as well as deprived of all her other senses, 
owing to the condition of disease and neglect in which she 
had been found as an infant. Her transmitting messages, 
impressed upon the palm of her hand by the Director, which 
she carried without mistake to the right person among the 
inmates, bringing back the reply, was one of those wonders, 
which, believed on testimony, have become tangible; but 
most truly affecting was the beholding her countenance on 
the approach of two little children of the Director's, whom 
she held in great affection ; they had not touched her, were 
not even near, when she was aware they had entered the 
room, and the sightless countenance seemed to beam with 
light and love. The calico printing at Rhodes, and number- 
less arrangements for the comfort and intellectual further- 
ance of the workpeople in that industrial village, constructed 
by Mr. Schwabe, was a sight to meet the feelings of all ; 
while the mechanical wonders of Manchester were specialities 
not for the uninitiated. Much more might be told, but the 
sum total is, that we enjoy our journey, and all the kindness 
we receive on all sides, from strangers as well as from old 


CHAP, science, relieve the awfulness of the contemplation, with 

L the assurance that if the presence of ten righteous (of ten 

living in the consciousness of God and of their duty) 
would have saved Sodom^ so is the number of guardian 
spirits far greater, to keep alive what is right and true, 
and to avert condemnation in England, and her centres 
of wealth and their concomitant iniquity. If written 
words of Bunsen's are not forthcoming with reference 
to this journey, yet were these the sentiments called 
forth by word of mouth ardently and variously uttered. 
At Fox How two days were spent with Mrs. Arnold, 
wonderfully supported both in body and mind ; Mr. and 
Mrs. Wordsworth were found well in health in their 
eightieth year, but utterly broken in spirit by the loss of 
their daughter, Mrs. Guillinan, two years before. The 
weather, usually rainy during this expedition, allowed 
an interval in which to take a glimpse of some of the 
* scenes in strong remembrance set,' to which all had, 
in the year 1829, been introduced by Dr. Arnold him- 
self. On Saturday, 29th September, the party left Fox 
How, and reached in the afternoon Wootton Hall, in 
Staffordshire, from whence, two days later, Bunsen re- 
turned to London. 

Bimsen to . 


7th November, 1849. 

As you once planned writing on the * Topography of Syra- 
cuse,' I send you the work of the excellent Leake, with the 
impressions of coins, as a birthday present, to be received as 
though written for you and in your stead. It has ever been 
a true pleasure to me, and is so daily more and more, to see 
what I had wished to do well done by another. There re- 
mains at last for every one so much more to be done, than he 
has time or power to accomplish ; and often do we find that 
the especial work assigned to us is what we can better do 
than that we had personally projected. 

God has laid upon you a heavy trial, in the disorder of 
your eyes, and in the crushing of your Frankfort hopes — 


CHAP, to meet, and who is always particularly commanicative to 

^^' me. 

I hope to despatch the messenger early enough on Satur- 
day to be able to dine at Totteridge with the dear children. 
Ernest and Elizabeth are here with their two children, and 
a delightful new greyhound, shivering and always wanting 
to be warmed. Palmerston is sweet as honey. There is 
a storm brewing in the Cabinet. I have had a letter fix>m 
Badowitz — in great spirits. Louis Napoleon must become 
Emperor, now or in 1851, or fall. I shall send you a letter 
of Gladstone's (very interesting) as soon as I have answered 
it, which I cannot do until I have been to the British 

Bimsen to Mrs. Wadding ton.* 

Carlton Terrace : Wednesday morning, 14th November, 1849. 

My dearest Mother, — I cannot begin my day's work before 
I have thanked you for your ever dear and precious words of 
love and aflEection ! Jhim spiro amo is the motto, I think, of 
one of your seals, but certainly it is that of your heart. You 
may believe me that I feel it ; and that I do so more and more, 
every time that I see yourself or your words. And love is 
the seal which God's Spirit requires to find upon our souls ; 
as one of the wisest and most pious of the Fathers (Clemens 
of Alexandria) says in explaining the saying of St. John to 
the same purpose, adding ^ The Spirit is Truth.' I wish all 
those who consider themselves believers would really believe 
in this word, and then certainly the result must be love to 
God and their neighbour. AU our German speculation has 
at last come to this : that what the human heart believes in 
faith, but cannot prove to be true — is true ; and that love is 
the infallible exponent of faith in life. I believe also this to 
be at the bottom of what the Saviour has said of the sin 
against the Holy Ghost. There is no belief possible in 
Christ, without believing in the Spirit. 

I am moved to write in this strain, because, although I am 
now in town for diplomatic business, my mind is ftiU of the 
last three and a half happy days at Totteridge. I have at 
last come to the point, which I have been striving to obtain 

• This letter was the last ever written to her ; two months later she had 
received the death-stroke. 


XIV. Bunsen to a Daughtfir-in^Law, » 

9 Cftrlton Terrace : Thuraday, 29th November, 1849. 

Not till this morning could I even read your dear letter, as 
the political crisis and the African journey occupied me till 
late last night. 

GutzlafF, the apostle of China, the traveller, interpreter, 
is arrived in England, and has come to see me. His frank 
and energetic character is very prepossessing : he is full of 
enthusiasm, and, as to China, full of hope as far as Christi- 
anity is concerned, full of fear as far as pohtics are con- 
sidered. The late war with England has unsettled the whole 
measures — there are sixteen millions sterling of debts ; the 
Emperor's proclamation lately published is curious, so also 
papers respecting Canton. * The people's will is Grod's will,' 
has been taken as the motto of a general agitation. The seas 
swarm with pirates, the land with secret societies. Gutzlaff 
dines with us on Sunday next, at seven o'clock quietly, I 
hope you and Ernest will come to meet him. 

I have promised to go to Mr. Behnes, the sculptor, on 
Sunday at half-past one, to be compared with the cast of my 
bust.* Mr. W. Hamilton, the great antiquarian, will be there 
too. Could you not come also ? It is so near your house. 

Bunsen to Archdeacon Hare. 

London : 10th January, 1850. 

. . . Meanwhile, there has been a most lamentable 
working upon the King's mind, by the united Eussian or 
Absolutist party, and the Pietists. The latter have affected 
his conscience, saying that the Constitution was godless, 
destructive of the holy union between Church and State, 
that it had unchristianized Prussia, &c. Were this sheer 
bigotry, I could tolerate it as error of conviction, but there 
is at the bottom a great amount of low and short-sighted 
interest of caste. The Constitution stipulates that the nobles 
of the ancient provinces shall in future pay the land-tax like 
all others. 

The Eling's conscience, I believe^ is now righted : but the 
secret is out: the King will hardly recover his place in 

• ^Vn engraving of this bust will be found at p. 165 of this volume. 


^^ ' Bunsen to Baron Stockmwr* 

1 [Translation.] 

(Probably) February, 1850. 

. . . All's well that ends well — and whomsoever Gk>d 
loveth (as assuredly He does the Grerman nation), to such, all 
things must turn out for the best. 

As a Prussian and a German one must be proud of such 
Chambers and of such a people. Their self-conquest is above 
all to be admired : for the German is not only more con- 
scientious, but also more obstinate in his conviction than all 
other nations ; having, besides that, little political stuff. 

To the Sa/me. 


London : Tuesday momingi 6th February, 1850. 


Last Saturday I buried a beloved mother, and I return 
from her grave (which her poor neighbours did not quit till 
they had filled it in with soil by single handfuls, that not the 
smallest stone might fall upon her coffin) to the bridal house 
from the house of death. Thus does the circling course of 
life reveal itself to our eyes. 

Bunsen to Archdeacon Hare. 

London : 20th February, ISoO. ' 

You suppose I am going away from this country! I never 
dreamt of going — never was I more bound to London and 
England than at the present moment. Prussia is in the 
haven, as to herself ; but the German Union, or * United 
States of Germany,' are yet to be bom, and at this eleventh 
hour all the powers of evil double their efforts to prevent this 
great European birth, or rather this beginning of regeneration. 
But, * Portse inferi non prsevalebunt contra eam ! ' All the 
powers of the Continent are against us, and traitors are in 
the camp. The Princes are wavering, more or less, now that 
the hour of danger is past. Still they are bound, by their 
popular parliaments, finances, and necessities, and cannot 
shake these off, as many do their words and engagements. 

A meeting was held on the 21st February, 1850, in 
Willis's Rooms, on the proposed Great Industrial Ex- 
hibition of 1851, at which, after speeches made by Lord 


CHAP, done to you iu the fiiture Exliibitions on the continent of 
'• Europe and in the United States of America. ... I rejoice 
to see yonr first houses everywhere the first in promoting 
this great national object. Tliis spirit of true liberality does 
not surprise me. During a stay at Birmingham and Man- 
chester I had the opportunity of seeing with admiration how 
soon and how thoroughly all local and class interests gave 
way to patriotic and liberal feelings. ... It was quite right 
that you should take the lead in a proposal which must form 
an epoch in the history of modem commerce and industiy. 
Some years ago, Prussia gave the first example of an exhibi- 
tion of all branches of industry for the whole of Grermany, 
whether they belonged to the Prussian Customs' Union or 
not. What Prussia has done for Grermany, you are doing for 
the world. God bless you for it ! It were very natural that 
you should entertain the anticipation of showing by such a 
general exhibition your own superioriiy ; but the noble Earl 
has said, and I have heard it stated by other Tgngliffh autho- 
rities, that you think yourselves you may be beaten by 
foreigners in some branches of industry. . . . But, whatever 
the result of international competition for pre-eminence may 
be, I am siu-e of two things — first, that you will not feil to 
turn into triumph every defeat, if there be such, by your re- 
doubled efforts to improve upon what you* see others have 
done, and thus give a good example to others to do the same 
with similar energy and perseverance. Secondly, I am sure 
that you will prove yourselves superior in applying to gene- 
ral usefiilness, and thus improving and dif^sing over all 
classes of society, and over all quarters of the world, the 
benefit of whatever may be invented by others. . . . 

Your vast undertaking has also a political, and a still 'higher, 
I may say, a humanitary character, and these features will 
not be the last to be acknowledged and hailed by the other 
nations, and secure their zealous co-operation. All epochs 
and eras in history have their peculiar signs and symbols ; 
there are, I am sure, many present here who recollect the 
Congresses of Princes of former periods. They began by 
assemblies of mighty emperors for ambitious purposes, and 
prospective warlike expeditions; then, after the peace had 
been secured, followed more peaceful Congresses of Princes 
for the preservation of the same ; they did not produce, how- 


CHAP, cause of humanity, of ciyilisation, and, therefore, of Chris- 
^^' tianity. Do you not think it a sign of the times that the 
Consort of the Queen of this mighty empire should have 
been the first to conceive, and the most zealous to promote, 
this XTniversal Meeting of civilised nations in this marvellous 
metropolis; that the Queen herself should come forward 
with her mighty word and bright example; that this idea 
and proposal should be taken up so energetically throughout 
this mighty empire as a great national cause ; that the dig- 
nitaries of the Church should vie with the statesman, the 
nobleman with the manufacturer, and the artisan and opera- 
tive with the master, in supporting this great national and 
social question, as a good work for everybody ; that all 
nations should be ready to hear the announcement with joy 
and sympathy and honest rivalry — only two years after one 
of the greatest, most extensive, and deepest commotions in 
European society arose, and when the waves of that modem 
deluge have not yet subsided 9 I see already with my mind's 
eye hundreds of thousands of the most ingenious and en- 
lightened classes of all civilised nations assembled, first here, 
in this ark of social order during the late deluge, and on this 
rock of true liberty; and later, at Paris and in the other 
capitals on this and on the other side of the Atlantic. I see 
the visitors admiring not only the cattle show, and the im- 
plements for agriculture, and the whole phalanx of the 
machinery of industry, but also the master-pieces of genius 
and taste. I behold mentally the wise and good men of all 
nations successively meeting in assemblies more elevated in 
object than those of the Olympic Games, and exchanging 
with each other wise thoughts and fruitftd speculations. 
And do you not see with me how the walls of separation (un- 
fortunately, still more or less connected with nationality) 
must fall down, not only before the trumpets of general in- 
dustry and rivalry, but from the irresistible force of common 
feelings of brotherhood, of a consciousness that every nation 
in its day has to run the same glorious race of a truly 
ennobling progress of the leavening the things of this world 
with something higher, and freer, and nobler, and everlast- 
ing? Do you see how prejudices and evil feelings, still 
separating nations from nations, and brethren ftt)m brethren, 
will disappear before such an eflFasion of light and community 


CHAP, to be used to find out the doctrine of the Church. My ex- 
cellent and truly venerable Mend does not see that Bubrics 
and Liturgy may be used to relax and take off the edges of 
doctrinal formularies, but not to make them more strict and 
cutting. There is the mistake. In the latter sense I always 
have stood up for a Liturgy : but, God knows, never in the 
other sense. Besides, people ought to consider that the 
Bubrics and Liturgy were never intended to be a regvlajidei, 
but only a rule of discipline, for good order. 

Well, my dear Henry, this is an important day for your 
Church. May God bless it ! I sat on the Privy Council 
seats, behind the right side of the Judges, along with Dr. 
Wiseman ! Groing out I met first W. Goode (the protagonist 
of the Evangelicals), with whom I shook hands, and who was 
blissful : then my way was stopped in the lobby by two per- 
sons — and who were they? Archdeacon Wilberforce and 
Hope. They drooped their heads, and after some silence, 
going on and I following them. Archdeacon W. said, * Well, 
at least there is no mistake about it.' In which I heartily 
concur. B. has already announced (in a sermon) that he will 
go out. Bon voyage I 

God bless you and yours ! 

To Julius Schnorr von Carols/eld, 


London : 20th March, 1850. 

It is melancholy that we write so little to each other, 
and most probably the fault is mine. But that I have the 
same affection for you as ever, and that my whole house is 
attached to you, I can add with the best conscience. These 
lines will be brought to you by Lord Goderich, son of the 
Earl of Eipon — a young man of German cultivation, eager 
for improvement, who desires to know you and your works. 

For my own part, I am more vexed at the blindness and 
ill intentions of the rulers, than at the foUy of the people, 
and the criminal madness of their seducers. But I cling to 
the German cause, like a shipwrecked mariner to a plank, 
preferring to go down with it than enter any other vessel — 
rather consigning aU such to the deep ! 

The month of April 1850 was marked to Bunsen 
and his family by an event rejoiced in at the time, and 


CHAP, to a public hardly extending beyond the walls of Paris. The 
^^' view of probabilities thus unfolded was new to everybody. 

In conversation at dinner, M. Yalette told us (among many 
things of higher interest) that a medal was circulating at Paris 
with a figure symbolising the Eepublic, with the words 
Libert^, Egalit^, Fratemiti ; on her head a atcur ; above, i^ck 
tresses ; and underneath, the name of the maker, Oudinet. 
The inscription to be read thus : — Libert^ — paint ; Egalit^ — 
point ; Fraternity — point ; d^tresse (des tresses) {mrtout — oit 
diner? — k la Belle Etoile. Very deficient in e^prif, but 
abundant in illwill and utterance of the general dissatisfac- 

Bunsen to one of hia Bona. 

London : Saturday, 8th June, 1850. 

... I have to-day finished the Fowrth Booh of the out- 
lines of the * Life of Jesus :' the whole will consist of six. I 
hope by the end of this month to complete this sketch of the 
work, and also the Synopsis ; and the 1st July to take ^ Egypt' 
again in hand, in preparation for the congress of friends in 
August, to which Lepsius will also come in August. 

Here all are tired to-day from yesterday's dancing at our 
house : it was daylight when I conducted the last lady to the 
door : nothing could be more successful. T. was lovely ; F., 
queenly. Beauties only were invited. 

Bwnsen to his Wife. 

Osborae House : Friday morning, 14th June, 1850. 

We had an ideally fine journey — Lord John and I alone 
together, in the railway and on the steamer. We after- 
wards walked from the shore to the Queen's house. After 
luncheon I stayed in my room, till half-past four, when the 
Queen kindly told Lord John to call me to walk out with 
her, till seven. The air was delicious, and the conversation 
such as I thoroughly enjoy, open and free, and treating of 
things important for head and heart. At eight I had my 
audience, and I had compressed the address I had to make into 
very few words ; the Queen was very gracious, and conversed 
much during dinner. To-day Lord John returns ; I remain 
till to-morrow. 


CHAP, approbation and admiration. The picture was hung np, bnt 

^^- it is neither a good likeness nor a good painting. Bnt how 

was everybody startled by the news, that Sir Bobert Peel had 

been thrown from his horse when riding in the Park, and 

was serionsly hurt ! 

Monday J let July. — The acconnt of Sir Bobert Peel is more 
alarming than at first ; he suffers a great deal, the collar- 
bone being fractured in three places. • • • The Queen's &rsk 
concert took place — but she will have wished everybody 
away, for she feels acutely the danger of Sir Bobert Peel. 

Tuesday, 2nd July. — My father dined with Mr. Hudson 
Gumey, to meet Anna Gumey. In the evening Lady 
Waldegrave's splendid ball was overcast, and in a measure 
broken up, by the melancholy news of Sir Bobert Peel's 
death at half-past eleven o'clock. We went home, and so 
did many people. Ever since Sir Bobert Peel has been con- 
sidered in danger, a crowd has besieged the entrance of his 
house, and a bulletin was from time to time read aloud by a 
policeman. The deep and silent grief of all classes is most 

8rd July. — The all-absorbing subject of interest has been 
collecting and hearing everything that can be known about 
Sir Bobert Peel ; the newspapers give an interesting sum- 
mary of his life, and some of them were edged with black out 
of respect for him. The Queen's grief is excessive : she is in a 
constant flood of tears, and with the greatest difficulty could 
be prevailed upon to hold the Levee, which, having been 
fixed for this day, could not be put off. Many expressions 
of hers are quoted, showing her full sense of the loss she 
herself and the country have sustained : — * I have lost not 
merely a friend, but a father.' 

Friday, hth July. — My father dined at the Palace ; the 
Queen for the first time came to dinner since the blow she 
has felt so much. 

Saturday, 6th July. — The Prince of Prussia came to wish us 
good bye ; Sir B. and Lady Hall were also here, because he 
desired to see them. My father and Ernest accompanied 
the Prince to Dover. 


CHAP. ^® sun hotter. Then we landed. We are three minntes' 
^v. walk from the Cathedral, and I intend to stay here, instead 
of proceeding to iron Li^ge. Nothing is wanting but the one 
thing, wanted every hour, — and that is your dear self, with 
the group around you. K I am not strangely mistaken, I 
may bestow myself as a birthday present on the 25th. 

Extract Jrom a Letter to Bunsen. 

London : Friday, 16th August, 1850. 

The tepiptation is great to give way to your invitation to 
meet you,"^ which I was so glad to receive ! But I see an 
evident necessity that I should stay with these girls. And 
much as I should rejoice, were the time but come for our 
hiring a house and living in quiet, — ^yet as we are still held 
&st here, it would be only tantalising to look at houses. 

Btmsen to his Wife. {Crossing ths last on the way.) 

[Translation.] Bonn : Thursday, 15th August, 1850. 

Lepsius came back last night, two days earlier than his 
promise. We have worked all morning, and shall have done 
on Saturday. On Sunday I go to wait upon the Princess of 
Prussia, and sleep at Cologne. The King expects me at Ber- 
lin, so Abeken writes, and Lepsius tells me. To avert such 
a calamity, I must be o£f before my four weeks are over. I 
shall, therefore, send oflF my letter froia Cologne ; when the 
King receives it, I shall be on my way to London ; whither 
I shall return on the 24th straight, in case you do not come. 

Bunsen executed his purpose, and was restored to his 
family on August 24tli, pleased to hear that a plan had 
been made to spend his birthday (the 25th) in an after- 
noon expedition to see Hatfield, to be met by Lady 
Raffles and some young friends of his daughters — the 
whole forming a numerous and cheerful party, not one 
of whom could have anticipated the cloud which was to 
overcast the whole, in the discovery, then first made, of 

* A proposal had heen made hy Bunsen that his wife should meet him, 
for the purpose of looking at houses in Bonn, — the wish to resign his post in 
London having revived ; although he still contemplated the act as distant. 


CHAP, event alone can show. I have extracted 130 ont of the 400 
X^^- roots, and ab^ady worked out 70 of the number. Thereby 
it has become highly probable to me, that for each of the 
400 roots the * Hieroglyph' is yet to be found; B^musat 
says, he believes there exist 200 such, but I find many besides, 
which he seems to have overlooked. It is most natural, that 
there should have been as many hieroglyphs as words — other- 
wise the one half must have consisted of compound hiero- 
glyphics. Such there are — ^for instance. Sun and Eye together 
s= Light. But each root must have been connected originally 
with a simple symbol. The system of writing was consoli- 
dated about 2950 years before Christ. The dryness of the 
work is relieved by the enjoyment of the nawe poetry of the 
original language in transmitting significations. 

Bunsen to Platner {Saxon Cha/rg4 d^Affmres at Rome). 


London : 80th September, 1850. 

It was very kind in you to send me a few lines by our 
friend Emil Braun, with an account of yourself. More espe- 
cially do I rejoice to perceive that you are not only in health 
and strength at your advanced time of life, but that you 
retain that freshness and freedom of spirit, without which 
life is not life, and old age becomes a torment and chastise- 
ment. I leam from your communications that you, like my- 
self, have steered again into the haven of free speculation 
and science, out of which we both sailed in youth into the 
open sea of present struggle and action. I have been led 
back into that harbour of refuge by enquiry and thought, 
and the course of life and its experiences ; and I thank Grod, 
that I have not, either as a thinker or as a believer, suffered 
shipwreck, nor bartered my liberty for any form whatsoever. 

I too have studied Giordano Bruno in late years with 
peculiar interest and deep sympathy; the recent occasion 
having been the translation of Schelling's Dialogue, BrunOy 
by that truly uncommon woman, the Marchesa Florenzi 
Waddington, into the most exquisite Italian, with admirable 
intelligence and comprehension, — which she requested me to 
examine critically with her ; and I did so the more readily, 
as her work had been one not of vanity, but of benevolence 
towards an Italian philosopher, Mamiani, eighty years of 


CHAP. Kings and Princes (since 1848) as the leaders in Oerman 

^^- politics, 

Daa gewaltige Schicksali 
Meinen Herm und Deinen. 

* Events and mighty Fate— My Lord and Thine* (as the 
divine Grothe says) are driving on the Gterman national 
movement, which, after a short triumph of dynastic selfish- 
ness or blindness, will annihilate all the powers of evil which 
have been arrayed against it. We are already well advanced 
in Germany, although but in the first act of our constitu- 
tional development. The storm is over, and has cleared the 

I am as glad to hear that you are upon so good a footing 
with the truly Christian and high-principled Pabst (Protes- 
tant minister at Bome), on his account as on yours. In the 
love to all moral truth, and in divine love itself, lies the 
great and real point of union for all that has been separated, 
and the eternal bond of all hearts which have been kindled 
by the lightning-fiash from above. 

I rejoice in the fine artistical development of your son. 
When the spirit shall move you, pray write to me again, and 
remain assured of my unalterable attachment and faithful 
Mendship. Farewell, and continue to me your affection ! 

Bunsen to friend Kestnery in his Mvseo^KestnerianOy Rama, 


London : SOth September, 1850, morning. 

. . . It was sad that our intention of meeting on the 
Ehine came to nothing. If you can but come here in 1851, 
I hope it will be either late (end of July) or early (end of 
April), for between those dates I shall have no quiet: and 
you must live nowhere but with us. I have a real need to 
have a thorough intercourse, and a fresh weaving-in of life 
with you. It did me good to see my dear &therland again, 
and to convince myself anew that the German people — how- 
ever inferior in the art of regulating its political affairs 
(because too honest not to believe the promises so freely made 
in need), torn to shreds for centuries, and never actually 
united — is yet the first of nations, not only in the intellectual 
sphere, as being that of knowledge and of faith in its true 


CHAP, upheaval of mountains, a sinking of valleys, in Central Asia. 
^^^- Chronology exists only for about five thousand years back- 
* wards from our time, and originally in Egypt alone, which 
itself was a depository of the extinct, submerged, original 
Asia about the sources of the Euphrates, beyond Babylon 
and Palestine. The Jewish documents give us connected 
records of time up to David ; in the first twenty chapters of 
Grenesis are, however, most important traditions, for the 
greater part misunderstood, from the very earliest times. 
Therefore the way of scientific enquiry, beyond Egypt, re- 
verts to Asia, and the documents are the languages : the 
computation of time is by epochs, as in the early history of 
the material earth, only that we have not to deal with 
millions of years, nor with a stratification of rocks, but with 
a comparative span of time (for the human race on earth is 
of yesterday), and the epochs are those of our own spirit and 
of our self-consciousness. 

We have read latterly in the evenings your ^ Romische 
Stttdieri* with great pleasure, — ^the images of Boman life and 
of your own life are refreshing. I hope this valuable little 
book will make its way, at this time of political evolution and 
provocation, — in spite of the mental confusion and narrow- 
ness which result therefrom. 

What joy has been reflected in our house, by the beam- 
ing countenance of our Mary, returned from her wedding 
tour, Braun can tell you. 

To yourself I wish a continuance of life untroubled in your 
chosen country of the arts, for I am convinced that you can 
only live at Rome ; but all the more should you pay visits to 
the friends ultra monies, in Germany and England. 

My wife will write herself. How often we miss that reflex 
of all grace and goodness, our mother, gone to her home ! 
And Christiana too, is also gone before her. . . . 

Bnnsen to Archdeacon Hare, 

11th October, 1850. 

I am thankful to say I feel quite well again, and am in the 
midst of preparations for my fifth volume, and more particu- 
larly of the Chinese language. I found I could not do my 
task without undertaking this labour : — all have hitherto 
considered that language as if consisting of signsy not of 


CHAP, said ; and Pestalozzi said the same when he began his Bagged 
^V- School about fifty years ago, — and so said that poor forlorn 
boy, whom that man of God at the Hallische Thor, at Berlin, 
reclaimed aft;er years of prayer and toiL So all reclaimed 
Chartists and Communists declare, as their own experience. 
And it touches me particularly, that you, my beloyed 
daughter, spoke to them as the Spirit gave you to speak, 
when you had assembled them around you; and that you 
did so on the anniversary of a day on which Grod visited you 
so visibly, in taking to Himself the child He had given you ! 
May God give you grace and power to go on humbly and 
unostentatiously, in this blessed way, thus showing yourself 
as a true follower of our Lord Jesus Christ, and of His true 
servant, your great and never-to-be-forgotten aunt, Elizabeth 
Pry. God bless you ! 

Bunsen to one of his Sons, 

[Translation.] Windsor Castle : 4th Januaiy, 1851. 

Soon comes the tempest of the World's Exhibition and mi- 
gration of nations — perhaps also of politics now slumbering 
in our disgrace. My duty is of course to hold out until the 
end of the Exhibition, but then with all caution to endea- 
vour after the execution of the plan of removal, which the 
hand of God so decidedly defeated last year — as I can now 
perceive, according to the eternal wisdom of His fatherly 
Providence. I meditate going in August on leave of absence 
with your mother to Bonn, with purpose to return only to 
take final leave. All this I shall talk over with you when you 
come in February — of course the plan is not to be spoken of; 
the Ministry would be too happy to send me away, but the 
King supports me faithfully and powerfully. My recall was 
demanded by Austria and proposed by ManteuffeL You know 
the reasons which make it a duty on my part not readily to 
yield to my adversaries this important post. 

Bunsen to Baron Stockmar, 

[Translation.] London : Monday, 6th January, 1851. 

The only thing important in a despatch received from 
Berlin to-day, — the first sign of life from that quarter since 
1st November of last year, — is that, to judge from the expres- 


CHAP, version on the supposed absurdities of the plan, and the 

L dangers and inconveniences anticipated, from the general 

attribution of the blame to him as being it« originator. 
The greater part of the Corps Diplomatique made open 
show of the ill-humour felt and expressed by their re- 
spective Courts ; the sentiments of which prevailed over 
the mind of the King of Prussia to such an extent^ that 
in the first instance his permission was refused to the 
Prince and Princess of Prussia to accept the invitation 
of Queen Victoria; and was finally granted rather in 
consideration of the decided wish of the Prince to make 
the proposed visit, than in consequence of the argu- 
ments and the evidence whicli Bunsen forcibly brought 
before His Majesty, to prove the tales of conspiracy to 
be wholly fictitious which in continental Courts were 
received as credible. 

A nation which reads newspapers is capable of being 
acted upon by opinion, and of acting in unison as one 
man; and certainly, from whatever cause, the opening 
of the Exhibition of the 1st of May, 1851, was a de- 
cided success — the weather was perfect, and the general 
good humour, as well as the demeanour and behaviour 
of the countless multitudes, proved that the English 
public resolved to do themselves, and the day, and the 
cause of popular interests, all honour, as well as to the 
Queen and to her Government. 

Buiiseti to Baron Stockmar, 


London : 18th January, 1851. 

. . . The unmeasured expressions in the letters of X. and 
Y. and Z., as well as the utterances of L. and G. and other 
friends that have been reported to me from Berlin, — and at 
the same time, the assertions in a letter of Humboldt's, sub- 
dued in language by eighty -two years of age and by Court 
life, yet in another way exciting, have brought my heart, 
already agitated by parting from Radowitz, into such a 
commotion and dashing of waves, that I find it doubly tran- 


CHAP, for the press, having in the latter months retouched the 
^^- second and third for the English edition. The results are still 
more decisive than I had expected. The history of nations 
can, approximately, be carried on up to 9,000 years before 
our time ; the history of the di*eam-period, in which language 
and mythology arose, extends to between 15,000 and 20,000 
years ; and all this in the development of the race of our 
blood-relations. But our chronology extends with astrono- 
mical certainty to above 3,600 years before Christ. 

Old President Schon has written me an admirable letter ; 
he is, in his eighty-seventh year, still full of hope for Germany 
and Prussia, and for the victory of what is right and good, 
and of the spirit and intelligence of the nation, just as when 
he wrote the letters to Stein in 1812 and 1813, which I hope 
you will have read in the * Life of Stein,' vol. iii. B. 

I hear with pleasure that the Prince interests himself for 
that truly remarkable school of Monro's at Harrow Weald. 
No doubt, the small publication will be known to the Prince, 
on the subject of that institution, which gives important 
* promise for the future about the cultivation of real school- 
masters and preachers for the people — otherwise, it is at his 
service. I happen to know something about that school. 

From the newly-discovered work of the Bishop Hippolytus 
of the year 230, it would appear that the Nicene Creed is, to 
say the least of it, one-sided. 

Bunsen to Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld. 


London : 28th April, 1851. 

I rejoice to see in your case that misfortune and trial 
better reveal what is in the man, than good fortiuie ; and 
that you maintain equanimity in the one case as well as in 
the other. Who could have believed, dear friend, that there 
had been in Germany so much wickedness and faithlessness ? 
Still we will sing the Magnificat^ out of which, in the indig- 
nation of your honest heart, you quote a suitable verse. I 
fear these times will deprive many a man of faith in the 
Divine government of the world — short-sighted though they 
be. Pray read with me the seventy-third Psalm, as I have 
translated it. 

Do you know, dear friend, that I think you ought to come 


CHAP, well, that in the evening after E. and G- had snng many 
• favourite pieces of Handel and Mendelssohn and Neokomm, 
he asked us all to join in a few verses of ^ Sei Lob nnd 
Ehr dem hochsten Gut' — as the only appropriate expres- 
sion of his feelings of thankfulness and entire satisfi^u^tion* 
He looks upon this Exhibition as most important also in 
a political point of view, in honouring the interests of the 
people at large^ by an assemblage of the people, attended and 
countenanced and sympathised in by royalty and nobility ; 
not as in former times, a costly gathering of and for kings 
and princes and grandees alone, with attendants and spec- 

Bunsen to Max Miiller. 


Carlton Terrace : seTen a.m., 16tli Maj, 1851. 

(Olymp. ii. 1, by German chronology.) 

I must after all take my early hour for writing to you, 
instead of writing or preparing a chapter for my fifth 
Book on * Egypt '; for I foresee that the day's flood, beginning 
with breakfast-time, will not have ebbed till after midnight : 
and I must utter to you two sorts of "things : first, my 
thanks and congratulations for the plan of your lectures. 
You have considered the Epos in its ftdl significance as to 
imiversal history ; and for the first time brought it in con- 
nection with the earliest time of the epic nations, and their 
original consciousness of language. That has given me 
inexpressible pleasure, and revived in me the longing after 
your presence, and of being enabled to read to you some 
chapters, the writing of which has been an exquisite delight 
to me. 

I undertook the restoration of the time of the patriarchs, 
in the belief of their reality, and by the method I have 
followed all through : and the greatness of the result has 
astonished me. Having finished this section, I felt the 
courage to add to the Preface composed last Easter, an In- 
troduction, entitled ' History and Method of the Contem- 
plation of the History of Humanity : ' and have thus reverted, 
as by a stroke of magic, to the last Paradise of my inner- 
most consciousness of life ; my prescient grasp of future 
discovery, having been in the solemn nights from 1810 to 
1813 consecrated into a vow; and the statement thereof 

268 MBMOmS OF baron BUNSEN. 1851 

CHAP. Easter Sunday. On the 27th May, all that had been con- 
^^' nected with the visit of the Prince had rung out its last 
echoes on the strand of Dover, whither I accompanied him, 
as I had gone there to receive him. 

I have now advanced as far as Leibnitz, in the historical 
view, which will be closed with Schelling and Hegel, Gothe 
and Schiller, and which began with Abraham. 

Now, you should come here, just at this time, if Oxford 
and the gods of the Veda permit. Meanwhile I announce 
that G. will accompany the amiable Prince Frederick William 
with Colonel Fischer to Oxford, and show the future King 
of Prussia (incognito) the European Benares. 

I have still something to suggest about the * Niebelungen.' 
Your admirable letter ripened in my mind a thought which 
often has shot through it, — ^that the slightly veiled historical 
foundation of the poem, as well as its most ancient nationali- 
ties, have never been sufficiently examined into and brought 
into evidence. Grimm does not care for what is historical, 
further than his own ' Beginnings of Nations ' are concerned : 
and my dear deceased Lachmann was always disinclined to 
concern himself with it. When I wrote for Chateaubriand 
(in 1825) that short essay in French which he printed in his 
* Melanges,' I read through all that had been published on 
the point which most nearly concerned me, and was sur- 
prised at the scantiness of matter collected ; and since that 
time I have not heard of any further enquiry on the subject. 
Yet how can one believe that the notices of Giinther and the 
Burgundians in the poems, should stand alone and single of 
their kind ? To me it is clear, for example, that the myth 
which brings Attila and the great Theodoric of the Visi- 
goths together as contemporaries, has its historical root in 
the fact, that Theodoric King of the Visigoths fell in the 
critical battle of ChfiJons, 451, contending against Attila, 
while his son Thorismund, rallying the forces to revenge the 
death of his father, by a last effort overcame the Barbarians, 
and proved himself the victor : whereupon the Franks drove 
the Huns across the Rhine. Hence it is that Attila is 
connected with the great King of the Ostrogoths (who 
lived forty years later), and with the royal house of the 
Visigoths, and their kingdom itself — with all which never- 
theless Attila could have had nothing to do. By neglecting 


CHAP, you would see Wichem, from Hamburgh, with his tall com- 
XIV. manding figure, and his fine, mild, but yet decided and 
' ' energetic countenance, and his deep bass is always heard 
pervading all other voices. Then (usually sitting next him) 
Bemays, from Bonn, forms the strangest possible contrast, 
with his small, quicksilver figure, and black-bearded, restless 
clever face. Then Lieber, from America, with his fixed, 
melancholy, sentimental look, joining nevertheless in con- 
versation with great zest and interest, always miTing in 
strange outlandish compliments. Next to him, Waagen, 
with his inexhaustible fund of good humour and anecdote, 
always for the benefit of everyone within reach of listening. 
Then Gerhard, with his benevolent expression, ready either 
for serious or learned talk, or for any joke or fun that may 
be going on ; and his wife, with her never-failing, mild 
cheerfulness and interest in everything, without any fuss or 
fidgeting, thus giving only pleasure in daily intercourse 
and no trouble. These are the inmates of the house, to 
which you must suppose in addition a regular supply of un- 
expected guests drop in at every meal. Yesterday, Pastor 
Krummacher came with two daughters to make a call ; — and 
while we detained his daughters here, he joined Wichem 
and several others to inspect some Ragged Schools. They 
returned about eight o'clock, when the home set were just 
ready to rise from table, so room could be made for 
the five who entered. First, Wichem ; then Cramer, from 
Lyons (whom we much liked), who married Elizabeth Sieve- 
king; Krummacher; Le Grand, brother of the friend of Ober- 
lin ; and a Mr. Harriot, of Basle, a kind of missionary going 
about all Germany, and seeming more of a German than an 

On Saturday evening, when Count Albert Pourtal^s was 
here (his company is most agreeable, and he has not for- 
gotten his visit at Totteridge in 1848), and P., wishing to 
divert the course of conversation, endeavoured to lead 
Waagen to relate a celebrated story of his, Waagen was 
deeply engaged in conversation with one of the five Pro- 
fessors from Berlin, and thus slie found it necessary to 
repeat the call in rather a louder tone, ^ Herr Professor ! ' 
whereupon five figures instantly started up with a bow, 
responsive to the appeal, which each supposed intended for 



XIV. Bunsen to one of his Sons. 


St Leonard*s-on-Sea : 12tli Septembar, 1851. 

I hope the meeting of German Protestants {Kirchentag) 
in Elberfeld will have blessed results for church and country ; 
let us but have dction and fraternal co-operation; let us 
have no further Confessions of £aith and doctrine, besides 
that excellent one which the Assembly has already made ! 
I do not object to the alliance {Confosderatio)^ instead of 
complete union {Unio\ as things now are: may the sacred 
work of the ^ Union ' not be destroyed ! — ^the stubble may 
well burn, for much of evil has found place there. Only let 
not the wholly antiquated Confessions be placed in front ! 
For that which we ought essentially to acknowledge and 
teach, Christ's own consciousness of Himself, is not yet to be 
discerned in that well-meant mixture of Byzantinism, Scho- 
lasticism, and Formalism of the seventeenth century, the 
Formula Concordice : and of the deeds of Christ there is far 
less mention than of what happened to Him from the Birth 
to the Ascension. The height of action was with TTJTn en- 
durance : and therein the central point of a renewed con- 
sciousness must and will be placed, as the mystery of the 
kingdom of God lies in self-sacrifice. 

Bunsen to Plainer, 


London : 20th September, 1851. 

My Beloved Old Friend, — I cannot let Braun depart 
without sending you a sign of life and of affection : but first 
of all pray accept the assurance of heartiest sympathy from 
my wife and myself on your irreparable loss. We are thank- 
ful to hear that God mercifully preserves to you not only 
a tolerable share of health, but also a fresh and cheerful 
spirit, which is of yet more value. What you tell me of 
your continued philosophical studies is an additional proof 
to me that the essential does not fail to outlive all besides : 
I have also arrived at the conviction that the free philo- 
sophical enquiry, such as we find in Giordano Bruno and 
Spinosa, claims to be ranked with those of Plato among the 
greatest and highest of human contemplations. In my mind 
the formulae as to the opposition and the unity of Sein (to 


^^' Bunsen to Archdeacon Hare. 

Christmas Day, 1851. 

The Nemesis has fidlen upon the author of the London 
Protocol and of the Greek affair : Lord Palmerston has fallen 
by being in opposition to the Cabinet, Lord John at the 
head, about the Napoleon affair, he (Lord P.) having gone 
the length of saying England approved all Louis Napoleon 
had done — ^which he was absolutely forbidden to say. This 
is truey but still a secret. 


CHAP. ^^'7 ^ broken through, and the reality of freedom evolved, 
XV. — ^and, besides, that we and all who are dear and precious to 
us may be preserved in health, — is the wish uttered, in 
fullness of heart, to a dear friend, by Bunsen. 

To the Same. 

Sunday morning : 18th January, 1852. 

As I was on the way to your door in the Palace yester- 
day morning, I saw the Prince hastening in the same direc- 
tion, and therefore I withdrew without having told you how 
much the living with you in these latter days has refreshed 
me. You will feel that, when you consider that I am under 
no illusion as to the condition of things at Berlin, and in 
the whole of Europe : of which you will be yet more aware 
when you read what the spirit has moved me to say as to 
the confusion and destitution of the spiritual condition in 
the whole of Europe. It was with a solemn consciousness 
that I paced up and down, before breakfast (at Windsor 
Castle) in tJbe fine Corridor, and beheld the sunshine with 
the clearest blue sky above the towers and turrets : medi- 
tating upon the happiness that dwells within those walls, 
founded in reason and integrity and love, — a pattern of the 
well-ordered and inwardly vigorous and flourishing life that 
spreads all around, even to the extremities of the great island. 
And further off did I hear the roaring of the storm that 
sweeps now over the continent, and threatens our ever-beloved 
fatherland. And in that fatherland dwells also a noble 
people, a great people, full of grand recollections and of the 
germs of future life — and a King, whose energies are so high 
and noble : — and yet all causes are dragging us within the 
compass of the whirlwind of confusion and destruction ! A 
blessing upon those walls, and the life within and around 
them. It is a consolation that such a spot should exist on 
earth ; and I am thankful to have seen it, and for all the 
goodness and kindness I have there experienced. 

To the Same. 


20th January, 1852. 

. . . X. related to him, that when he was Envoy, at 
Vienna, Schwarzenberg sent for him one day, and said — 


CHAP, ia going beyond instructions, in the French question. When 
^^' he left the House, the members were in such a state of ex- 
citement that it was some time before the debate on the 
Address to the Queen could begin. 

It is generally thought that the explanations of Lord 
John will have done much good, in showing what the per- 
sonal influence and importance of the Queen is — ^whereas 
the general opinion was only too much inclined to sup- 
pose her power to be nominal, and that the decision as 
well as the management of affairs rested entirely with her 

Bunsen to Baron Stockmar. 


Wednesday : 4th Febniary, 1852. 

I thought of you when I purchased three copies of Lanci- 
zolle's * Geistesworte aus Oothe^s Werken^ — and guessed well 
that you would not let that which I showed you out of your 
hands. Thus I ask you to retain what was intended for 
you ! I have ordered a dozen more copies of this Japhetic 
rendering of the Bible. 

I heard the two speakers last night. The House was 
divided in appreciation : yet I am convinced that when the 
House and the nation shall have read and digested the docu- 
ments, Lord P. will be allowed to have been in the wrong. 
That was the impression with which I retired at half past 
eight, to hear the readinij of the * Midsummer Night's Dream ' 
(incomparable even with recollections of Ludwig Tieck) 
by the person of most genius in England — Mrs. Fanny 
Kemble, intermingled with the magic tones of Mendelssohn: 
thus to forget for some hours the whole misere. 

P.S. It occurs to me that only in one point all were 
agreed ; — in maintaining the Protestant principle. That is 
the chord which still sounds when struck. 

Bunsen to Archdeacon Hare. 

Hatchford : 22nd March, 1862. 

... I am afraid that when you come to see the Index of 
my ' Hippolytus,' you will say, with a smile, that I have 
crammed into it an Universal and CJiurch History ^ cum quibus- 
dam aliis. Still you will find, that I have done justice to the 


CHAP, express command to do so. That it would have been 

XV . 

L more m character for Bunsen to have resigned his post, 

and retired altogether from public life, instead of sub- 
mitting to become the instrument of an act of which he 
felt the injustice, and anticipated the danger, became 
clear even to his own family, and may be conjectured to 
have been so to himself, when the transactions had been 
viewed from a distance of time. But this is only uttered 
as conjecture, for a question on the subject would have 
seemed to imply reproach, and therefore no inquiry was 
addressed to him — the less so, as he always purposed to 
write himself the history of his official life, and had pro- 
mised to begin with the latter portion, and proceed back- 
wards. As an authentic statement of particulars, a letter 
from Count Usedom shall be transcribed, coming fix)m a 
person most thoroughly acquainted with the entire sub- 
ject, and who knew and comprehended the mind and 
character of Bunsen, as could only be the case with a 
friend of many years' standing, with a man of his intel- 
ligence and candour. 

Count Usedom to George von Bunsen,* 


Turin : 23rd August, 1864. 

My dear George Bunsen, — You wish to know what my 
recollection is of the part taken by your father in the Lon- 
don Treaty of May 1852, and of the negotiations which 
preceded its signature. To do justice to his memory in this 
matter is a duty imposed upon me by a friendship of many 
years' standing, with which Bunsen honoured me : but, 
separated as I am from my papers, and relying therefore on 
my memory alone, I shall perhaps but imperfectly perform 
this duty. 

Your letter to the ' Times ' of the 18th July already raises 
the main question, — I mean Mr. Layard's assertion of the 
existence of a Berlin Protocol of 4th July, 1850, and of a 
secret article in which Prussia promised to support the 

• Published in the ' Timea ' of 1st September, 18G4. The original ap- 
peared in the ' KolnUche Zffitwtg.^ 


CHAP, mined as to the tendency of her participation in them. 
L After this authentic statement, the only interpretation to be 

given to that secret article would be this — ^that 
would not side with Denmark in the coming conferences — 
that is, not support the Danish scheme of succession. I haye 
never heard of any secret article but this. 

On the contrary, I am convinced that Prussia considered 
herself perfectiy free as regards the question of succession 
during the first months of the ensuing year. The following 
circumstance (to which I should not refer were it not already 
well known) may serve as a proof. In February 1851, Count 
Sponneck brought to Berlin the Danish proposals regarding 
the succession, still framed in rather general terms. TTifl late 
Majesty of Prussia, of his own accord, but officially, de- 
manded my opinion upon them. Besides giving this, I 
ventured to address a private letter to the King, which has 
since, in a manner unknown to me, found its way into pub- 
licity. It went to show, that the so-called integrily of 
Denmark was as yet neither a right nor a &ct, but merely a 
wish, which Prussia had no interest in fulfilling. Now, if 
Mr. Layard were right in asserting that Prussia had already 
secretly bound herself, how could the King of Prussia have 
demanded an opinion upon a subject which was settied 
already eight months before ? 

There would be no motive for saying a word with reference 
to the observations of Mr. Layard, if there were nothing 
further to point out in them but a slight error in the date 
and meaning of the secret article really extant, for a British 
Under Secretary of State has more to do than to learn by 
heart dates and details fourteen years old. But Mr. Layard told 
his ' curious secret history ' for the express purpose of explain- 
ing Prussia's supposed obligations from a Protocol of 4th July, 
1850. K this is allowed to stand, the charge against Prussia 
as having played a double game, and a corresponding charge 
against your father, would still remain in force. But we 
ought to know this ^ history ' to be genuine, before we can 
draw conclusions from it. Until the above counter-proofs 
are shaken, it may be considered as not belonging to history, 
but as a piquant myth, one of those calligraphic flourishes, 
not rare in politics, which overlay and spoil 'Clio's neat 


CHAP, sucli an attempt possible, that powerful bias was necessar j 
^^' which then predominated in the Cabinets of Europe, and 
which was turned to a most favourable issue by Danish skill 
— ^an issue which was as unwisely made use of in the years 
that followed, as it had been skilfully gained. Few people 
can now imagine what evil times those were for the Duchies 
and their friends. So late even as 1860, when in conse- 
quence of the Criniean and Italian wars much was changed 
in European politics, every mention of Gremian rights in 
regard to Schleswig was sure to call forth a general outcry 
of indignation against the disturbers of peace. 

It is to be regretted that Bunsen did not live to see the 
year 1864, which has so signally verified his view of the 
London Treaty. This * Pragmatic Sanction,' erected, like the 
Ice Palace on the Neva, in contempt of the laws of nature, 
has melted away before the irresistible force of things as 
they are. The Duchies, delivered at last from their long 
struggle for existence, will now be permitted to turn to 
higher things. To behold such a result would have been a 
joy of joys to your father. 

I am, &c., UsEDOM. 

Contemporary Notice from the Diary of a DaugUer, 

19th June, 1852. 

It is hard to describe how satisfactory Devrient's repre- 
sentation of * Hamlet' was. He understands him, not as 
a wild fanatic, and maniac, but as a weak, very unripe, 
but noble-minded and well-intentioned youth, whose inde- 
cision and wavering proceed from an overwhelming con- 
sciousness of inability to execute the work imposed upon 
him, and whose reason is confused, not destroyed, by the pre- 
ternatural vision. The deep grief for his father, the feeling 
of revenge, the feigned madness, love for his mother strug- 
gling with his consciousness of her guilt — his behaviour 
towards Ophelia, interpreted by the determination to repel 
her, and make himself repulsive to her, in order that she 
might not be involved in the consequences of his crime or 
fall ; — all this, and every faint and before unmarked shade of 
meaning, was marked most aflPectingly. Among the most 
vehement applauders were Mrs. Sartoris and Fanny Kem- 
ble. The latter said to Devrient that in him she saw dra- 


CHAP, as the other. But to attribute infallibility to Ezra's sjna- 
gogue and its Maccabean successors, is worse than to ask it 
for the Popes — sheer rabbinism or prejudice. 

The retrospect of the summer months of 1852 pre- 
sents a wilderness of objects and of interests of the 
most varied kinds, fn>m which the numerous femily 
broke away in various divisions and directions in August. 
Bunsen himself, with his wife and youngest daughter, 
paid a visit of three days to Sir Harry and Lady 
Vemey, at Claydon, from whence he proceeded to his 
eldest son at Lilleshall, in Shropshire, and went on 
with his youngest (Theodore) to the Duke and Duchess 
of Argyll, at Inverary, spending a day on the road at 
Sir Archibald Alison's, Possil House, near Glasgow. 
At Inverary, the kindness of the Duke and Duchess, 
and the manifold interests surrounding them, might 
well have tempted him to a longer stay ; but one of 
Bunsen's peculiarities, constantly increasing upon him 
every year, was that of being restless when absent from 
his oym room, his own writing-place, and, particularly, 
from the living accompaniments of home ; so that he 
never without resistance was detained away from them, 
even in the most attractive society ; this will ac- 
count for the small amount of time spent in country 
visits during his twelve years and a half in England, 
where so much agreeable hospitality always awaited 
his acceptance. On the present occasion, he was fairly 
shut out of his own abode, and thus made time for 
a short visit to Lord EUesmere, at Worsley, 'and to 
the Bishop of Manchester, on returning south to his 
son's dwelling, at Lilleshall, where he rejoined his wife 
and youngest daughter, and was met by Lepsius; so 
that he had a congenial group around him for the cele- 
bration of his birthday, the 25th August. 


CHAP, visit to the Alisons which I had promised at the end of the 

1. week, when I called upon him at his town house, and was pres- 

singly invited to come. Therefore, at four o'clock I took the 
family by surprise, at this house, two miles and a half from 
Glasgow, on an eminence, in a fine park, a charming and 
spacious abode. I have passed the time delightfully, have 
learnt a vast deal about Scotland, and have met human beings 
that interest me ; particularly do I feel drawn towards Sir 
Archibald's sister, Mrs. Birch, lately become a vridow, and 
who, as Margaret Alison, remembers a certain Miss Wadding- 
ton many years ago in Edinburgh. Her's is a mind much 
developed in the Christian sense ; she is a friend of Maurice, 
and an admirer of Hare. Alison is busy with the ' History of 
Europe since 1815,' and I have had an opportunity of nm.ViTig 
out that he has a just estimation of German conditions and 
transactions at that time ; he is, as you know, the only Tory 
historian who has Prussian, and not Austrian tendencies ; he 
has a sound Protestant view of historical facts, and that keeps 
him from the shallow reasoning of others with respect to Fre- 
derick the Great and the Prussian monarchy. Hippolytus 
also found its place in our discussions ; and we parted with a 
conviction (on my part) that our acquaintance has grown into 
friendship. But they say they will not receive me a second 
time unless I bring you with me. 

Yesterday (Sunday) after hearing at the Episcopal chapel 
at Glasgow a sermon below criticism, and singing no better, 
we drove through the splendid domain of Sir Archibald 
Campbell — containing a fine Elizabethan country mansion, in 
a grand park, through which flows a considerable stream. In 
intermediate hours I have read with delight Bawlinson's Ba- 
bylonian decyphering ; I consider the thing clear and safe in 
the principal point. The enigmas yet to be solved are most 
attractive. I am more and more convinced that the arrow- 
headed character is the conventional contraction of an ancient 
Babylonian hieroglyphical system. There are 246 signs, 
partly denoting syllables, partly ideas ; but the clear alphabet 
is contained in them, just as with the Egyptian, only we have 
not as yet discovered the wise arrangement, by which the 
latter rendered their system so sure and comparatively in- 
telligible. At half-past eight we are to be on the Clyde, to 
sweep down the whole Firth to Loch Goil head, and arrive (as 
I hope) at Inverary by three o'clock. 


CHAP, grate, will not accept the means, without including parents 
XV. and aged relations, and this, of course, is given way to. The 

' Government furnishes the means of transport, and is paid out 

of the money subscribed according to a certain rate for each 
person. Each man pledges himself to send back, after a term, 
when he shall have secured the means of gaining a liveli- 
hood, a certain sum (SI.) towards helping on further emigra- 
tion. Therefore here again is that remarkable historical 
appearance, the Celt withdrawing before the German, who 
enters where he finds productive land, and leaves the naked 
» hills to the wild animals and hunters. The moors bring in a 
rent to the proprietor superior to what he can obtain for 
pasture land, for the rich pursuers of amusement from the 
south outbid each other for deer-stalking ground, and for 
grouse-shooting : a practice in the advantage of which I re- 
joice not at dinner only, but also beholding from my windows 
the herring fishery ; there is at Inverary a whole fleet of boats 
thus employed. 

The cottages in woods and moorland look veiy wretched, 
but the dwellers in them seem strong and healthy, and are 
well clothed, with bare feet, of course. The children speak 
English even among themselves, — a consequence of school 
teaching ; but the older people keep to their Gaelic within 
the house. The church is divided into two parts, so that 
preaching can take place in the two languages at the same 

I withstood the temptation of undertaking the Gaelic 
grammar, in which resolve the power of attraction in Eaw- 
linson's unspeakably instructive Babylonian inscriptions came 
to my aid. The Babylonian is the older form of the Syro- 
Chaldaic ; but yet a later formation than the classical He- 
brew, which fixed itself in Palestine before the second period 
of development in the Semitic languages began, which threw 
out shoots of much more highly organised forms of conjuga- 
tion. But many appearances, which in Hebrew are found as 
ruins, receive explanation through the Chaldaic, and particu- 
larly by means of the older form ; I had discovered that by an 
examination of the names of the Patriarchs between Adam 
and Moses — for instance, Metu-sche-lach — in which the sche 
stands as the ancient sign of the genitive, as regularly as the 
Babylonian scha, or tsa. With these studies and with the 


CHAP, her ready sympathy. Who ever felt with us as she did? 
^^' with what tenderness did she not follow us through every 
change and variety of life, — she, to whom our union was, 
humanly speaking, owing ! So then, as we have been allowed 
the rare happiness of living for a quarter of a century in the 
enjoyment of her love and of her loveliness, let us, beloved, 
continue in that same consciousness to the end of our term 
of life. 

I send a letter from a remarkable American, Rev. Dr. H., 
of Mobile, in Alabama ; who has in a learned work main- 
tained the literal, historical exactness of the book of Gen- 
esis, but, having finished and published it, and afterwards 
studying books of research and criticism, such as mine and 
Lepsius's, he declared to his congregation (Presbyterian) 
that he felt compelled to examine personally our doubts and 
ourselves, and Egypt. Upon which, they granted him leave 
of absence, and also money for his travelling expenses. The 
first of his wishes, a personal conference with me and 
Lepsius, he has at once obtained ; I invited him, and read to 
him the discourse of * Hippolytus ' upon inspiration ; where- 
upon he said, ^ The whole must be literally true, or I can 
believe nothing.^ Then the spirit came over me to say to 
him, that I felt him to be a Christian brother in my very 
heart : but, according to his system, he was an enemy and 
not a friend of Moses — a Mahomedan, or a Sabbi — and 
that he would only find peace and faith again, by following 
out the system of research which with Grermans had pro- 
ceeded from faith, from the belief in Christianity as a reality of 
truth, and therefore capable of making head against the power 
of doubt and error. ^ I must see myself,' he replied; * pray 
send me the book of " Hippolytus " to the Pyramids, whither 
I am going. K I am in the wrong, I give up my place. 
What should I preach to my people i^ May God help me ! ' 
I cannot express how deeply I was affected by this man's 
expressions. L. was apprehensive, that if compelled to give 
up his Judaic belief, he would lose his senses. But I am of 
opinion that an Anglo-American, once having entered upon 
research, will go through with it, and be saved ; otherwise, 
indeed, his brains will turn : for that view of things (the 
Judaic) tends to madness. 

The question of biblical chronology is connected in the 


CHAP. Roug6. The possessor, Mrs. d'Orbiney, had offcen tesised my 
^^' father to persuade the director of the Berlin Museum to pur- 
chase it, only the sum she demanded was considered too 
exorbitant. It turns out to be a novel, the work of a 
private secretary of King Setis II. ; therefore not later than 
twenty years after the time of Moses. The story is romantic, 
about two brothers and their love-affairs: only offering a 
contrast to modem novels in the absence of a conclusion, as, 
by the theory of transmigration of souls, the transactions do 
not end with the death of the parties, but may be spun out 
to any length. After ten my father read to ns some of Car- 
ri^re's eloquent * Religiose RedenJ 

2bth October. — My father spoke upon the wonderful problem 
of creation which he has been led to reconsider, particularly 
by having taken up physical science again, which he had not 
studied since he left the University. He is much delighted with 
Burmeist^r's * Geschichte der Schopfung^^ and above all with 
Johannes Miiller's ^Principien der Physik.^ He said, it was won- 
derful, when one tried to follow the different steps of creation, 
to find it impossible to give an explanation, as it were, of the 
creation of man ; it being absurd to say it was a perfecting 
of the animal, as though man were a complete edition of the 
monkey ; or, on the other hand, that he should come from the 
earth, because in his mechanism he is intimately connected 
with the inferior animals : in short, that it was impossible 
to come to any conclusion if one did not simply admit the 
incapacity of the human mind to measure the depths of 
Divine wisdom, and assign the whole impulse of creation to 
a Divine cause, towards which every created thing tends, as 
to its highest perfection, each at the same time being linked 
together in a chain of which man in creation is the last and 

In the evening Mr. Penrose came, and showed and ex- 
plained to us the architecture of the Parthenon, where he has 
made some interesting discoveries as to the curve, not only 
of the column, but of the architrave : which last, were it 
indeed horizontal as it seems, would to the eye present a 
depression ; but beiug in fact raised, by a curve nearly im- 
perceptible, forms to the eye a perfect level. This proves the 
wonderful knowledge of mathematics and of optics, as 
applied to architecture, of the early Greeks. He sketched 
for us from memory the north side of the Acropolis. 


CHAP. The vicar of this place told us last night that a chaplain of 

^^' one of the colonial bishops had altered the well-known hjmn 

of Bishop Ken, in a verse imploring * cleansing of sin by the 

blood of Christ,' into something like * through tears of dailj 

penance/ That tendency is the curse of the system. 

Contemporary Notices from Diaries. 

8l8t October, 1852. 

The conversation at dinner waa most interesting ; it turned 
on the years 1813-15, in the last of which years my father 
was at Berlin for the first time. It was striking to witness 
the almost Spartan simplicity of life at Court and in the 
highest society, which contrasted greatly with the luxury 
which he observed on returning after twelve years to Berlin, 
Whilst in the interval at Rome he had been accustomed to 
speak with Niebuhr, and the Germans there, the language of 
1813-15, he found in Germany the tone altogether changed, 
and he seemed to be speaking in an unknown tongue. The 
table of the King (Frederick William III.) was the only one 
that retained its plainness, and when, on occasion of some 
royal visitor, a grander dinner had been prepared, the King 
commented upon it as * fit for a Privy Councillor.' 

7th November. — In the breakfast conversation my father 
spoke of the rarity of meeting with young men who really took 
the trouble of thinking seriously — ^which he said was the point 
in which the English are behind the Germans — whereas, on 
the other hand, when once an Englishman has been induced to 
think, and to reason upon his thoughts, he also possesses the 
* ethical earnestness' to carry out his result into practice, 
just as surely and necessarily, he said, as that anything 
swallowed into the throat reaches the stomach and becomes 
nourishment; meanwhile, the German is too apt to stop 
short at the theory. 

Thursday^ Wth Novemher. — This was perhaps the first 
very bad day the Queen ever had for her procession at the 
opening of Parliament ; the rain is pouring down, with a 
bitter east wind. At breakfast, my father took occasion of 
the mention of a meeting last night, at which Kossuth and 
Mazzini had spoken, to say that no one had so much endan- 
gered the cause of Constitutional Government in Italy by 
his fanaticism as Mazzini had done — whom he yet believed 


CHAP. Our evening, though long (as we had tea at six), passed 

;_ quickly enough, as mj father was so kind as to read aloud, 

first, beautiful passacres from Giebel, CTaduallj reaching the 
clW of grand aad wonderful lines ^tlie Lond^ of 
^ Faust,' which one only understands when read aloud with 

Friday y 12th November. — This day, appointed for the 
private view of the lying in state of the greai Duhe at 
Chelsea Hospital, seemed impressed with the Earl Marshal's 
commands for a general mourning, by the gratuitous ad- 
dition of plenteous weeping! for such an amoSt of rain was 
seldom seen as to-day; we, however, set out at half-past nine, 
finding a file of carriages already formed, and after we had 
been set down in the covered entrance, slow was our advance 
to the octagonal vestibule, where hung the flags and banners, 
lighted up by a single large candelabrum, with a file of the 
Guards standing against the dark hangings. From thence 
we entered the hall, at the extremity of which stood the 
bier, lighted by gigantic tapers, and gorgeously covered and 
hung round with cloth of gold and silver velvet, and sur- 
mounted by the orders and insignia of the deceased. A close 
row of troops between the wall and rows of lights had a 
striking effect against the finely-draped hangings. The 
whole scene of death was so fiill of vigorous life. The 
spectators slowly and silently defiled past the catafalque, and 
welcome would have been dome solemn swell of sacred music 
to fill the dead silence, which seemed to choke the eflPusion 
of feeling too strong for individual utterance. My parents' 
recollection reverted to the lying in state of the remains of 
Cardinal Consalvi, nearly thirty years before, when they felt 
relief from the unadorned but full -voiced chant of the ^ Dies 

We were glad to reach the shelter of home from the fear- 
ful storm, which continued increasingly all day and night, 
and caused inundations on the banks of the Thames in the 
lower regions eastwards. 

Saturday, ISth November. — Carlyle came to see my father, 
expressing himself warmly about his journey in Germany, 
where he went to see the sites of the great Frederick's battles, 
as well as other spots of historical note ; with peculiar en- 
thusiasm he spoke of the Wartburg— ' I think that little 


CHAP, avoid Temple Baj and cross by Blackfriars Bridge to Dean's 
^^- Yard close to the Cathedral, we were enabled to make the 
transit with less delay than most people, and arrived at 
ten. The whole sight was in the highest degree solemn 
and impressive, from the partition reserved for the Corps 
Diplomatique. Opposite to us a partition filled with the 
principal military officers, mostly grey-haired, headed by the 
Napier brothers (Sir Charles with his classiccMy grand ffu» 
and white bushy hair and beard), Lord Grough, Lord Anglesea, 
&c. Then, in another partition, sat the Peers, with the Lord 
Chancellor at their head ; opposite to them, and close to us, 
the House of Commons, with their Speaker; within that 
partition and near where I sat, was a very amiable M.P., who 
imparted to me his knowledge of the names of distingaished 
persons, in return for which I informed him as to the 
foreigners, who excited much pleasure and curiosity, particu- 
larly old Count Nostitz, who wore a splendid uniform. 

About Half-past eleven parts of the procession began to 
drop in; about one o'clock the clergy filed ofiF, with the 
Bishop of London and Dean Milman at their head, to meet 
the bier, and, after some delay, returned with it — ^the Choir 
in front singing, ^ I am the Resurrection and the Life,' with- 
out any organ accompaniment, — both sight and sound were 
grand : but the most striking moment was when the coffin 
was lowered by invisible machinery into the vault, and all 
the Generals, contemporaries of the Duke, stood round, hold- 
ing the banners in a circle about it, and following with a last 
look all that was mortal of him who had stood first among 
them, as the receptacle slowly vanished from sight — and 
most affecting it was to see so many men of iron mould 
shedding tears. 

By the kind help of Mr. Cureton, we were conducted by 
bye-ways to the north entrance, where we obtained our car- 
riage with marvellous quickness, and reached home by four 
o'clock. The behaviour of the untold multitudes was excel- 
lent ; not a single case known of disorderly conduct, nor of 
the slightest irregularity, to disturb the sensation of universal 
sympathy, in the complicated consciousness of a proud pos- 
session and of an irreparable loss. The calculation in the 
newspapers was curious of the millions which London must 
have held on this day — every train from every quarter bring- 


CHAP, from being Christianity as even Religion, in any degree — 
^^' any more than gazing out of the swamp into which one has 
fallen, up towards another, standing safe and high on the 
bank, can prove the means of being drawn out of the swamp ; 
and the attempt, in the strength of Self (that is, of the crea- 
ture contemplating itself apart frx)m God), to escape out of 
the swamp, is not in the slightest degree less irrational than 
the well-known assertion of Munchausen, that in a similar 
condition he pulled himself out by grasping his own pigtail. 

But that is not your religion : you believe in Christ, you 
lead a life of brotherly love for the brethren of Christ, and in 
His name ; but the bridge which must be built between your 
conscience, and the decisions of reason as to the eternal 
consequences of evil, and the Redeemer, you cannot with 
your own reason construct. In other words, you cannot feel 
that in that consciousness of sin, and the self-condemnation 
therein comprehended, the transfusion of &ith and penitence, 
lies the reality of redemption : which is the solution of the 
enigma, the being loosened from the curse of tbe law (that is, 
of conscience) : from the * illusion of sin,' as NovaJis says. 
It is as if one in immediate danger of suffocation should 
wake up in the free air of Heaven, and yet doubt the saving 
quality of the atmosphere by which he is renovated, because 
he can neither see nor grasp it. 

Into this spiritual air of heaven has Jesus brought us, 
not only by His having declared God as Eternal Love, but 
essentially yet more as having proved the fact of redemption 
by His perfect and all-sufficient self-sacrifice, completed for 
the entire human race. Nothing is thereby altered in God's 
eternal nature, for that is Love ; but in our consciousness of 
Him, as the centre of our life, the end and object, fraught 
with blessing, of all longing, as Him ^ in whom we live, and 
move, and have our being.' 

This consciousness, and that of our moral responsibility, 
make out, whether evangelically or philosophically con- 
sidered, the eternal, universal, and one only safe foundation 
of the doctrine of justification, as well as that of our eter- 
nal blessedness, of eternal life (John xvii. 3), in which we 
may live, even now, if we do not exclude ourselves. But 
the way thither lies in eating the body and drinking the 
blood of Christ (John vi.), — that is, in merging our own 


CHAP. Thursday, 2wd December. — (This was the day of the Pro- 

XV. clamation of the Empire in France ; anticipated by Madame 
Walewski last night, who wore white with a bonquet of 
violets, which Napoleon also wore on occasion of his ppo- 
clamation.) The Generals took their departure from Eng- 
land, — only General Schamhorst will remain as our guest; 
but, desiring to be incognito, he went for two days first to 

Friday, 3rd December. — My father being compelled to stay 
in bed, gave up, much to his regret, a breakfieust-party at 
Mr. Milnes's, to which he was invited as ' Father Hippo- 
lytus.' The new Austrian Ambassador, Count Buol, and his 
Countess, made their first visit, come straight from Paris, 
with fresh impression of the cowp d^Stat. Mj mother had to 
receive them alone, as my father was laid up, The Ambas- 
sador's entire approbation of the course taken by the new 
Emperor, Louis Napoleon, was quite startling: he said, 
^ Enfin, c'est qu'on ne vient a bout de dominer cette canaille, 
qu'en leur inspirant de la peur : c'est-la aussi notre politique 
— a nous, en Autriche.' Lord and Lady Palmerston, who 
also returned very lately from Paris, seemed quite won over 
by Louis Napoleon, and proclaim their conviction of his 
making good his part. 

Wednesday, 8th December, — At one o'clock, the Jerusalem 
Committee, consisting of Lord Shaftesbury, Mr. Venn, Mr. 
Nicolayson, and my father. After it was over, my father 
commented on the admirable manner of transacting business 
among Englishmen — cool, earnest, clear, decisive — efficiency, 
not eftect, being sought after and achieved. 

We left my father at a quarter past ten, still walking up 
and down the length of the two drawing-rooms, after having 
studied the opinion of Lassen upon the situation of Eden, 
which very nearly coincides with his own view of the subject, 
to be stated in the volume of ^ Egypt,' which he expects to 
publish by Easter 1853 ! 

Friday, 10th December, — My father made me read aloud a 
copy of a letter from Guizot to Mrs. Austin, on the Pro- 
clamation of the Empire, written while the cannon was 
firing in honour of that ' honteuse commie,' as he calls it. 
It disclaims the rumours that had been spread as to his 
joining the present regime. 


XV. Bunsen to Baron StocJcmar. 

..^.^ [Translation.] 

Wednesday, 15ih Deeember, 1852. 

I hope to receive a word from you, on the subject of 
the idea of an Anglo-Prussian alliance with Belgium and 
Holland. My view of the matter is, — ^let Prussia form its 
alliance with those two Powers, after having by wise moder- 
ation, and by the Customs Union {ZoUverein), regained its 
position in Germany : and theuy not before, let the question 
be asked of England. Allora sara altra cosa ! 

I send you a little excursion into the domain of the time 
between 1813 and 1839, on the occasion of a new edition of 
Niebuhr's * Life and Letters.' 

Contemporary Notice. 

19th December, 1852. 

My father's excitement on the fall of the Ministry was 
redoubled when he read the debates, and found that it was 
Mr. Gladstone who had virtually turned out Disraeli by a 
speech in which he went through the Budget, and showed it 
to be impracticable. This is the second time only that Glad- 
stone has spoken since the existence of the Derby-Disraeli 
Ministry ; he was asked one day by my father why he did 
not speak oftener, when he replied that he was withheld by 
mistrust in himself, lest he should find too much difficulty 
in keeping within Christian bounds of moderation, in en- 
deavouring to utter faithfully the truth, and yet avoid all 
that might be construed into personality. 

Saturday^ 18th December. — At eleven o'clock, we had to 
take leave of the kind General Schamhorst: my mother 
gave him as a remembrance the book with a key for writinor 
reminiscences, and he seemed pleased, but did not promise 
to use it. My father accompanied him to the station ; he was 
an old friend from the year 1825 at Rome, when he lived in 
the daily intercourse of Palazzo Caflfarelli, as he has done of 
late in that of Carlton Terrace. My father communicated to 
us the good news of the successftil conclusion of an important 
piece of business begun long since by him — the purchase of 
Palazzo Caffarelli by the Prussian Government for the resi- 
dence of the Legation at Rome. Colonel Mure called at 


CHAP. Thursday^ 23rd December, — At breakfast, my &ther read 
^^- aloud the Laboulaye article on ^ Hippolytus ' — and remarked 
on the admirable talent of the French in compressing and 
expressing the opinions and meaning of another so as to 
reproduce them out of an improved mould. That, he said, 
was the case here, for the opinions were his own, but giren in 
a terse, elegant form, which differed altogether from his. He 
rejoiced Miss Nightingale's heart by assuring her that he 
hiid now satisfactorily arranged the Egyptian dynasties, and 
foimd the place of Joseph. She took leave, and left us after 

Bvmsen to Baron Stochmar. 

[Translation.] London : 2nd Januarj, 185S. 

I must send my beloved friend a sign of life in the beauti- 
ful Sunday morning, to thank him for his valued letter : and 
it just occurs to me that the enclosed lines of Kiickert, 
which, according to Eckermann, Gothe often had recited to 
him, might be a pleasure to him.* 

* Riickert's poem alluded to became a real favourite of Bunsen's later 
years. It runs as follows : — 

Um Mittemacht 

Hab ich gewacht, 

Und aufgeblickt gen Himmel : 

Kein Stem vom Stemgewimmel 

Hat mir gelacht 

Um Mittemacht. 

Cm Mittemacht 

Hab ich gedacht 

Ilinaus in dunkele Scbranken : 

£s hat kein Lichtgedanken 

Mir Trost gebracht 

Um Mittemacht. 

Um Mittemacht 

Kampft ich die Schlacht, 

O Menschheit, deiner Leiden : 

Nicht konnt ich sie entscheiden 

Mit meiner Macht 

Um Mittemacht. 

Um Mittemacht 
Hab ich die Macht, 
lierr iiber Tod' und Leben, 
In deine Hand gegeben : 
Du hiiltst die Wacht 
Um Mittemacht. 


CHAP, home party, dined, and about ten a considerable crowd col- 

'_^ lected, which on being aware of the midnight hour, hurried 

away all in a heap and a fiight. As the presiding genius of 
the evening, a gigantic map of Afiica by Fetermann had been 
hung up in the library, on which the routes of all African 
travellers were marked, as well as the probable route of VogeL 
Friday^ 18th February. — ^At Abbey Lodge the farewell 
European dinner was given to Vogel, who is to set out for 
Southampton on Saturday, to sail on Sunday for Malta. 
After dinner my father made a short speech on the A&ican 
expedition, and proposed the health of Vogel: and Mr. 
Gurney answered with a few cordial and dignified expres- 
sions of Christian sympathy and hope. 

20th February. -^The long-desired letters from Africa 
arrived, just twelve hours after Vogel had left London — ^with 
the sad intelligence of the death of Overweg on the 27th of 
September last, on the border of Lake Tsad. My father was 
long busy with Petermann, who will work out a map fi^m 
particulars sent by Dr. Barth. In the aft^emoon Baron 
Stockmar came, and my father read to him and all those in 
the library the Preface to his new work. 

Bunsen to Agricola {Presidmit of the Consistory of Ootha). 

[Translation.] London : 3rd March, 1853. 

I have interred Germany, as in Good Friday's tomb — sure 
iu hope of that Easter morning of resurrection, which, how- 
ever, I shall not see. 

To a Son. 
[Translation.] 22nd March, 1853. 

The whole German system of study is irrational, because 
no bridge is contrived between theory and practice ; and anti- 
quarian research in separate branches of knowledge is substi- 
tuted for the universal interests of humanity. 

Towards the end of this month, the following gratify- 
ing and admirable diploma, as a D.C.L. of the Univer- 
versitv of Edinburo:h, was transmitted to Bunsen : — 


To C. C. J. Bunsen, of the King of Prussia's Privy Coimcil, 
and by him sent into Great Britain, as an Envoy most wel- 


CHAP, over, all by degrees made their way to the centre, to shake 

XV. hands with Mrs. Stowe, and make obeisance to the Dachess. 

My father spoke some time to Mrs. Stowe, and was greatly 

struck by her, as we all were — no affectation ; dignity and 

self-possession in her whole appearance. 

Thursday y 26th May. — ^We had the pleasure of welcoming 
M. Yalette, who had been making a tour in Scotland, in the 
interest of his poor German congregation at Paris, for whom 
a chapel and schools have to be built ; it was a great priyi- 
lege to have him in the house ; the ten days of his stay lefb 
behind them an impression of peace and of deep interest in 
the best things in the midst of the noisy whirl of our London 

2nd June. — I went with Neukomm early at eight o'clodk^ 
to witness the Confirmation and Premibre Communion of the 
two French Princes, sons of the Duchess of Orleans. The 
ceremony was performed by Cardinal Wiseman, in presence 
of all the Boyal Fanuly of France, and a large number of 
French Orleanist noblesse. 

Saturday y 18th June. — My father having been invited to see 
the Crystal Palace in its still unfinished state, we packed our- 
selves a carriage full to accompany him. After passing Dul- 
wich the country prospect became charming, and soon we 
perceived the new building on a wooded height. Mr. Phillips, 
Mr. Layard, and Mr. Owen Jones, guided us and a large party 
over this wonderful construction, which promises to realise 
Aladdin's Palace. From the galleries the view is beautiful, 
and was evidently enjoyed by the eighty singers from Cologne, 
who had been brought over by Mr. Mitchell. By degrees all 
visitors had collected (400 or 500) in a comparatively small 
coDier of the galleries, when suddenly the eighty began to 
sing ; and grandly did their voices sound, electrifying the 
workpeople of all tongues and nations, who ceased ham- 
mering, and joined in a loud hurrah as soon as the first song 
ended. After the second song, the dinner bell summoned the 
thousands from their various places of work, and they were 
like a swarm of bees passing along all ladders and stairs and 
corridors ; when the eighty sounded forth * God save the 
Queen !' and each and all remained standing, hat in hand, on 
whatever spot they had reached, till at the end they burst into 
another loud hurrah ! It was a heart-stirring scene. Then 


CHAP. Count and Ernest, went to Dover, to receive the Prince and 
^^' Princess of Prussia, who arrived in the night. 

27th June. — In the afternoon the Prince of Prussia was so 
kind as to call, — unfortunately, my mother was out. 

Tuesday^ 28th June. — My father went at six to the christen- 
ing (in the chapel of Buckingham Palace) of the little Prince 
Leopold Oeorge Duncan Albert ; and was at the splendid ban- 
quet afterwards. At ten there was an evening invitation to a 
limited number; my mother saw with pleasure our Princess 
Louise, grown much taller and handsomer in the last two 

Wednesday^ 6th July. — My father read at breakfast the 
Emperor Nicholas's manifesto, which accuses the Porte of 
violation of faith, and declares a crusade and holy war! 
My father said, even the aggression of Napoleon against 
Spain was hardly so devoid of pretext as this act, which he 
considered to be a wanton rushing upon destruction on the 
part of the Emperor- When my father went into his library 
with me after breakfast, he could not refrain from beginning 
over again about this extraordinary event, of which he spoke 
with great emotion, as though he felt woes to be at hand. 

Thursday y 7th July. — The accounts from Weimar (of the 
father of the Princess of Prussia) are more serious, and the 
Prince and Princess are going off this very evening. The 
Queen did not take leave of them in person, for fear of com- 
municating the infection, as she attends upon Prince Albert, 
who has the measles. 

Thursday, 2 ist July. — Mr. Layard at breakfast, with Captain 
Jones, who has been twenty-six years in the East, and six- 
teen of them in Mesopotamia. He brought with him plans 
made by himself of Mosul, and the site of Nineveh, where he 
has measured the ground almost by inches, and felt so per- 
fectly at home, that in the great wilderness of London he is 
quite strange and solitary. His plans and explanations 
enable one to form a conception of these ancient cities, which 
was difficult so long as one remained confounded by the mo- 
dem notion of a town as consisting of a heap of stones, more 
or less well arranged, with street crammed close to street, and 
scarcely room for the air to circulate, far less for fields, trees, 
and cultivation. It is plain that we are to think of Nineveh, 
Babylon, Ecbatana, as enclosures, with walls well fortified 
and capable of defence, including a space more like a small 


CHAP. I am beginning to express in English what I mean £o 
^^' say — ^what I wishj and not only what I must : (i. e., I am 
becoming the master of the language, instead of being mas- 
tered by it.) 

Extracts from Diaries {contiimed). 

Friday, &th August. — My parents dined at the Palace, 
where, with the Duke and Duchess of Argyll, they were the 
only guests. The Queen is looking much better since she had 
the measles, so long dreaded as dangerous for her, the skin 
much clearer. 

Tuesday y 9th August. — My parents received an official invi- 
tation to be present at the grand review of the fleet off 
Spithead on the 11th. 

My father and Ernest went to Dover to meet the Prince 
of Prussia, who is going to Osborne to be present at the 
naval review. 

Thvrsdayy 11th August. — My mother being laid up in bed 
by a sharp attack of illness (she has been the last to fail, each 
of us, beginning with my father, having paid the penalty of 
over-exertion and excitement), I was allowed to profit by her 
ticket, and with my father and Ernest reached London Bridge 
by six, where in great confusion, peers, commoners. Corps 
Diplomatique in various grades, were all seeking places in 
the last special train for Gosport, at which place we were 
marshalled by Sir Edward Oust, and packed in boats, which 
rowed us to our several destinations — the Bull Dog and 
Stromboli being appointed for the peers and commoners, and 
the Vivid for the Corps Diplomatique. The day was splendid, 
— glorious sunshine and a light breeze : the sea quite calm, 
and sparkling. A^ we got farther out, the enormous and 
magnificent men-of-war (the Duke of Wellington, the Aga- 
memnon, &c.) were an unique spectacle, the background 
being filled by hundreds of yachts with sails brilliant in the 
sunshine. We reached our vessel by ten o'clock, and were 
soon in sight of the Victoria and Albert, which was no 
sooner perceived than all the ships saluted ; the sound, and 
the appearance of the vessels enveloped in smoke, was ex- 
ceedingly grand. We kept constantly near the Queen's 
ship, and thus could follow her movements, and saw the 
whole royal party, including our Prince, conveyed to visit 


CHAP. Weimar, and Lord Hardinge, being invited to meet him. 
^^' We were told afterwards that my &.ther proposed the Prince's 
health with a few words, to which the Prince replied in 
French by giving the Queen's health, remarking on two 
circumstances, — one, that he, having been present with the 
King his father, and the present King, at the last naval 
review in 1814, should, of all that witnessed it, be the only 
one to assist at this second great naval review ; then, that 
he had the pleasure to behold by his side a General who had 
fought with Bliicher in the great European battle which had 
delivered the Continent from tyranny, and which followed so 
close on the first naval review. 

At eight o'clock the Prince and suite departed to London 
Bridge Station. 

Sunday y 14th August. — ^The Duke and Duchess of Argyll 
called, with their beautiful little daughter. The Duke gave, 
an entertaining account of the Ministerial Pish Dinner, which 
never fails to terminate the Session, and took pla<;e yester- 
day. Lord Palmerston presided, and made most humorous 
speeches in giving the toasts ; in proposing Lord Aberdeen's 
health, he said that Lord A.'s Administration sufficiently 
showed that the object of a Tory Grovemment was destruc- 
tion, for it had succeeded in destroying one of the most 
leading and influential principles in English political life, — 
namely, party spirit : and that not only in his own party but 
in the Opposition. 

Saturday y 20th August, — In the morning I was busy tracing 
an ancient map of Arabia for my father ; Dr. Max Miiller 
♦ came to stay a few days. We walked with my father in the 

park ; he was full of his Himyaritic studies, which have led 
him to dwell much upon Arabia and particularly on Yemen. 
In the evening much conversation: Dr. MiiUer made us 
laugh with anecdotes, among others of a Professor of Arabic 
(who could not read the language) receiving a MS. said to 
be Sanscrit, which, however, came from China ; Miiller and 
others were asked to be present at the opening, when no 
sooner were the characters visible, than he read the first 
words of Genesis in Hebrew ! 

Tuesday y 23rd August. — Prince Adalbert came to luncheon, 
bringing two gentlemen with him, Herr von Lepel, and a 
Swedish captain (the Prussian naval officers are still too 
young in the service for the rank of captain). He stayed all 


CHAP, thinking how you will have enjoyed this late, but all the more 
^^' welcome, summer day. Pray read Qothe's * Oeistegworte,* 
they are prodigious. 

Dedication to J tus Hare of Vol, I.of^ Christianiiy and 

[Translated by Fanny Shuttle worth, now Mrs. Beran.*] 

Look we to the earth beneath us, over graves our pathway 

Underneath the stars it lieth, look we upward to the skies ; 
Many a loved one has departed, from amongst us here below, 
Many an ancient mound hides from us blessed dead of long 


Look we up then, life eternal beckons to us fi^m on high. 
Here on earth we yet are living, in the deep eternity: 
Led by this our God's creation to adore, and think, and love. 
Whilst the Spirit, high and holy, breathes upon us from 

Unto them that book is sealed, who are working for reward. 
Who with endless torment threaten souls who seek the rest 

of God; 
Blind, who from the twilight wander into night, and seeing 

Li the Spirit's work eternal but a passing human thought. 

In eternity still live we, looking to that spirit-land. 

Where, from Grod's own light of glory, shine to us the hero- 

Who on earth stood firm and fearless, fighting in the power 
of faith, 

For the heritage immortal, true and faithful unto death. 

There in radiance, clear and beauteous, shine the churches' 

holy light. 
And the Truth, no longer darkened by the gloom of earthly 

There the slave, and there the captive, break the chains that 

held them long, 
With the Spirit's power, almighty, speak to us that blessed 


* The original is given in the Appendix. 


CHAP. Calvinists, which was the work of the late King, in which 
' Niebuhr and Schleiermacher zealously supported him. My 
father said that nobody could more love and admire the 
Augsburg Confession than he did, if considered in connection 
with the circumstances in and for which it was written ; yet 
there are points (such as the declaration of damnation against 
all who belieye not in eternal damnation) which numbers, 
as well as himself, would decline to swear to. 

6th October- — The Church conferences at Berlin have closed 
better than seemed probable. Nitzsch and Snetlage have re- 
stored the balance on the Union side. A letter to my fSstther 
from Humboldt, kind and friendly as usual. Count and 
Countess Beust returned from Ireland, in their accustomed 
bright spirits, and full of amusing anecdotes. Preparations 
for my mother's going with me to Llanover on October 7 ; 
my fiEither cannot go in the present condition of foreign af- 
fairs. A great prize of 702. had been offered for an essay 
on the Trial by Jury, against the Abergavenny Cwmreiggyd- 
dion ; it was gained by Stephens, a druggist, on my fEkther^s 

Bunsen to his Wife. {At Llanover.) 

London : 10th October, 1853. 

[Bunsen had been urgently invited to be present at the 
Cwmreiggyddion, and had consented to look over the prize 
essays and give his award.] 

I cannot come — war has been eventually announced to 
Russia if she does not say formally what she wanted the 
other Powers to say — ^that is, the contrary of what she has 
said. I have conferences daily — telegrams and despatches 
twice ! My award is being copied. 

Words vrritten hy Bunsen in the Album at Ouddesdon Palace 
{Bishop of Oxford's)^ on departing, 12th November, 1853. 

Dominus habitat in viris amantibua paccm, et enim vera pax in caritate 
est: a contentiosis vero et perditis malitia longe abest. Renddite igitur ei 
Spiritum integrum sicut accepistis. — UermtB * Pastor,* 

Auflgang ist gut : Einkehr ist besser. — Tattler* s 'Predtgten.* 

In leaving to you, my dear Lord Bishop, as a tessera 
hospitaUtatiSy these lines, taken out of the two works which 

324 MEMOntS OF baron BUNSEN. 1859 

CHAP, when lie preax3lied an excellent and beantifdl sermon at St, 
^^' Peter's church. 

Extracts from Diaries. 

Satv/rday^ 3rd Decemher. — Mr. Abich, the geologist, and 
Professor Owen, came and gave us very curious information. 
Mr. Abich showed charts of the southern coast of the Sea of 
Azowy which is entirely volcanic ; and as the mud-eruptions 
contin\ie to accumulate land, one can there see in action the 
actual process of many older formations. 

Bunsen to Count Usedonu 


London : 8th December, 1853. 

First of all, as to my coming to Berlin. I am in a course 
of regimen, with a view to becoming free frx)m chronic suf- 
fering. I am unequal to more than a very small amount of 
walking or other exercise, and yet exercise is an absolute 
condition of amendment. What here keeps me in tolerable 
health is, 1, regular diet: 2, frequent but short walks (on the 
terrace or adjoining park) ; and, 3, the mildness of the cli- 
mate, which allows of these frequent daily walks. For these 
rules of life, all things are here arranged. At Berlin, I 
could not lead the life I ought. Sir Henry Holland is of 
opinion that by the month of April I may be better. 

In the second place, who should carry on the diplomatic re- 
lations ? I see Clarendon almost daily ; he receives me in the 
early part of the morning in his own house. In the after- 
noon, I may read at the Foreign Office whatever I wish to 
see. With Aberdeen I have les petites entrees ; also to Prince 
Albert when in London, regularly towards eleven o'clock in 
the morning, towards six in the afternoon, privately, and 
between times by means of writing. I am informed of every- 
thing. Walewski, who is a power^ communicates with me 
personally with the greatest readiness ; so also Musurus and 
Buchanan. Only with Colloredo and Brunnow would a sub- 
stitute do as well as myself, but an influence with the Cabi- 
net and Ministry no one can obtain without length of time. 
I believe that I possess aU the influence which, with our poli- 
tics, is possible. 


^^^' Extracts from Diaries {continued). 

1st January y 1854. — Before the close of the old year, we had 
already received the long-expected intelligence of the death 
of dear General Badowitz, on Christmas Day I We have the 
privilege of remembering many most interesting days during 
his stay with us three years ago, the impression of which will 
not easily wear away. The conversation at break£u3t tamed 
npon fiadowitz, of whom, bred up as he was at a Jesuit school, 
it might be said that his whole turn of mind was based upon 
what the head of a Jesuit school at Vienna had declared to my 
father to be the basis of their system of education — Religion 
(in their sense, i.e., the inflexible binding rule), and Mathe- 

Monday y ^nd January. — The Duke and Duchess of Argyll 
and Mr. Gladstone dined here. The conversation turned 
upon Naples and Italy, — a subject on which Mr. Gladstone 
is quite at home. 

Wednesday y 2&th January. — To breakfast came Sir Charles 
Trevelyan, Sir J. Herschel, Mr. Arthur, Professor Owen, af- 
terwards Mr. Venn, and several missionaries and men of learn- 
ing, to take part in the long-planned conference on the com- 
parative merits of two systems of transcription for all alpha- 
bets ; according to that of Max Miiller, italics would take the 
place of all accents, lines, dots, used in that of Lepsius. The 
conference lasted uninterruptedly till half-past one o*clock. 
To dinner came Sir George Staunton and Dr. Bowring, the 
latter is going out as Envoy to China. He told us much 
about the Chinese in his very entertaining manner. 

Tuesday, Slst January. — The opening of Parliament on 
this day had been looked forward to vnih some anxiety, 
lest there should have been an outbreak of the violent feel- 
ing against Prince Albert, produced by the circulation of 
absurd reports, attributing to him unwarrantable inter- 
ference in the Cabinet, the Privy Council, the Horse 
Guards, and where not? Great was our relief in the re- 
doubled and extreme cheering that attended the Queen's pas- 
sage. Just before the Queen passed, there was much cheering 
of the Musurus carriage, showing the public good-will towards 
the Turks under their present circumstances of hardship and 
aggression. My father went to hear the speeches. Lord 


CHAP, brown, fix)in snout to tail, and to the very end of Ub paws ; a 
^^' Cashmere dog, as big as a young lion, with just such legs 
and paws, — very amiable to those he knows, but terrible to 
an enemy ; also an Esquimaux dog, one bush of hair, out o: 
which peep the sly fox-eyes and sharp nose. The dogs 
all pleased to be noticed, and I should have liked to haye sa 
down amongst them to try to draw them, the place being 
clean and fresh as possible ; but I had to hasten away to driy< 
with your fsither, a beautiful circuit round the Castle, twic 
crossing the Thames. But I should best have liked to ha 
had your children with me, to see what I saw that eyenin.._^ 
between five and six o'clock, when we were allowed to folic 
the Queen and Prince Albert a long way, through one 
room after another, till we came to one where hung a r^^ 
curtain, which was presently drawn aside, for a representation 
of the Four Seasons, studied and contrived by the Boy^a/ 
children as a surprise to the Queen, in celebration of tiie 
day. First appeared Princess Alice as the Spring, scatteriiig' 
flowers, and reciting verses, which were taken from Thomson's 
^ Seasons ;' she moved gracefuUy, and spoke in a distinct and 
pleasing manner, with excellent modulation, and a tone of 
voice sweet and penetrating like that of the Queen. Then 
the curtain was drawn, and the scene changed, and the 
Princess Royal represented Summer, with Prince Arthur 
stretched upon the sheaves, as if tired with the heat and har- 
vest work ; another change, and Prince Alfred with a crown of 
vine leaves and the skin of a panther, represented Autumn- 
looking very well. Then followed a change to a winter land- 
scape, and the Prince of Wales represented "Winter, with a 
cloak covered with icicles (or what seemed such), and the 
Princess Louisa, a charming little muffled up figure, busy 
keeping up a fire ; the Prince reciting (as all had done) pas- 
sages more or less modified from Thomson. Then followed the 
last change, when all the Seasons were grouped togfether, and 
fiw behind, on a height, appeaired Princess Helena, with a long 
white veiL hanging on both sides down to her feet, hold- 
ing a long cross, and pronouncing a blessing upon the QneeTi 
and the Prince. These verses were composed for the occa*" 
sion: I understood them to say, that Saint Helenay remem^ 
Wring her own British extraction, came to pronounce a bene^ 
diction upon the Hulers of her countrv : and I think it mus**^ 





CHAP. Extracts from Diaries [contvrvaed). 

.A VX* 

On the 11th April, 1854, the first telegraphic announcement 

was made in the ^ Times ' of my father's beins^ recalled fix>m 
his post in London,-he Mmsel/not having revived any noti- 
fication of the fact, nor did he receive it officially for long after, 
although aware that the King had accepted his resignation, 
sent in the first week in April. The time of suspense and 
uncertainty was painful, but the kindly feeling towards my 
father and all of us, evinced in thousands of enquiries, notes, 
and letters of regret, when once the fact became known, was 
most gratifying. The feelings must be left out of the ques- 
tion with which we worked at despoiling our beautiful 
dwelling of the signs of our own especial life in it : yet when 
at last the great work was accomplished, it was with thank- 
fulness that we left those desolate rooms, filled as they were 
with associations and recollections of an important period of 
life, abounding in joy and sorrow — and were glad to find a 
temporary home under the friendly roof of beloved ones in 
Abbey Lodge, Eegent's Park. 

Contemporary Notice, hy a Dcuughter-in-LaWy in a Letter, 

23rd April, 1864. 

. . . The girls, no doubt, have written to you about their 
departure. The house to me never appeared more attractive 
than it did that afternoon, and it seemed hard to look on 


CHAP, most closely had contemplated him, knew him to be, the^ 

^ • result must be to prove that he was incapable of anjr^ 

intention or action inconsistent with his integrity, andK 

his devotedness to the good of his King and country,^ 

as he understood it. 

It is not for the writer of these lines to examine o: 
determine where, and how far, Bunsen was entangled i 
errors of judgment; and therefore the question wheth 
he would not have done better to resign his post pre — 
vious to the signature of the Danish Protocol of London^ 
in 1852, must be left, with many other questions, tod 
the decision of others. That the resignation, at last= 
tendered in April 1854, had not been much earlie 
determined upon, may be referred to the causes whic 
made the final departure from England so indescribabljp^ 
painful, that nothing but the total impossibility of car — 
rying on his diplomatic transactions with due regard tc^ 
that unity of purpose and character essential to his con— 
ception of public duty, could have brought him to the 
pitch of resolution, necessary for resigning, — not th© 
show and importance of a high station (which entailed 
labour and loss of time which were every year felt to be 
more oppressive), but the vivid succession of animated 
interests, moral, religious, political, intellectual^ which 
made his daily existence one course of imbibing ideas, 
of taking in at will successive draughts of universal life, 
in nations or in nature, while resident on that spot of 
earth which he loved to call the world's metropolis. 
This universality of energy (all powers being with him 
ever living), and his inexhaustible stock of animal spirits, 
enabled him to meet the demands made upon him, by 
every variety of matter to a degree most persons would 
find it difficult to keep pace with, even in fancy ; and 
the friction in every direction, which would have been 
wearing and overstraining to minds in general, fur- 
nished his with exactly the desired degree of stimulus, 
weariness never being the result of any amount of mental 


CHAP, acceptance, at High Wood, beyond Harrow, with the &ith- 
^^ ful friend of many years, Lady Raffles, with her to reflect 
aloud, to look beyond, before, and around them ; and in 
the beneficent stillness of the countrj^ and the spring, to 
collect fresh strength and spirit for days and weeks of 
trying transition. The royal licence to depart having 
arrived, no longer delay was allowed to intervene but 
such as was indispensable for the last arrangements ; 
the painful resolution was made and executed, to part 
with multiplied memorials of past periods of animated 
existence, in the form of pictures, engravings, and other 
objects of art, and even with the greater portion of a 
library, more precious to Bunsen than all the rest, which 
at first he had determined to pack up and remove with 
him, until convinced on trial that the mass would be too 
great for any house that he would be likely in future 
to occupy, and a selection was made, which, however 
bulky, had better have been larger, since numerous 
were the works subsequently required and purchased a 
second time ; but the act of renunciation once decided 
upon, naturally assumed too large dimensions. This 
difficulty once over, Bunsen was prevailed upon to leave 
the distasteful occupation of breaking up and destroying 
the complicated structure of domestic life and conafort 
which he and his family had enjoyed, to those whose 
labour and sense of repugnance was indescribably les- 
sened and lightened by the consciousness that he was 
spared all that he could be relieved from, by accepting the 
kind hospitality of Mr. and Mrs. Wagner, at St. Leonard's, 
where, in the enjoyment of sea air and of the most sooth- 
ing and gratifying attentions, he employed the leisure 
much needed for the last finishing of various works, for 
which the printing press was, as it were, waiting. Ex- 
tracts from a few letters will mark not only the indivi- 
dual occupations of the time,but also the fuUnessof vigour 
with which he had struggled, and gradually overcome 
the intensely felt trials of the crisis. In that house of 


CHAP, celebration. The Steam Navigation Company would 

not accept payment for the transmission of the family 

and their bulky effects, nor would the porters of St. 
Katherine's Docks allow of remuneration for the very 
considerable labour of conveying the latter on board, 
offering such labour as a token of much-prized respect. 
Bunsen remained with his son in the Regent's Park as 
many days longer as were indispensable for delivering 
the whole of his work to the press ; the extracts which 
follow from his letters will give some idea of the quan- 
tity of labour gone through, and the spirit which seemed 
to prevent all consciousness of exertion. Friends con- 
tinued to collect about him, and it was difficult to con- 
vince many of them that his remaining longer in England 
(at least for the period that might be required for com- 
plying with invitations to lengthened visits in the coun- 
try) was for many reasons out of the question ; the princi- 
pal reason always being that Bun3en could never be happy, 
for a continuance, but in a home of his own ; and after 
the breaking up of the home of years, no time was to be 
lost in constructing another. At length the two busy 
and exciting weeks which formed the close of the im- 
portant thirteen years of his life in England came to an 
end ; and the presence of his son George on his journey 
smoothed over the effort of his departure. On the way 
up the Rhine the travellers stopped at Neu Wied, to visit 
the Prince and Princess of Wied, at their lovely country 
residence, Monrepos. They had but just returned them- 
selves from Paris, where a residence of nearly a year ha3> 
been blessed to them by the restoration of health aii<3L 
power of activity to the Princess by the hands of Couir*^ 
Szapary. Bunsen was overpowered by paternal joy ^^^ 
the sight of his second daughter Emilia, restored equali^ Z, 
with the Princess to the powers and the well-bei 
(which, granted at her birth, had long been in abe 
ance), by the same persevering endeavours and the sa 
beneficent effluence of healing vigour, under the kii 



Extracts from Daughters^ Letters. 

Satordaj, May, 1854. 

We have literally packed from morning till ni^ht — ^and 
now at last, in a short breathing time, I try to give some 
account of the great change of plans and views which took 
place on Thursday last, when my father himself came to the 
conclusion that nothing will do but our going to Germany. 
Bonn, Basle, and, at last, Heidelberg, were passed in review ; 
and it actually and really seems fixed that the latter should 
be our home. I can hardly describe the difference it makes 
to us in all the trouble and fatigue of this removal, to look 
forward to a home^ whereas before I felt as if we were never 
again (for some time at least) to have a roof of our own over 
our heads. The mixture of feeling you can fancy — ^how the 
thought of having to remove farther from so many beloved 
ones, besides the entire beginning of life afresh, weighs 
heavy in the opposite balance to the joyous anticipation of 
living in the beloved fatherland, and becoming personally 
acquainted with it. My dearest parents are both quite happy 
in the idea — my father fall of the bright side of the plwi. 
What a comfort that he has thus been brought to this con- 
clusion without any farther distress or disappointment ! 

Last Sunday was a never-to-be-forgotten Whit Sunday : 
my father and mother and all of us went to the Savoy 
Church for the last time, and we stayed all together at the 
Holy Communion, after which we were asked to go into the 
vestry, where clergy and superintendents desired leave to 
present an address to my father. Dear old Steinkopf was 
too unwell to read the address which he had written, most 
warmly and affectionately, and it was read aloud by Schoell : 
the vestry was as full as it could hold of persons who had 
remained on purpose to be present. Then my father spoke 
a few words in answer, most beautifully — very different from 
his manner of speaking in English ; and giving such excel- 
lent parting advice as to the duty of all Germans in England, 
never to forget the fatherland, but to remain in spiritual 
communion with it, besides giving all the material aid in 
the power of every one severally. Half, at least, of those 
present were in tears ; and the affectionate words and manner 
of each, as we all shook hands, were most affecting. The 



XVI. Extract of a Letter from a Son in London to his Brother 
in the Country. 

8th May, 1854. 

The letter of the Prince of Prussia was followed by one 
from the Princess,-r-equally warm, and, in fact, affectionate. 
Prince Albert has been most warm in his expressions, in his 
own name and that of Queen Victoria. You will be de- 
lighted to read these letters, with those of many a real friend. 
Lord John Russell's is a fine document. Lord Aberdeen kept 
my father two hours, and parted from him with tears in his 
eyes. ^ I was instrumental in fixing you here, thirteen years 
ago, and indeed I do not regret it — I can/not take leave of you,' 
Lord Palmerston speaks as quite indignant at this break up, 
and shows all the kindness he can. 

We felt it a great blessing to drive to church yesterday, 
for my father, as it were, to take leave. He was very happy, 
in a solemn temper. You would have been glad to have been 
present, when during the last part of the hymn, he bowed 
down his fine head, leaning it on both his hands, and 
prayed silently, an abundant flow of tears rushing from his 
eyes. Nothing could be more mild and heavenly than his 
spirit all the day — open, bright, and generous to all whom 
he met. 

A new African expedition is about to start, and I have 
succeeded in getting a College friend of mine in (Bleek), 
through my father, whose letter to Lord Clarendon on this 
subject was his last ofiicial application, and, as being such, 

This night my father and mother go to the Queen's Con- 
cert — ^the last time of attending a Court festivity. 

Bunsen to Mrs. Schwabe, 


St. Leonard's-on-Sea : 12th May, 1854. 

Your valued second letter has hit upon the very crisis of 
our life ; — we must give up England, and we are about to re- 
move to Germany, and to Heidelberg. To-morrow I shall 
learn whether the house there must be taken from the 24th. 
Should this be the case, we should be obliged to set out 
about the 1 8th. 


CHAP, esting drive we had ! He talked so beaatifullj and toucbingly 
^^^' of everything, espeeiall j of his visit to Prince Albert, sajiDg 
he had referred him to his translation of the 73rd Psalm, as 
the best description of the present time. So we got to the 
station, where he took leave of the old coachman ; and then 
we paced up and down. He talked about us all, and all that 
his children were to him, now more than ever. And then he 
departed : and I returned to Carlton Terrace to talk to G. 
about business, and carry away my usual daily cargo of things 
set apart for you and Mary and ourselves. 

That evening they all adjourned hither; Frances in time to 

• superintend my dressing for the Queen's Ball — ^whither I went 

with E. The Queen asked particularly of E. after his &ther. 

Bunsen to Miss Winkworth,^ 
77 Marina, St LeonardVon-Sea : 12th May, ISRL 

Your letter and the proof sheets of your Translation of the 
*Theologia Gtermanica,' with Kingsley's Preface and yonr 
Introduction, were delivered to me yesterday, as I was leaving 
Carlton Terrace to breathe once more, for a few days, the 
refreshing air of this quiet, lovely place. You told me that 
you had been led to study Tauler and the *TheoIogia 
Germanica' by some conversations which we had on the 
subject in 1851, and you wish me to state to your readers, in 
a few lines, what place I conceive this school of Grermanic 
theology to hold in the general development of Christian 
thought, and what appears to me to be the bearing of this 
work, in particular upon the present dangers and prospects 
of Christianity, as well as upon the eternal interests of reUgion 
in the heaii; of every man and woman. 

I may begin by saying with Luther, I rank this short 
treatise next to the Bible : but, unlike him, should place it 
before rather than after St. Augustine, That school of pious, 
learned, and profound men, of which this book is, as it were, 
the popular catechism, was the Germanic counterpart of 
Romanic scholasticism, and more than the revival of that 
Latin theology which produced so many eminent thinkers, 
from Augustine, its father, to Thomas Aquinas, its last great 

* Printed by way of introduction to Miss Winkworth^a translation of 
* Theoi<Hf%a Germanica* 


CHAP, up against the temptations of prosperity and the trials of 

^^^' adversity. 

In following this course they brought the people back from 
hollow profession and real despair to the blessings of Gospel 
religion, while they opened to philosophic minds a new career 
of thought. By teaching that man is justified by faith, 
and by faith alone, they prepared the intellectual element of 
the Reformation ; by teaching that this faith has its philo- 
sophy, as folly able to carry conviction to the understanding, 
as faith to give peace to the troubled conscience, they paved 
the way for that spiritual philosophy of the mind of which 
Kant laid the foundation. But they were not controver- 
sialists, as the Eeformers of the sixteenth century were 
driven to be by their position, and not men of science ex- 
clusively, as the masters of modem philosophy in Q«rmany 
were and are. Although most of them friars, or laymen 
connected with the religious orders of the time, they were 
men of the people, and men of action. They preached the 
saving faith to the people in churches, in hospitals, in the 
streets and public places. In the strength of this faith, 
Tauler, when he had been already for years the universal 
object of admiration as a theologian and preacher through 
all the free cities on the Ehine, from Basle to Cologne, 
humbled himself, and remained silent for the space of two 
years, after the mysterious layman had shown him the in- 
sufficiency of his scholastic learning and preaching. In the 
strength of this faith he braved the Pope's interdict, and 
gave the consolations of religion to the people of Strasburg, 
during the dreadful plague which depopulated that flourish- 
ing city. For this faith, Eckart suffered with patience 
slander and persecution, as formerly he had borne with 
meekness honours and praise. For this faith, Nicolaus of 
Basle, who sat down as a humble stranger at Tauler^s feet, 
to become the instrument of his real enlightenment, died a 
martyr in the flames. In this sense, the ' Friends of God * 
were, like the Apostles, men of the people, and practical 
Christians, while, as men of thought, their ideas contributed 
powerfully to the great efforts of the European nations in the 
sixteenth century. 

Let me, therefore, my dear friend, lay aside all philoso- 
phical and theological terms, and state the principles of the 


CHAP, earnestness, and the first of these eminent writers carries 
^^^- out, as it appears to me, most consistently, that fondamental 
truth of the ^ Theologia Germanica,' that there is no sin bat 
selfishness, and that all selfishness is sin. 

Such appear to me to be the characteristics of our book 
and of Tauler. 

I may be allowed to add, that this small but golden 
treatise has been now for almost forty years an unspeakable 
comfort to me and to many Christian friends (most of whom 
have already departed in peace) to whom I had the happiness of 
introducing it. May it, in your admirably faithful and lucid 
translation, become a real ' book for the million' in England, 
a privilege which it already shares in Gtermany with Tauler's 
matchless sermons, of which I rejoice to hear that you are 
making a selection for publication ! May it become a bless- 
ing to many a longing Christian heart in that dear countiy 
of yours, which I am on the point of leaving after many 
happy years of residence, but on which I can never look as a 
strange land to me, any more than I shall ever consider 
myself as a stranger in that home of Teutonic liberty and 
energy which I have found to be also the home of practical 
Christianity, and of warm and faithful affection! 


Bunsen to his Wife, 


77 Marina, St Leonard's : 12th May, 1854 

I arrived here prosperously, and was received at the star 
tion by Emily and a servant, to my great refreshment. I 
came on foot hither, where the excellent master of the house 
met me, followed by Mrs. Wagner, with the hearty kindness 
peculiar to himself — he having been cured of an indisposition, 
and called out of bed by yesterday's successful election of 
Mr. North. After the ^ substantial tea,' the two good girls 
played Beethoven and other things, and then I went (gui^ 
well) to bed, and rose early this morning. Before six I was 
writing at my ^ Conclusion ' for the press, which I hope to 
finish before noon. My feeling is that I may be suddenly 
called back to town. Everything is ready for whatever mar 
come, and whenever it comes. 

My ' Chronological Tables ' (stretching over 3,300 years) 
Johannes Brandis has carried through 600 years already and 


CHAP, to-morrow early, and send oflF a fair copy to her, as I promised. 
^^' Thus I shall just have brought to an end the work under- 
taken in and for England, when the hour of departure is 
come. What a misfortune it would haye been if the crisis 
had occurred six months sooner ! . • . I deserted you, all of 
you dear ones, in the midst of labour and care ; but I quiet 
myself with the reflection that the time was come when I 
ceased to be helpful, and could only by my presence disturb 
and impede you. 

14th May, — Things at Berlin are in a serious position — it 
is in the character of people to rush blindly towards the 
abyss, and then, at a sudden jolt, to stop and let go eyery- 
thing by half measures and contradictions. 

A fine notion that of placing me in the Ober-Kirchenrath 
(Upper Church Council) ! An eagle may be caught as well 
as a crow, but not enticed down from his rock by a vulgar 
bait, as the crow might be from his tree. No! * Sursum 
corda ' is the word and * Kopf oben * (* head above the water'). 
I wish they would come direct to me with the offer ! My 
letter to Miss Winkworth will please you ; it flowed out of 
my very soul, and is a leave-taking from the country and 
nation which I shall never see again. 

I have walked out four times to-day, and besides have 
driven in the evening with the Wagners. The dear host and 
hostess are kind beyond description, and when I have once 
promised to walk, Emily insists, in the most amiable manner, 
but with the pitiless force of a steam-screw of 200-horse 
power, and gains her point. 

To Archdeacon Julitis Hare, 

77 Marina^ St. Leonard *8-on -Sea : 22nd May, 1864. 

My dearest Friend, — I cannot be with you to-morrow 
bodily, but I shall be with you in soul and spirit on that 
auspicious day, which crowns so many noble and pious 
wishes, and hopes, and prayers, and sacrifices. God be 
thanked that you will see to-morrow that beautiful spot con- 
secrated for ever to God's service, on the outskirts of that 
population among whom you and yours have grown and 

I am awaiting in this refreshing sea air and quiet the 


XVI. Bimaen to his Wife. {At Heidelberg.) 


Abbey Lodge : Monday, 12tli June, 1854. 

Only one line — ^a sign of life and love. I have had a 
delightful day with Max Miiller, who told me the result of 
the Turner Essay, which I had no time to read ; Trevelyan 
was also there, and Jowett, all fiill of kindness. I feel quite 
overwhelmed by so much affection; may I once leave the 
world, as now I leave England^ — ^with love all around, but 
yet going willingly ! 

To-day I shall be with Hare ; to-morrow, Stanley; Wednes- 
day, the Thatched House; Thursday, Gladstone comes to 
breakfast ; Friday, leave taking. The Prince and the Queen 
always most kind. All things prepared for departure. 
Harford has given me a copy of the ceiling of the Sixtine 
Chapel. Yesterday we had a terrible storm, but you will have 
been safe in port before that. 

Friday, 16th Jime. — This, beloved, has been a serious day, 
the last (seemingly at least) in England: besides which, 
until two days ago, it seemed to me impossible that I could 
accomplish all, even though thirty men of Spottiswoode's 
printing establishment work day and night, and yet more 
impossible did Rowan and Spottiswoode deem it that 
I should keep pace with so many hands. In addition, my 
Japhetic translation of John vi. and xvii. was still due, and 
some of my xxx. Theses were not done to my mind. Lastly, 
I found that the Preface to * Egypt ' ii. had still need of a 
notice of two new works, which I had hardly read. God be 
thanked, all this is finished, half an hour ago. Brandis and 
G. helped faitlifuUy. This morning the last words, for the 
Thesis and some other chapters, came from my pen. Thus is 
my last English work completed, and has grown out of an 
occasional into a permanent work; for the thoughts laid 
down in it will long outlive me, and perhaps here or in the 
United States will find a fruitful soil, sooner than in Ger- 
many, distracted as it is, without nerve for action. 

As Brandis is finishing the examination of the * Chronolo- 
gical Tables,' I may freely turn my eyes and mind towards my 
German fatherland. Never in my life have I felt more con- 
scious of the Divine support and blessing ! and I hope that 
consciousness will keep me in humility as in faith. 


CHAP. I leave England, as I hope and wish to leave this world — 
^^^- loving and beloved, but willing and cheerful. 

Think of me on Wednesday. My blessing again on your 
children, and the dear baby in particular — Ever your affec- 
tionate father — Bunsen. 

Bunsen reached Mannheim on June 22nd, at night, 
and was met by his wife and two daughters early on 
the morning of the 23rd, when they were all present at 
the Confirmation of the youngest, performed by the truly 
reverend pastor, Winterwerber, at the Educational In- 
stitute (then presided over by Fraiilein Amalia Jung), 
where Matilda Bunsen had been placed the preceding 
year. This introduction of his diaughter, with a large 
number of her contemporaries and fellow-pupils, into 
the period of self-dependence, in itself solemn and affect- 
ing, was rendered more impressive by the intense ear- 
nestness with which the honoured teacher reiterated the 
convictions which he had long laboured to fix in the 
minds of his scholars; and it was heart- warming and 
soothing for Bunsen to re-enter — through this celebra- 
tion of a Christian solemnity, upon which he set a pecu- 
liar value — the life of his native country. After this, a 
short remaining railway journey brought him to the 
habitation, which had not been definitely engaged till 
after he should have seen it, and acquiesced in the 
o[)inion of its being, not only the only house in Heidel- 
berg that could have suited him, but also the spot which 
more especially combined the multiplied beauties of the 
valley of the Neckar. His image, as he stood leaning 
over the balustrade of the terrace of Charlottenbersr, 
entranced by the prospect, which was gilded by the 
fullness of sunshine upon the full development of vege- 
tation, and embalmed by the scent of orange-flowers 
and roses in the garden — forgetting that the lady pos- 
sessor of the house and his wife were waitinor to show 
him the rooms — will remain while memory lasts in the 
mind of tlic latter, reviving the thankful feeling of that 

»M4 xs3c.^aB ow Rxaas wcjses, ia54 

CEa?, Yonr momisc ami moos bove done woBdets, and the rooms 
^ ~ jGi^k nTj oijine-iikB ciuic one eumot «*iw^ the possibility of 

^▼»r iiTiicsmj^ diem. The Lower ap«rcziieiit, with the terrace 
azui 13 ppisptit.t. see enjorabJe er^oi in rminj weather, but 
br ym.^fnt* fiitiiLllT beftini£zL I feel cause to thank God 
•LkLLj &r b«izxjr here: &r I erpexisace afanost tangibly 
char I haT-*^ 3eed of :kll mr time and all mr powers, to canj 
•Mit the ta^k laid Tzpon. me hr the fifth Tohime of ^ Egypt.' 
I am. ocu.*e ncr alL a ^jermaau placing belbre me the ideal 
prijblem ad being capable d solntioiu becanse that solu- 
tion is an in ueQectnal necessctr ; and at the same time I am 
an ITngT^^^TTiAn who kSss to history all questions con- 
cv^ming reality. In the eaa? <si mythotogy, and more espe- 
cially the Egyptian, these views most meet in one point, and 
the im«iertaking is no easy one. When, fifty years ago, 
enquiri^ came npon the tzack of the ideas which pervade all 
ancient mythologies* those ideas were treated as beings self- 
existent and self-eTohing : the myth, the doctrine, the tra- 
dition, were looked upon as Kring spirits, prodocing in the 
human mind perceptions which it leceired with awe and 
wonder. This notion adheres closely to Schelling and the 
Grimms : and yet it is erroneoos. On the contraiy, person- 
ality is all in all : that i^ the true and real personality, which 
becomes the organ of the slnmbering consciousness of his 
contemporaries. Thoth and Bytis were founders of philoso- 
phical systems by symbols, worship, solemnities, myths : as 
Menes founded a kingdom, and Plato and Aristotle a system 
of dialectics. The manuals of these prophets were disciples, 
and tribes, and nations: their debates were wars of the 
gods, which signify struggles of religious opinion. The 
Egyptians came fi^m Asia, with about the same language 
by which we decipher the records upon the most ancient 
monuments, without inscription, but probably with memorial 
images (Denkbilder) as memorials. Should we not, by the 
method of exhaustion — now, that the monuments speak to 
us — at least be able to find out which of the possible points 
of commencement was the real one, and what was the suc- 
cession of layers which so soon and distinctly reveal them- 
selves ? 

R. is a hasty South-German, not of philosophic spirit: 
L. has no fruitful ideas ; Schelling is great, but a Suabian, 


CHAP, race, in mere * household words/ My Dedication to Schel- 

J ling pleases others, and myself too. That to ChampoUion 

may turn out well also : it is a sort of legend. 

Mrs. Hamilton is here, in full animation and originalitj. 
Miss Wynn also^a great satisfaction. 

In the ' Westminster Eeview ' for July is a good anuoanoe- 
ment of Miss Winkworth's *Theologia Germanica,' andft 
stupid article upon Comte's book, designated * Positive Phi- 
losophy' (read negatiye) ; and yet, the man has scented some- 
thing of the philosophy of the history of mankind. Who can 
have written the article ? and who the very clever one upon 
Milman's * Latin Christianity*? in fact, an independent essay, 
appended probably because the editor would not identify 
himself with an article so positively Christian. In Germanj 
nothing appears of any importance ; the most wretched trifles 
are cried up. Everyone thinks himself a critic — no one is 
productive. All is sunk into bitterness, and dismemberment, 
and dejection. God be thanked for the splendid harvest! 
the only joyful event for the world. 

To the Same, 


22nd August 

The plans of the Camarilla are becoming more extra- 
vagant than ever. Being disappointed by Auerswald, one 
of them has conceived the design of preparing an aUiance 
between Prussia, Russia, and France; of course, against 
England and Austria — Haugwitz outdone ! 

In a letter dated Michaelmas 1854, Bunsen observes, 
on the subject of the dogma about to be proclaimed by 
the Pope as binding on the conscience of all Catholics, 
— that all Protestants could do, would be to point out 
to reasonable Catholics to what a point they are heiuj^ 
led by the Pope. At the same time he declares his con- 
viction, that no good influence can be exerted by Pro- 
testants upon Catholics, until they shall have achieved 
a right to speak with authority upon experience, by 
constituting and representing real communities in home, 
Church, and State. 


CHAP. With these words I closed five years ago my political 
contemplations. Now, at the entraiice of my sixty-fourth 
year, I find myself removed from the banks of the Thames 
to those of the Neckar, and fi^m public life to the tranquillity 
of domestic and literary retirement. 

That long-foreseen moment came before the mind's eye 
with unmistakable reality and deathlike solemnity in No- 
vember 1850. How I then formed the determination to 
retire, as soon as an opportunity for so doing should offer, 
without neglect of duty towards fatherland or family ; how 
meanwhile I resumed work long since begun and laid aside, 
and betook myself to new research ; how at the same time I 
prepared the mind of the King, through Badowitz, for my 
resolution ; how in 1861 I went to Bonn, to take cognisance 
of the harbour in which I desired to find refuge ; how on 
the very eve of asking leave of absence and permission to 
resign, I was suddenly detained by serious illness, and how 
the near approach of winter rendered removal impossible ; 
how in the beginning of 1852 I resolved to maintain the 
post as long as possible, which my political opponents pro- 
jected to occupy with one of their own number; how I 
suffered the infliction of poor Marcus Niebuhr's sad mission, 
which caused the last delusions as to the purposes of the 
Court with respect to the Constitution to vanish from my 
mind ; how finally I entered upon the Eastern question with, 
the ever-increasing consciousness of fulfilling a destiny^ andL 
the firm resolution to hazard all in the endeavour after sa 
dignified position for Prussia in the impending struggle : — a*^ 
that I shall another time state in all detail, with referen 
to events and to my political correspondence. But now 
shall only tell of my retirement, and of the events whi 
immediately led thereto. . • . 

Bunsen to a Son. 

Charlottenberg : 7th October, 1854. 

My work gets on well. By the side of it I have arrang 
with Miss Winkworth the publication of twenty-six sermo 
of Tauler's from Advent to Pentecost, with his life, 
trial of skill has proved successfcd ; she has hit the rig 



XVl' To the Same. 


Schlofis Rhemeck : 15th October^ 1854. 

Here we arrived yesterday, to celebrate the King's birth- 
day with the dear HoUwegs. To-morrow I go to Monrepos, 
Tuesday or Wednesday to Deutz, from thence next day to 

From Schlo68 MonrepoB : Monday, 16th October, 1854^ 

All right ! I am in full sail, and I hope with due thankful- 
ness to our gracious Grod. 

Heavy, dreadful times are coming for Prussia and Ger- 
many,— happy he who is independent ! 

The Oroumy Gottingen: 2fyth October. — At length we arrived 
at eleven o'clock last night, after a journey fix)m six in the 
morning (with a rest of three hours at Hanover, where we 
saw Hermann Kestner), fifty-eight German miles. You will 
see that I have written to you more than ever, only in 
my journal, and thus you have not received it, but I shall 
rea(l it all to you. My writing-book (which I rarely take 
with me) is already almost ftdl! My Bible- lessons are 
finished. I have learnt much, both matter of joy, and of 
sorrow : but to be acquainted with the truth is ever satis- 

Tlie bright point was Monrepos: the Princess is an 
angel. I have succeeded in writing a satisfactory letter to 
tlic King, and I have done my best to compose a letter to 
the Primate, which should be sincere, and still to the pur- 

(Uittingen : 22nd October. — My stay here is most gratifying 

• Thin relates to a commisBion given by the King, and just received by "^ 
IlunMon in a letter from His Majesty's own hand, to express his wish that 
I*r«)tnHtant Churches should combine to enter a public protest against th( 
prarliiiiiH!(l purpose of Pope Pius IX. to place the Immaculate Conception otr -^ 
tln» N'irj^in Mary among: those dogmas of the Church of Rome declared 
lio obligatory on the faithful as essential to salvation. Bunsen was desii 
t<) wriUi to ask the Archbishop of Canterbury to consider the matter freer 
th« Kind's point of view; and his letter was answered by Archbisht 
Huiniu'r to the effect that he found it impossible to comply with the Kin< 
dnnins the Church of England having in her Articles explicitly given 8U( 
a j>rnt<»Ht, and himself being habitually and on principle disinclined to 
iiiUtrfurtMioo with the faith or acts of the chief of an alien Church. 


CHAP. And now, dearest, look once back with me upon your 
^^^ {Lekr und Watid^ahre) years of learning and wandering. 
Do jon not see, and feel, and touch the fact, that all you 
hare gone through was necessary, to enable you to find your 
true happiness? Look ever up to God, and hold fSajst by the 
invisible, the alone true, that your £uth may be preserved. 

My stay at Gottingen has been so heart-cheering that 
I daily think over and contemplate it with more solemn 
earnestness. It is now just forty-five years since I came 
here, with my courageous fiither's blessing, and the letter 
to Professor Bunsen, who was to introduce me to Heyne ; 
it win soon be thirty-nine years since I quitted the ^ Georgia 
Augusta' for ever, and it is twenty-six years and a half 
since I sawLiicke on my hurried passage from Berlin to 
Bome (April, 1828) for the last time. What lies not be- 
tween those dates ! Yet I still know every house, and still 
find cordial esteem and affection flowing in upon me from 
all sides, from grey-haired men of science, and from those of 
later date, never seen before; Liicke and even Beck are 
quite as of old ; Liicke and myself have been led in different 
ways to the same convictions: only as to the means of bring- 
ing them into general acceptation, we stand not on the same 
ground. As to these considerations, I feel that I have been 
raised above many of my German contemporaries : England 
has made me a practical man in this also : but all will reach 
the same point within the next ten or twenty years, ani 
events may precipitate the result. All wish to proceed fi^m- 

knowledge into life; all are more or less conscious of com- 
munity, and feel that our place of union must be th( 
Christian people organised {Oemeinde). But most, and th( 
best hearts are dispirited. I preach to them freshness otr- 
courage, and trust in German knowledge, the plant 
whence will proceed the future, sown by the Spirit and bj 
faith in reality ^ in the midst of the present materialistic anc 
confused age. Their minds advance to meet me. I fee^^^^^ 
that I stand higher with my nation than when I was i*^-^^ 
high place and lived among foreigners : and I have nowhei — ^:^^ 
been more aware of it than here. And I sit with in^r^^i- 
describable pleasure at the feet of the great masters czsm^of 
science, and the admirable men of learning in this town ca^ of 
the Muses, to ask questions and receive information; th — ^is 

364 ifXMOiBS OF BABOir Bummr. iw 

CHAP, as the Lord's Sapper sliall be celebrated, be it bj those id- 

hering to the litargy of the Umcm, or bj aiioilier not 001^ 

dictory to it^ not in a seotarian and sepaatut spirit (wheilier 
Latheran or CalTinistic), bat rather trithoat enqpSaej ts to 
this or that Catechism adopted by feMow-eomTnimiflanti, lAo 
ajre willing to Uto within the same Qrganisation andGhnvA- 
connection. The Catediism and the doctrinal artiolesmsjie- 
main onaltered, onrestrioted ; bat these do not enter wdUi 
the precincts as miek, — they are to be left behind aodootale^ 
whether in the school or at home, on entering the Chmdiii 
the bond of common fiEuth, to meet in the BJol^ Ckmmmiikii. 
Bat that is not the will and object of the men in qoestioD- 
partly from theological, pertly from political reasons. Iwodd 
leave them their exdosive yiews in theology; bat they ui 
their instruments ought not to role the Church of the ooaokjf 
the one positive and united Church, — ^least of all with llie 
present strict and unlimited dictatorship which the Ciig it 
person has undertaken to exercise. Those among them vbo 
are considerate and upright should, of their own free irSk 
lay down their offices ; for, designedly or undesignedly, tte 
aim pursued is destruction, not support of the Union. 

This is my conviction : — as' a writer for the public I MB 
silent on the subject, only to avoid exposing the King. I 
cannot hold any other belief, so help me God ! 


Bunsen to Mrs. Schwahe, 

[Translation.] ,^^^ 

CharlottenT)erg : 19th November, 185i 

I am very desirous to show you how agreeable our 
dwelling here is, and how we enjoy and profit by the hap- 
piness of quiet and peace, and I hope also by the leisure 
here granted. Not only have I, thank God, brought my 
work on Egypt nearly into readiness for printing, but I am 
busied with the thought of another work, which, more than 
any one yet undertaken, occupies and animates me,— ih* 
execution of which is in closest connection with the * Life » 
Jesus,' and, in fact, as a preparation to it indispensable. I 
mean, a ^Bibelwerk' for the collective Christian congregafcioin 
that can read (Jerman and English. I hit upon the ide* 
iu conversation with Susanna Winkworth about my Cjde 
of Bible-reading, published in my Hymn and Prayer Book. 

866 MEMOmS OF baron BUNSEN. 18M 

CHAP, systems based on false views or the misunderstanding of theo- 

1 logians, cannot stand against it. On the other hajid, the 

earnest-minded among the Christian nations will more than 
ever recognise in the Bible their own book ; and in learning 
to understand the Scripture as the 'world's mirror' (as 
Gothe saysj will experience the strengthening of their fidth 
in Christ. Now, on the contrary, nine-tenths of the Bible 
are a closed yolimie, to the one part of mankind venerable 
and sacred because unintelligible ; to the other, for that same 
reason, dead, or even repulsive. Here the explanation of every 
single passage is not the question ; with regard to many of 
them, different scholars would give different verbal explana- 
tions. The main matter is the foundation laid for the view of 
the whole, in all its bearings ; and that, once obtained, admits 
of no break — ^being the universal-historical development of 
the consciousness of Grod in humanity, which in Christ has 
its personal centre. The magnificence of the Old Testament, 
when once one can understand it, is unique of its kind. I have 
begun to arrange the prophecies of the Seer of the new 
Jerusalem, and write them in order ; he lived in the Baby- 
lonian exile, and, towards the end of it, after the death of 
Nebuchadnezzar, preached and exhorted to the return from the 
death-doomed Babylon ; and I consider him to have been no 
other than Baruch. These prophecies are contained in dis- 
guise as a beginning of the Book of Jeremiah (chap. ii. — 
xxi.) and in that of Isaiah (chap. xi. — xxvi), and also in 
two passages of the real book of Isaiah (chap, xiii., xiv., 
and xxi., 1 — 10). Reading these in connection, and placing 
one's own soul in the midst of that period so full of terrible 
judgments, and yet of hope, — one is admonished to- recognise 
the eternal laws of God in the ordering of the course of the 
world, even in our own time, and in our own days ; and one 
perceives that a similar mode of world-contemplation may 
rightly belong to other and various dispensations. 

In Berlin it is reported that the King has named me 
to a peerage for life, with remainder to my son Ernest, sup- 
posing he purchases property and lives in Prussia. I know 
nothing of this. 


CHAP, for me ever to grasp it as a whole ; but the most glorioi 
^^^ guide from time to eternity, and, if my heart's desire 
blessed, from the present to the ftiture. 

Darkness indeed reigns without, but tempests fit)m th- 
Lord are stirring and coruscating through the earth's atm< 

sphere. The Lord is coming to judgment : He will judg « 

the people with equity. The old order of things is judged 

forty years of peace have not improved it — it is falling 
pieces ; but everywhere, visible to the eye of faith, natioi 
are coming forth out of dynasties, the congregation out 
hierarchy : and voices of thunder utter in all languages tl 
cry after truth, light, liberty! Among those voices 
blended those of madmen ; — ^but who has driven them mj 
and of infidels; — ^but who has driven them to despair 
God's moral government of the world ? 

I have bid adieu to politics, except in quarters wher^ 
may confess my faith, and utter my detestation as well 
my affection. 

But in Church matters, I have spoken the word by whL^^li 
I hope to abide, and with which I hope to die — 

I go from the Jews to the Gentiles, 
From the Church to the congregation, — 
And I leave the dead to bury their dead. 

X. and Z. have some hopes of the formation of a new Min-i^ 
try at Berlin ; but I cannot share their expectation. WliJJ^ 
some are singing in the branches, elsewhere the trunk ^ 
being sawn through on which the branch is growing. . - 
And the poor German people must pay for all this, and ^^^ 
dure it ! The time of vengeance will indeed come, but lof^S 
after we are gone. As regards the Church in Germany, nothi^^ 
will be done at present. It is only the spirit in the congreg'^'' 
tion which can overcome the spirit of Popery (i.e. pries'fc^y 
power) ; but the Governments, blind or ill-intentioned, ^eJ*^ 
afraid of the former. The Lutherans are becoming Puseyi't^^ 
— the Jesuits laugh in their sleeve. In Pi-ussia the Gh\xfr<^^^ 
of the country is ruled by means of an Ecclesiastical CounoiJ? 
which is anti-Unionist ! — Nicholas and Pio Nono ! 


CHAP, friends, Archdeacon Julius Hare. A close intimacy 
^^' began with their earliest acquaintance, in Rome, 
January 1833, and had been interwoven with the web 
of his life ever since. A letter from one of his sons, 
dated London, 25th January, thus communicates the 
event : — 

Julias Hare, the high-minded affectionate friend, was not 
mistaken, when, under the arbour in this very garden, he 
declared to you (in June last), — ^ No^ my dear Bunsen^ we 
shall not meet again — we have parted this day,^ Since Tues- 
day, the 23rd, at seven o'clock, he has been no longer among 
the living on this earth. 

A correspondence was kept up between the friends, 
unfailing though not frequent, and Bunsen's letters — 
' carefully and tenderly preserved, and oh ! how prized ! ' 
— were restored with these words, by the honoured 
widow, now, alas ! no more amongst us. The very last 
of the series may be in part introduced here, as convey- 
ing a picture of the multiplicity of objects in common, 
and of the degree of sympathy between the friends : — 

Charlottenberg, Heidelberg : 10th September, 1854. 

My dearest Friend, — God be thanked that you are 
better ! I hope that these lines will greet you in my stead 
on your birthday, and thank you for the kind inspiriting 
lines which greeted me from you on mine. The conscious- 
ness of communion in the mind must compensate for the 
absence of bodily presence : and well may it do so after a 
friendship of a quarter of a century ! I never was so mucli 
satisfied with my work in seven volumes, as when I read from 
your hand that you liked its being dedicated to you. Of 
nobody have I thought so much, in composing it, as of yon, 
without whom the first edition, and thus the whole under- 
taking, would never have existed. 

I cannot help believing that the results of my mytholO' 
gical researches, confined as they must be to the Theogonic 
and Cosmogonic sphere, will be more surprising even than 
those of the linguistic. Ancient Asia is the mother of aM 
religious speculation, as in Egypt, so in Hellas, and in Italy- 


CHAP, those who paid the last honours to the earCUy zenudni of 

1 one of the most pure and noble-minded, as well as the moA 

learned men I have ever known ; and these will find joaos 
your retom from the hoose of mooming. I thank job 
cordiallj for the quick determination, to represent me ini 
our whole fEumlj on that daj of solemnity J I have writtes 
to the widow as to a sister, on all that must now occupjkr 
mind ; and also about the publication of the ' Charges,' aai 
the biography, which she should write herseli^ with wnty 
graphics by all his friends* I have ofiiared myself to ooih 
tribute < Julius Hare at Bome in 1682 and 1888/ lov 
lamentable, that his library, that collection unique of ill 
kind, the work of a life of intellectual activity, should in ali 
probability be scattered about, or even sent to America! B 
ought to be purchased for Trinity CioUege or Dudna 
University ; for, ala« ! there is no modem renewal of ill 
class of rich and noble landed proprietors, who look iqNUt 
classical library as a necessary ornament of their residnifleik 
and would thhik themselves fortunate in the acquisitMAtf 
such a treasure. 

Bwnsen to Mrs. Schwabe. 


etk Janaaiy, 16S5L 

I have a Christmas-box ready for you, which my wifc 

is taking care of till we see you. It is a Course of Bibb* 

Beading, which I designed and wrote out as a weddiag 

present to my new daughter, and have now somewhat ea* 

larged. I have also written a great piece more (in Genntni 

of my beloved ^ People's Bible ; ' and that is, the finest lal 

also the most difficult part of the book of Isaiah, chi^M 

xl. to Ix., and some other parts, which I, after my vm/d 

conviction, attribute to the greatest Prophet of the ExiH 

and that is Baruch, the disciple of Jeremiah. This woIlde^ 

ftd portion is usually called ' the Gospel of the ancient eoft* 

nant ; ' and so it is, in a yet higher degree than has yet bM 

acknowledged. In the translations hitherto made, wusj 

parts remain unintelligible, and the beauty of it as a irihdi 

cannot be discerned. I read the chapters aloud in the efsa* 

ing, as I finish them. Tou must consider, that I am now I 

free man, and master of my time. Susanna Winkworth htf ■ 

so entered into the idea of my work, that she is mj b^ 

interpreter in England. 



CHAP, desired nothing else ; and their system, spiritually discerned, 

1_ is right in all its negative part, while their positive part 

consists in their works of love to man. 

I had never anticipated, that for the re-establishment of 
the Bible as a book, so much had to be done, nor that it 
could, from the German standpoint, be done so easily. 

Theodore is studying political economy. In the evening, 
I give a lecture regularly of half an hour on * Ban's Hand- 
book : ' we have already gone through two-thirds of the first 
volimie. Then we take Mill and Co. for refreshment. He is 
happy in having found a calling, and deserves all encourage- 
ment. With all that, he is helpful to me and to the 
whole house— in the most engaging manner. 

Bunsen to a Son, 


Oharlottenberg : 4th March, 1855. 

Here in this climate one has, literally speaking, cellular 
imprisonment for three months, with permission to perambu- 
late the prison garden, wrapped in fur, as often as snow or 
wind shall happen to be moderate ; from society one is alto- 
gether cut ofif in the long evenings. As to myself, I have 
passed through this winter in better health than for many 
years; but much longer I could not have borne the limitation 
of exercise in the fresh air to half an hour daily. In a 
southern winter I could work far better and easier than in 
this daily struggle for life and breath, whether beside the 
stove or outside the house. 

A detailed plan follows, for passing the next winter 
at Palermo, but in July of this same year (1855) began 
the anxious and sedulous enquiry and search after a 
regularly appointed learned assistant — the establishment 
of whom made remaining at home a necessity. 


CHAP. Baroness Clara Boris von Uxkiill, belong to the same 
^^^^' date and the same surrounding objects. This spring 
was further brightened to Bunsen by the visit of his son 
George and his bride, over whose happy marriage the 
parents had rejoiced at a distance at the close of the pre- 
ceding year ; and, before their visit ended, the engage- 
ment of Theodora, the fourth daughter, to Augustus 
Baron Von Ungem-Stemberg was cheerfully consented 
to, as promising that reality of union and happiness in 
married life which proved, indeed, the blessed result of 
the connection — too soon to be severed by death! 
They consented the more readily to this marriage as, 
the brideCTOom beino: in an office under the Govern- 
ment of Baden, and resident at Heidelberg, the sepa- 
ration was softened, and seemed not absolute. The 
wedding took place on September 12, Bunsen having 
made a journey northwards just before, and another just 
after, of which the subjoined extracts from his letters 
give an account. He was occupied with intense interest 
on the work entitled ' Signs of the Times,' which was 
published in the autumn, and proceeded rapidly to sv 
third edition. A translation was admirably execute^^^ 
by Miss Winkworth, and printed in England; but tl'^^ 
work would seem to have been too Continental to exci ^^ 
general attention in England, although it might be sa i' 
that the evils against which the author contends are ^ 
all times and all countries, only less impeded in th(S^^ 
action on the Continent than in England. 

The spring was succeeded by a chilly and raii"::^;^ 
summer, after which a peculiarly beautiful month 
September heightened the charm of the Heidelbeir' - 
valley, and a succession of friends of various natioir ^ 
flowng in unbroken though ever-changing current ov * 
the garden-terrace and adjoining parlour of Charlotte' ^^ 
berg gave occasion to an amount of social cheerfuhn 
and ai^imated intercourse, such as is looked back up( 
thankfully by the survivors, who felt the benetic^^^ 


CHAP, secution (ds yet without the stake and &ggot !•) as the duiy of 
^^^- a Christian government, theological fommlaries as saying 
faith, &c.y and of the entire activity of that nefEirious party 
which is urging Prussia on to her ruin in Chureh matters, 
but yet more in those relating to the State. And by the side 
of all this the Bomanist priestly intrigues ! Matters cannot 
go on long thus. 

Bunsen to Julius Schnorr von Carolrfeld, 


Ueidelberg : morning of Whit Sunday, 1855. 

You have, in spirit, made me so cheering a visit with a 
new series of Bible illustrations, that I cannot celebrate the 
festival of the Spirit without a thankful greeting to you. 
Your letter was as fresh and living as your designs, and gave 
us all great pleasure. The Spirit inaintains youth and ani- 
mation in you. The representation of the Flood struck us 
peculiarly by its grandeur, which reminds one of Michael 
Angelo, and yet it is your own original conception ; but the 
rest (mostly old friends from our acquaintance with the 
drawings) are also fiill of life and truth. 

Thus the product lies before us of a faithfrd adherence to, 
and intelligent carrying out of, a high and fruitful life-task, 
and is not less satisfactory as an achievement of man, and a 
deed accomplished, than as a work of art. 

Ask not too much of yourself. The art of old age is 
that of contriving to be helped, and that of the master to 
multiply and continue himself by a succession of disciples, 
renewing and reanimating him. 

Bunsen to Mrs. Schwabe. 
[Translation.] 25th June. 1855. 

I yesterday sent oflF my dear Theodore to Berlin on an if^" 
portant errand, the matter of which is the last link in ^ 
chain of cares and occupations which have weighed upon u^^' 
besides my accustomed employment, ever since your dep^^" 
ture. They may be summed up under three heads. The fit^* 
is a public protest, rendered necessary by the imminency" ^ 
danger, against the system of religious persecution in G-^^" 
many, and altogether in Europe. In Florence, within ti^^ 
latter months, there has been a case which yet exceeds t^ 
persecution of their Madiai. . . . 


CHAP. Yesterday I was at Baden witk Sternberg^ to wait upon 
^^^^- the Princess of Pmasia — a bright daj^ abundant in matter of 
interest. The Prince and Princess received Stsmberg in the 
kindest manner possible. To-morrow we are inrited by the 
Grand Duchess Stephanie to Mannhf^imj when Theodora wiQ 
be presented to her. 

I have made myself acquainted with that Dtvizie woA, the 
* Heliand ' — Le. early Saxon paraphrase in Terse of the 
Grospel-history and doctrine — ^wonderfdlly free from the cor- 
ruptions of Bome. 

To tke Same, 


Chifflottenberjr : l^tk July, 1855. 

Jowett's publication of the Epistles of St. Pakul is a g^reat 
event — his commentary capital and honest, with truly ori- 
^nal dissertations. He is the right man. There is so much 
work spared me. It will form an epoch : it is a masterly 
work, of great freedom of judgment, and of Christian wisdom : 
the text of Lachmann appealed to — the English translation 
well-revised — there are paraphrases and philological expla- 
nations — also excellent treatises. I am oveijoyed. 

2Hih July. — My * Letters '* are now getting into shape. Bj 
degrees, as I get the mass of matter within my grasp, and 
tlie wlif>lfj 8ncce«8ion of letters ordered as parts of a whole, 
f hfj aim and character of each comes out more clearly ; they 
ar:(|nirfj the individual form demanded, and the stamp of iini- 
v^?r«ality which I endeavour to give to all my enquiries and 
writin^H. I must cut into the very quick of the present; but 
i\(}t fh»f!}>frr than the existing wound. The letters, as they 
gain in f(r>rm, become more quiet in manner, yet more pene- 
Irat^^d with earnestness. It is a contest for life and death, 
whir'Ji J cfinnot, and am not designed to carry through; but 
I will lK»gin and see whether the spark will Hndle — in feith, 
and with dovot<?dno88 to the cause, without respect of per- 
sons. Those who do not know me believe that I shall now be 
drawn into a life-long discussion ; but they will find themselves 
as much in the wrong as those who fancy that under changed 
circuniHtjinces I should again enter public office. Never and 
Tu^ver ! as long as God's good Spirit shall sustain me. Here 

• TlicHO IcttrTH received the title 'Signs of the Times,' — ^ Zeichen der 


XVII. Bunsen to his Wife. 

*— "■" [Translation.] Bonn : 29tli August, 1855. 

All passed off as well as conld be wished. Accompanied 
by the three angels, settled into the carriage by my £Edthfal 
Frances, I arrived at Mainz half an hour before the steamer — 
and whom should I find upon it ? Overbeck — with his adopted 
daughter, Trau Hofmann — wife of a sculptor of Wiesbaden, 
who with her husband has kept house for him since the death 
of his wife, and has evidently restored him to life. She is a 
cheerful Southern-German, understands him and manages 
well for him. He was quite the man of former times, a fine and 
heart-stirring figure ! We talked all the morning and after- 
noon on the deck of the vessel, and rejoiced in being again 
together. Between times, I rested and read in the pavilion — 
and thus came seven o'clock with the most glorious sunset. 
Overbeck will visit us about the 10th. On the bank G. 
awaited me with a carriage. Miss Wynn had arrived not 
many hours before, and came to dine with us. 

Coblentz : 6th September. — I arrived here yesterday, and wm 
so very kindly received by the honoured Princess that I 
could not resist the suggestion to remain till to-day at noon. 
Therefore I shall travel and arrive with E., sleeping at 
Mainz, to be with you on Saturday. Prince Frederick Wil- 
liam started yesterday for Ostend, and thereby hangs a tale 
of an excursion to a fairy residence in a beloved island, in 
consequence of a kind invitation, accepted and consented 
to by the King ! Of course all in deepest secrecy ; but this 
morning I read it in the ^ Kreuz Zeitung ' — a secret at Berlin ! 

My ^ Signs ' have had a triumphant success at Bonn and at 
Rheineck. We arranged all the points on religious and ec- 
clesiastical affairs. But I count hours and minutes to be with 
you, and all mine again ! I cannot live out of your sphere, 
and I grudge every moment that I miss of dear Henry's and 
Mary Louisa's precious presence — but it is not my errand 
that detains me. 

I send you Astor's letter to read. It has deeply affected 
me. I had for many years wished for a renewal of our old 
acquaintance. I had bestowed much love upon him, and he 
had considered and acknowledged me as his guide. He now 
writes with real friendship. I shall answer him as soon as 
I am again at Heidelberg, — using ^ Du ' as of old. 


CHAP. Bunsen made, as usual, the best out of the circum- 


1 stances ; but the meeting was a painful one. He found 

the King aged and altered, and, few as were the persons 
present, they succeeded in preventing the King's speak- 
ing to Bunsen, except in the presence of others, and the 
intentions of Hofmann and of Bunsen remained no 
nearer their fulfilment than before. The hours of waiting 
at Marburg were, however, agreeably spent by Bunsen 
in walks and excursions in his former haunts, in the 
country round the picturesque town and its fine churches, 
in the society of his two chosen friends : and he ever 
after referred with pleasure to this revival of recollec- 
tions and this retrospection, and exulted in the amount 
of distance and of ascent that he had been able to ac- 
complish in walking ; the tone of triumph in overcoming 
increasing infirmity denoting clearly as well as aflfect- 
ingly his perception of the decline of his bodily powers. 

Bunsen to a Son, 


Charlottenberg : Friday, 14th September, 1855. 

I have just read through the first volume of * Signs of the 
Times ' for tlie last time, with emendations. As this will 
appear 25th September, 1855, on the tercentenary memorial- 
day of the confessional- truce of Augsburg — so shall the second 
volmne appear in time for the 15th October — for eternal 

Peace. ^J^on a Cross, with the inscription : ^ Where the 

Spirit of ths Lord is, there is liberty,^ * In hoc Signo mnm>' 
(A new Labarum !) 

17th September. — Troy [Sebastopol] is fallen! God be 
thanked ! Prince Frederick William has been since the 
12th at Balmoral. 

Bunsen to a Friend, 


23rd September, 1855. 

.... I am just returned from a trying journey [that to 
Marburg] . My * Signs of the Times ' are out of my hands • 
— two small volumes, which have given me much pain, ^^ 
contemplation of the misery and of the danger of the present 



CTIAP. Bethman-Hollweg, TJsedom, and Pourtales, to me, and re- 

^"^ specting my own active part in those supposed deliberations. 

It was a wilful invention, at a moment when something had 

been heard of the King's intention to call me to Berlin for 

ecclesiastical deliberations. 

I have all this time seen nobody except my personal fi*iends, 
and have not seen or heard anything of such deliberations ; 
I am also assured that none such have taken place here. I 
have no doubt all patriots feel the same throughout Grermany 
at the present elections, and at the momentous crisis of the 
world, after the fall of Sebastopol, which evidently is the 
conclusion of an act of the great drama, but that act is only 
the second, and not, as some would fain think, the last! 
The apathy, however, of the great mass of the population is 
only gradually giving way, — there is still the incubus of de- 
spondency (Katzenjammer, in the slang of Students) and 
the grudge against England on account of the Danish ques- 
tion. Until a higher and more general standard is raised for 
the war, I do not believe that the Grerman people wish for 
active co-operation. * Is Helsingfors, and are the Aland 
Islands, and the whole of Finland, less aggressive points than 
Sebastopol? Is the Baltic not necessarily more swayed by 
Russia than the Black Sea ? and is Constantinople with its 
Bosphorus not more protected than Sweden and East Prussia? 
Has Denmark not been made by England the perpetual in- 
truder upon German territory, as well as the gate-keeper of 
the Czar ? And what has become of the first paragraphs of 
the Treaty of Vienna respecting the independent kingdom of 
Poland ? Are England and France in earnest against Eussia 
as the enemy of European independence, as the Allied Powers 
were in 1813 against Napoleon ? ' These are the thoughts 
and words of the people around me. They care as little for 
the ' Four Points,' as for the Austrian multiplication of the 
same. * Wliat's Hecuba to him, or he to Hecuba ? ' 

Let me more frequently hear froiu you. You will soon 
hear of my new Sign of Life in our present situation. 

Bu7i8en to a Son. 

Charlottenberg : Sunday morning, early, 7th October, 1855. 

You know that Magdeburg wishes to elect me. The 

burgomaster Herr Hasselbach (highly respected, but per- 


CHAP. Your fine Book of Psalms is indeed a grand work, and 
X^^- principally by the designs visibly revealing the life of prayer 
and adoration, as one in itself, and yet falling into three 
grades. The letterpress is also admirable. Had I heard 
from you beforehand, I should have suggested to the excel* 
lent and praiseworthy publisher to print the Psalms as Eing 
David and the other authors must have composed and sung 
them ; the present mode of printing is against even Luther's 
example, if the single Psalms are taken into consideration, 
which he arranged in half-verses for reading and singing. 
You are aware that the senseless dismemberment of the 
prose-portions of the Bible into verses is foreign to Luther'8 
intention, and to the Bible as he printed it, — ^having been 
first introduced in the thirteenth century for the Old Testa- 
ment, and not till after Luther's death in the New Testament, 
for the purpose of reference in the Concordance. 

The translation is, in truth, in many passages unintel- 
ligible or incorrect ; but it is also a fact, that we have no 
popular amended text, but that of the good Herr von Meyer 
of Frankfort, and that leaves much to be desired. Well, 
please God, you shall see something better, before 1857 
enters the land ! Meanwhile I have been endeavouring to 
interpret some * Signs of the Times.' The book is more 
spoken than written, but has been weU thought out. 

Bunsen to his Wife. 

Buig Rheindorf, near Bonn : 27th November, 1865. 

Yesterday you will have received intelligence from G., and 
will therefore know how I was detained a whole day on the 
journey, and that I did not arrive till Sunday, in time, how- 
ever, for the christening and the dinner. You cannot fancy 
how pleasing and enjoyable all is in this place. Arndt was 
never so youthful as after the second glass of Tokay at the 
christening-dinner. On board the steamers I accomplished an 
incredible quantity of work, here completed, in writing, the 
* God-Consciousness.'* I shall bring the first volume with 
me, ready for printing, and thus secure the appearance of 

• These were the beprinnings of Bunsen's work, GoU in der GescMchte 
(* God in Ilistor}' *), now beautifully translated into Englieh by Miss Suaann* 
Winkworth (Longmans, 1808;. 


CHAP, versation is, as ever, full of intelligence and of information, 

^^'^^- and not less full of entertainment. 

I had intended to go to Coblentz to morrow after break- 
fast, with post-horses, for the steamer does not come till the 
afternoon (if at all) ; but the Prince insists upon sending me 
in his carriage — it is a drive of an hour and a quarter ; there- 
fore, when I once get oflF, I shall be soon at Coblentz, and the 
day after at home, taking for granted that the morning 
steamer from Coblentz to Mainz performs its service. 

Bunsen reached home after a journey which was ren- 
dered distressful by the failure of the steamer (owing to 
lowness of the water and thickness of the fog on the 
Rhine), obliging belated travellers, like himself, to have 
recourse to the diligence, which, under all circumstances 
tedious, was doubly so upon roads blocked by a 
fresh fall of snow; so that he was kept on the road 
through the night in much bodily inconvenience from 
the position and the cold, and shared fully the general 
experience of the need of that complete railway com- 
munication, which is happily now in existence along the 
whole length of the Rhine. His state of health Avas 
not calculated to resist any shock, and he was seriously 
indisposed after reaching home, with an obstinate catiirrh 
and cough. During the days in which he was detained 
in bed, the novel ' Soil unci Haben^^ by Freitag, was read 
aloud, and proved a great interest to him ; of which he 
gave evidence later by the Preface to the English trans- 
lation ' Debit and Credit,' published by Mr. Constable, 
of Edinburgh, at whose request the Preface was written. 

Bunsen to a Son, 
[Translation.] Sunday, 16th December, ISoo. 

At last comes a Sunday on which I can write to you. My 
cold is not gone, but I can yet work seven hours a day with- 
out suffering ; three of them on the Bible, the explanation of 
which turns out far more abundant and satisfactory than I 
had hoped. And now, consider the delight of not haring a 
merely introductory volume to write ! I have at last found a 
proper title. 


CHAP, been put off (till that date, which he was not to see, 
^^^^ of the publication of his last volume of the ' Bibd- 
werk ' ) is matter of deep regret, as such a guiding thread 
would probably have been found more useful to the 
mass of those who stand in need of a pioneer through 
the Scriptures, than any of his more voluminous works. 
Possibly some paper may yet be found in which his 
own words may better explain the cause of delay than 
this present conjectural attempt; but in all probabiUty 
his sense of the imperfection of existing translations, 
more especially those of the Hebrew Scriptures, caused 
his disinclination to make use of them, feeling, as he 
did, that to be possessed of a renovated rendering of 
the text, such as he could put his hand and seal to, 
was only a question of time, as to which it was the habit 
of his mind to grasp the whole, and leap to the con- 
clusion — considering that as actually done which his 
mind and hand had clutched. The contrast was re- 
markable (and probably uncommon in the annals of 
eminently intellectual men ) between the hastiness and 
impatience to seize the end, and hold fast the whole, 
and the intense conscientiousness and laborious patience 
of working out every detail of linguistic intricacy or 
critical commentary — which those who observed, and 
yet more those who worked with him, had occasion to 

The arrival of Dr. Kamphausen, in October 1855, as 
Bunsen's fellow-labourer and linguistic secretary in the 
Old Testament translation, marks the beginning of a 
period of peculiarly unvaried and unbroken labour, 
when the two were daily in close conference from nine 
o'clock in the morning till twelve, nominally, but in fact 
they rarely parted until the summons to dinner, at one 
o'clock, had been more than once made. Bunsen was 
always up early, after his wont, but busied with anything 
rather than Hebrew criticism, to which he therefore went 
fresh after breakfast ; and the last half hour before his 


CHAP, observation and contemplation, which at the moment 

XVII . . 

1 occupied him, he had but to stretch out a hand in the 

direction of the right person, to obtain the desired 
answer to eveiy enquiry. Often did he remark upon 
the rapid circling of life in a great capital (London, 
Paris, Berlin), compared to the more sluggish movement 
of the current in places distant from the centre. 

Bunsen to a Daughter ^n-Law. 

Ist day of the Year of our Lord 1856. 

These lines are destined to greet my dear daughter in the 
New Year, and express the wish for the continuance of all 
the happiness she enjoys in her parents, brothers, and sisters, 
and in her own home. 

May God grant you ever-increasing thankAilness towards 
Him for all these blessings, for with that you will receive the 
true guide through whatever the New Year may bring to you 
or to any of those you love, and who love you ! There is no 
wisdom in man, save and except what comes from sincere 

When you go to your dear and respected parents be your- 
self the interpreter of those feelings of true affection and 
grateful attachment which we have in our hearts towards 
them, and of all the good wishes which flow therefrom. I 
would have 'written myself, were not you ever my best letter 
and interpreter. 

This year will be an eventful one ; may it bring the King- 
dom of God nearer to its completion, and ourselves nearer to 
its blessings ! 

Bunsen to a So7u 

Charlottenberg : Good Friday, ISoC. 

God be with you during this blessed and solenm season! 
May He grant us all the consciousness of His grace, ^vith the 
full impression of His holiness ! He will yet bring forth the 
true peace, out of all that is insufficient in the impending 
treaty of pacification. 

Quarter to eleven, — We are just returned from an overflo^v- 
ing church : Avitli difficulty could we find places half an hour 
before the service began. Plitt preached finely on the two 


CHAP, tweniy-four guests, — in fine weather, by the Carmelite ascent, 

1 turning to the right, — ^trees full of nightingales, the air full 

of a shower of blossoms, the sky full of rain-bearing clouds, 
the Hardt Mountains seemingly close at hand. 

27th April. — This letter has remained unsent ; and now it 
shall go without longer waiting. I have had a capital letter 
from Dr. Haug, who will undertake the translation and 
explanation of the great Zend-Document, ^ The Wanderingi 
of the Indiana;^ just that which in 1812 was one of mj 
principal points in the plan of the projected Ttifjifl ^i i cam- 
paign; and now, instead of my having perished in the 
trenches (as I undoubtedly should have done), Gkxl has 
granted me the opportunity to assist in raising the treasure, 
and to be enabled to enter the fortress ! Deo soli gloria ! I 
send to-day an extract of my * Indian Chronology ' to Max 
Miiller, that he may correct my exerdsej and then we will com- 
pare it with his result, which I had begged him to send me 
by the 1st May. 

I am deep in the Yedas (with Lassen), and learn tn- 
credibly. Lassen is the man ; but from my standpoint one 
can go further than he does. So much must be finished 
directly, before the Alpine tour. 
What must be, will be. All right ! 

Bwmen to Mrs. Schwahe. 

28th May, 1856. 

To express my serious conviction I have considered 
throughout life as my duty, even before Kings and Princes. 
Hatred and ill-will are both foreign to me — God is my wit- 
ness. If I am misconstrued, I must bear it : I am prepared 
to endure the consequences. Without entire sincerity, no 
friendship can be maintained, and least of all. Christian 

The expression of Caird, that we should show love to the 
brethren * for Christ's sake,' I consider as just as that the 
kingdom of Grod should also be called the kingdom of Christ. 
For as God loved us before all time, as He loved us in His 
eternal Being, even so has Christ by His free act of love. His 
free resolution of redemption, redeemed us in time. He first 
loved us and the entire humanity, and we should love the 
human brotherhood for the sake of His divine act of love. 


CHAP, fatherland moves forward, and particularly this mnch- 
^^^' favoured Palatinate, towards a happier future. Peace and 
freedom are secured, and unity will follow, if only we place 
God before us as our aim. The town was already yesterday 
in festival-trim ; every place hanging foU of verdure, and 
triumphal arches of foliage were raised as by magic before 
each place of worship ; and at eight o'clock soimded forth 
from every tower the hymn of sacred freedom, the psalm of 
God-trusting faith. We were all in the garden to hear ii 
Later, the exquisite tones of Joachim pouring forth the 
highest poetry of composition, delighted us till late in the 

I am with you in spirit in the touching and solemn me- 
morial-celebration of the holiest, the only purified affection, 
which shines forth out of death ; the remembrance of which 
you sanctify to-day with your daughter, and in communion 
with all Christian hearts. For it is a festival of communion 
between God and men, and between those souls which by 
thorough resignation can then first recognise one another as 
brethren, inasmuch as they recognise the highest love of 
Crod in the deepest suffering. 

That thought of Jesus transfused into His congregation, 
which combines the memorial-festival with the self-sacrifice 
of thankful love, is so grand, so exalted, that no form, and no 
want of form, can spoil it to the candid and devoted heart ; 
and yet has human absurdity converted the central point of 
unity into a focus of unholy strife, and a cause of the deepest 
division; and has occasioned a confusion, which 1517 re- 
vealed, but did not resolve. So will we thankfully greet the 
union which encloses in peace the congregations here ; and 
f(x4 to be ourselves united in spirit with all those who seek 
God in Christ, and humanity in Clirist. 

Bunsen to Klingemann. 


Charlottenberg : 2l8t June, 1856. 

Many as have been the sorrowful events that I have kno^ 
in life, few have gone so deeply to my heart as that which 
has befallen you, my valued friend ! I know how you and your 
honoured wife feel the loss ; and I always prized and de- 
lighted in the child which has been taken from you, with 


CHAP. men. I am thankful to see tliat a great step has been made 
^^^^- in the right direction, through the principle advocated by 
Lord Clarendon, whom, as well as Lord Palmerston, I knew 
always to be favourable to the two leading features — arbi- 
tration and non-intervention. Politically, however, we have 
gained nothing. Poland and Italy, the two envenomed 
wounds of Europe, have been left as they were, and, moreover, 
Italy has become, more than before, the unavoidable object 
of the next war resolved upon by Louis Napoleon, and which 
may serve for pacification. On the whole, therefore, I con- 
sider the standpoint chosen for the Memoir the same as in 
1854. The introductory remarks give the real results of the 
essays. As to the details, they were merely given as mate- 
rials for a discussion ; and all I meant to effect by them was, 
that the objections raised against the plans hitherto pro- 
posed might be removed by a plan of the nature of that which 
I had brought forward. Nothing is truer than what yon 
say, that details often mar the whole discussion ; the oppo- 
nents attach themselves to those in order to discredit the 
whole. On the other hand, there are many statesmen who 
will not listen to anything when there are no positive points 
to give a practical definition of the scheme, and who, however, 
are fair enough to understand such details as a mere indica- 
tion of the possible solutions which would offer themselves 
after having gone into committee. 

I have now settled to bring forward early next year, in 
my second Decade of * Signs of the Times,' the whole plan, 
the craving for which is indeed a Sign of the Times in my opi- 
nion, as reasonable as any ; as is also the idea of the approach- 
ing end of the world, which I meet with in a hundred forms all 
over the globe. With that publication I intend to close my 
lucubrations. My Memoir is at the disposal of any Society 
which is disposed to discuss and promote the great object. 

Great events are preparing in the world, in Europe and the 
United States. The world had never seen such a worthless 
and base President of the United States as Pierce ; nor is 
there anything more dangerous in Europe than the unscrupn- 
lous swindling-system, public and private, in French finances 
and money matters. You will be saved in England by the 
administrative reforms, of which war has not alone shown the 
necessity, but also the determination of the people to see 


CHAP, past winter hare T, in the joj of my heart over these your 
^^^ noble and inspiring words, wanted to write to you and tell 
you our feelings, but I was checked by uncertainty where a 
letter would find you ; and later, when I knew that your home 
was CharlottetJberg^ near Heidelberg yihen I decided that I would 
go myself, and be the bearer of oar respects, and of those of 
many more Swedes (statesmen and men of science), to you. 
And now I am here, on the way to Lausanne, tarrying only a 
moment in order to see you, to bless you for the good yoa 
have done me and many in my laoid, wid are stiU doing. 
Yea, blessed are you to have been able to bring the brightest 
gems of philosophy, such as only the German mind can d% out, 
to the light, and to the general mind, in a clear, simple, and 
practical way, such as only the English mind can accomplish; 
blessed in the rare harmony of your organisation, which ena- 
bles you to see both the diversity and the unity of things of 
this world, and those of a divine necessity, ruling and develop- 
ing them for the highest good, to do justice at once to God 
and man. 

Your views as to the formation of languages were new to 
me, but I accepted ' them instantly, as one must accept 
evidence — the laws of reason. They are one with your 
theory of the development of the mind, and of mankind, 
which view has long been the saving anchor of my soul, but 
which I never saw presented with the power and simplicity, 
the clear justice, as in your work. This work will do more to 
harmonise the human soul, to bring the reasoning spirit (the 
Thomas of our day, who requires to see in order to believe) 
to its Saviour, God in Christ, than any book ever has done, 
because of its deep and living science and its popular form. 

A journey to Switzerland, which previous extracts 
from letters will have shown to have been contemplated 
since the spring, was commenced on the 1st August : 
and some passages from Bunsen's letters to his wife 
(who had declined belonging to the travelling party, on 
account of the expected confinement of her daughter, 
the Baroness Ungern- Sternberg) will give an idea of the 
pleasure he enjoyed in the society of Madame de Stael 
and her friends, at the ChS,teau de Coppet, and the 
earnest endeavours he made to take in all besides on the 


CHAP, did we enter upon the Sweating- valley — for so I mnst in 

^ 1 future call that crevice or hollow of tie Jura, of which a 

portion fix)m Moustier (that is, Miinster) is termed the 
Miinster-Thal. From Moustier, the descent to Biel is unique 
of its kind in beauty. At every stage we were called upon 
to change our Beiwagen^ or supplementary coach, and to 
await, in the sun or in a stifling room, the appearance of its 
successor. At length, in despair, we sought and obtained 
the coup^ of the carriage first in rank, in which two persons 
would have had close quarters, but which, we were informed, 
was reckoned at * trois personnes ' — ^the third being balanced 
rather than joisted in, between the two first occupants. The 
body of the conveyance contained twenty-nine. At eight 
o'clock, at Biel, we rowed round the lake, in the last rays 
of the setting sun: Theodore sung, *Es &ngt schon an 
zu dammem ' — after which we had tea with its accom- 
paniments, and went out star-gazing until half-past ten.. 
Yesterday we proceeded over the surface of three lakes 
in succession, conveyed by two vessels, and a beginning 
of railway, with a ^ Black Hole of Calcutta ' as SaJh 
d^attente provisoire. By five o'clock we arrived in sight 
of Coppet and of Madame de Stael, — ^who awaited us, and 
conducted Mrs. Schwabe on foot into the Chateau, while her 
carriage took charge of me — (a very wise arrangement, owing, 
I believe, to a suggestion of yours) — hereupon the full current 
of conversation set in uninterrupted (except by the necessary 
toilet) until half-past ten o'clock. Anna Vemet was there, 
and Edmond de Pressense ; Broglie could not arrive so soon. 
At six this morning I await Pressense, who must depart at 
seven. On the steamer yesterday I observed a portmanteau 
with * E. Scherer, Geneve,' marked upon it ; a Grenevese to 
whom I spoke assured me it could not possibly be the cele- 
brated antagonist of Gaussen — but I had observed a face 
which might have been Scherer's — and I insisted upon the 
fact being ascertained. Soon was he brought up to me — the 
man was Scherer. Thereupon followed a long conversation, 
in which I endeavoured to dissipate his doubts of the genu- 
ineness of the Gospel of St. John, — and I am not without 
hopes. We are to meet again at Geneva, whither I mean to 
go the day after to-morrow. I wish to spend there three 
days — but as ' mon propre Monsieur.' 


CHAP -^ ^^ ^^ driven me all the more to the Apocalypse, which 
XVIL I had resolved, being once at it, to work ont thoroughly in all 
the points I had not yet touched upon. My Sunday's lecture 
at Chamounix (to Madame Schwabe and her daughter, Theo- 
dore and Mrs. Case) was successful. I have begun to ¥nite 
down the outlines of my plan of interpretation. You know 
the general idea of this (Preface to ^ Christianity and Man* 
kind ' against Wordsworth and the Johannean age) ; but the 
great stumbling-block is in the part relating to the destruc- 
tion of pagan-Imperial Borne, which was never destroyed, 
but became the prize of the Christian party under Constan- 
tino and Theodosius. I hope to finish the whole solution <m 
the Bigi. 

InterlaJcen : Hotel smr JungfraUy 15th August. — Before me 
lies the turf-flat upon which this village is built, the finely- 
modelled green hills forming two halves of an amphi- 
theatre, which just in the centre draw back to constitute a 
frame for the Jungfrau, which in the purest splendour rises 
in front. O ! that you were here, with your ever warm heart 
for the magnificence of creation, your keenly-discerning eye, 
and artist-like hand, and I with you as my Priestess, to gate 
into the sanctuary ! But altogether, kind and affectionate 
and amiable as is all that surrounds me, you are vet ever 
wanting to me everywher.. and those dear ^rls who L with 
you ! The drive from Vevay across the moimtains (Bulle, 
Ch&teau d'CEx, and through the Simmenthal) is the finest 
of its kind. That is the real Switzerland, the pasture-land 
of tlie Alps, with cheerful, well-fed, well-clothed fi-eemen as 
inhabitants (and handsomer than any I have seen in this 
country, except in the Haslithal) — the eflFect is indescribable 
of the green slopes alternating with portions of fir-forest, 
stretching to the hill-tops, — below, rushing streams — above, 
the blue sky ! But we are indeed making a journey as it 
were through the Abruzzi, supposing any human being ever 
thought of making one there in the dog-days. 25^ R&SLn- 
mur in the inns — from 27** to 30"* on the road — in the sun 45^ 
— and yet better everywhere than close to the lake. Here, 
in a cool room, with the glorious prospect, and a German 
band playing below, all is forgotten. Friday, the 22nd, to 
Basle, and Saturday to be with you, please God. 

The return home was effected as intended^ — but, 



xvil. Bunse/ii to a Son. 


Charlotteuberg : Tuesday, ICth September, 1856. 

My much-beloved ! again I place myself (although with 
somewhat swollen ankles) at my dear standing-desk, to thank 
you for your letter, after having been able to work from six 
to eight o'clock sitting^ by means of a writing-arrangement of 
your mother's invention, completing a nice additional chapter 
to the close of the Egyptian volume. My supporters will not 
bear their heavy burden without intermission, as formerly ; 
and the whole house, and house-physician together, insist 
upon their having rest. So there is no help for the admis- 
sion, that I set out upon the journey into Switzerland yet 
fresh in life, and have returned an aged man, more on three 
legs than on two. However, I am otherwise well, and since 
the day before yesterday have been able to write, that is, 
to compose. 

To the Same. 

Charlottenberg : 6th November, 1856. 

(Die auspicate, pro die auspicatisAimo.) 

These lines shall greet you on your birthday with your 
father's fullest blessing. To have had you here renewed and 
heightened the joy of thinking of you, and was a repetition 
and strengthening of the impressions which I received and 
retain from the time of being with you in Burg Rheindorf, 
of your life and household happiness. You have a good soil 
and foundation in every respect ; and the harvest-prospect 
^vill in no way deceive your anticipations, if you continue 
true to yourself and to the resolves of your childhood and 
youth. To which end, may God give His blessing, on that 
solemn festival day ! 

Now you shaU hear much that will please you, relating to 
myself. First, I have never worked better. When I had 
finished the Egyptian volume and the first of ^ God-Con- 
sciousness,' I had to make a resolution, and I determined 
that the latter work should be printed between this and 
Easter ; and thereupon began Book V. I had in the Preface 
(the fourth that I have wiitten, and which I have at last 
approved of) so completely plunged again into my speculative 
views and the fundamental idea of the work, that I was 


CHAP. tliTis I shall have the hours firee before nine and after twelre, 
^^^ for I am busy with the philological part of the * BibdwerV only 
in the three hours from nine to twelve. The time and strengih 
thus remaining shall be devoted to the ' First Part of the 
New Testament/ the Gospels. This was your proposal last 
year, and thus you shall have it announced this day, as a 
birthday-gift fix>m yourself to yourself ! 

Without the ^ God-Consciousness ' as a precursor, I should 
be at a loss to give my thoughts full utterance ; but the two 
works together will clear up one another. Nearest to the 
problem to be solved, was Lessing : little in proportion has 
been done since in the main matter. 

How abhorrent a thing is that Eitual law, which only the 
coarseness and sensuality of the Jews could have compelled 
Moses to lay upon them ! But much wisdom is in it as a 
means of training. 

that you were but here with me, to drink in the deep 
meaning of Prometheus and of Nemesis I The Spirit comes 
over me as I describe it. 

BiviMen to a Friend, 


Charlottenberg : 12th November, 185d 

1 can now again work with the same ease as before that 
Swiss journey, and my work gives me vast pleasure. 

I have just received an announcement from Sir Frederick 
Stovin of the arrival of Prince Alfred, and the wish of the 
Prince to see me. E. will help to show the place and enter- 
tain the Prince. 

Ihth November. — The Prince left this place in the after- 
noon of the day before yesterday. How delightfully has he 
unfolded ! He has exactly the eyes and expression of the 
dear Queen ; is fresh and animated, the face showing forth 
the good heart. The Grand Duke has invited me to Cark- 
ruhe, and I shall go, as soon as I have done my correction 
for the press. 

22nd November, — To-day I have finished those last sheets 
of the work of twenty-four years' pain ( * The Exodus '), 
which yet I love so much ! and also * Leviticus.* Pray read 
the admirable 25th chapter, about the Tear of Jubilee. 
What a grand view of the State as a congregation of 
brothers ! That was indeed only to be carried out in a real 


CHAP. Scotch second sight. An anecdote in Niebnhr's life of his 

^^^^- father (the traveller) is remarkable. These things take place 

most commonly in the unspiritiial condition of mere natm*, 

for instance, in dreams or somnambulism ; but what is possible 

in the state of nature must be so also further and higher. 

Bunsen to a Son, 

25th December, 1856. 

I am glad that my dedication (to the first volume of the 
* Bibelwerk^) has been felt by you to have been thought and 
written in a solemn spirit. I am tormented with longing to 
utter the last word, and therefore have written the * Preface ' 
at once, which I desire should indicate the scientific charac- 
ter as well as the practical object of the work. 

That last word now is, that as surely as Gk)d is a truth and 
a certainty, and has not been a falsehood firom the begin- 
ning, and through centuries of personal histories, the present 
conditions must perish, unless we would reject the eternal 
laws of the moral Kosmos : which yet must be accepted as 
the sole rule of conduct both for nations and individuals, with 
the same absolute conviction and conscious faith, as that 
with which we accept and obey the force of gravity iq the 
physical Kosmos. 

We are at an end, in Europe and in the United States, if 
we are not convei-ted to this belief in God, in humanity, in 
moral individuality. England has accepted the principle of 
reform, the true, the thorough -going, politically vrith entire, 
willing consciousness : into the Church it finds its way as the 
inevitable consequence of individual freedom. The Slave 
States are doomed. May God soon grant us cotton-fields 
in India, Persia, Armenia, and above all in Aftica ! otherwise 
Mammon will keep up the original ones. With us the 
Governments (though not so degraded and lost as in the 
unmixed Roman Catholic lands) are yet wholly djTiastic. 
Self-interest, as a governing principle, is denial of the prin- 
ciple of gravitation, is weaving of ropes out of grains of 
sand. Only events can be effectual to save. 


CHAP, is a tiine for all things ; but the good man would not seem 
^^^' to have considered that, as every age has its privations, so 
also even old age has its peculiar enjoyments, or, at least, 
might have them. Experience and memory are great trea- 
sures, belonging to old age. 

The days spent at Carlsruhe caused me in many respects 
much pleasure. The truly lovely and excellent Princess, 
whom I saw again, and now for the first time in her married 
life, is happy, and makes all around her happy. The Grand 
Duke has much understanding and cultivation of mind, and 
the best will to do right ; what is wanting to him, is to as- 
sume due confidence in himself as ruler. We spoke quite 
openly of the political situation ; and I believe I succeed^ in 
tranquillising him as to the danger of war. 

Imagine that my married children have united in TunlnTig 
me a great surprise against the New Year by the valuable 
present of a billiard-table ! Up to the day when it came, 
and was put up, I played daily at bowls in the garden with 
Theodore (who had, without saying anything, meanwhile ar- 
ranged the whole), but since then it has become too cold for 
bowls ; and thus the substitute has arrived exactly at the 
right time. You know, that for almost forty years without 
exception we have, alone in our home-circle, sat up to await 
the year's beginning, with choral-singing and other solemn 
music, and in serious conversation with pauses between. This 
time we shall also do so, but without the dear Stembergs (as 
Theodora has the influenza), but they will be with us in spirit, 
and you also : is it not so 9 Now farewell, dear friend, and 
receive my heart's thanks for all the kindness and friendship 
which you have shown me in this departing year ! God bless 
you, and your house so rich in blessings, abundantly in the 
new year ! To all, including the all-beloved Neukomm, my 
heartiest greetings. 

Ist January^ 1857. — Again, all hail and blessing for the 
new year ! I shall begin the working-day with * In the be- 
ginning God created heaven and earth.' O might I be 
found worthy yet, ere the departure of this year, to write 
* In the beginning was the Word ! ' I fully purpose doing 
this ; but may God's will be done, by us, or in spite of us ! 


CHAP, bitterness which he was to drink to the very dregs in 

2 .* his last illness. Cupping and blistering (under the 

friendly direction of Professor Chelius) proved unavail- 
ing to diminish pain, but probably helped to originate 
that swelling of the legs at first, and for two years more, 
very slight, which so miserably increased in the last six 
months of life. The attack of lumbago at length wore 
itself out ; but not till the month of May had brought a 
steady temperature, was he restored to ease and com- 
fort. The baths of Wildbad, in August, removed the 
last sensation of pain and weakness in the legs; and 
among all the sufferings that awaited him later, the tor- 
ment of lumbago never returned. The engagement of 
his son Charles (Secretary of Legation at Turin) had 
been a happy event of the last summer ; and after long 
detention at his post of duty by the illness of his Chie^ 
Count Brassier de S. Simon, Charles obtained at last 
in January the necessary leave of absence, to receive 
the hand of Mary Isabel, daughter of Mr. Thomas 
"Waddington, of S. Leger near Rouen, at Paris, where 
the venerated friend of both families, the Pasteur Va- 
lette, with the eloquence of truth and love, solemnised 
their life-union. The young couple travelled to their 
own home at Turin by way of Bonn and Heidelberg, in 
which latter place their visit proved most cheering to 
the suffering father, who, on their first arrival was en- 
tirely confined to his bed, but became better able to 
enjoy their company before they were bound to proceed 
on their journey. To behold a fourth marriage among 
his sons, and the establishment of family happiness in 
the case of this much-prized and highly-deserving son, 
removed by circumstances further than any other from 
the habits and comforts of either of his home-countries, 
was matter of devout thankfulness to Bunsen, who was 
radiant in satisfaction at the providential gi'antingof 
this very earnest wish of his heart. 

During these months of confinement to his Ubrarr, 


CHAP. cMtel, but towards him, the Emperor. A diflFerent language, 
^^^' ^^^ acting in common with England, would have brought 
on the solution now attained, a month earlier. Nothing is 
required but the necessity of self-limitation, which is the 
beginning of wisdom. To me the consideration has proved 
very helpful, that we ought to go out of ourselves, and not 
sink down within ourselves : in the world, that is, in sur- 
rounding humanity, we should forget ourselves, and thus 
find ourselves again. Those are the main points, and not 
materially different, in the Apostle's precept, * Pray and 
work.' For active love of the brethren is continuous 

The ^ Christian Times ' has strongly recommended my 
book to its Christian readers. 

ISth January. — Since yesterday, I have been critically 
going through the translation of Caird's sermon for the 
second edition, with Frances. Brockhaus writes that the 
first edition is as good as sold, and he wishes to print another 
of 1000 copies. I am very happy thus to help in your 
work of Christian charity. At the same time, Messrs. Black, 
in Edinburgh, have asked me to write the article on Luther 
for the new edition of the ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica.' This 
honourable commission to represent our great German hero 
to another body of Christians, and in their own language, 
cannot be declined. I have therefore accepted to do so, and 
have set about the work. 

Bunsen to a Son. 

Charlottcnberg: 22nd January, 18o7. 

I am reading for ' Luther.' Michelet's plan for a ^ Life of 
Luther ' is the only right one : division into periods, with 
short introductions, and with extracts of the most striking 
passages in the letters and sermons belonging to each period; 
to close with his private life. But his treatment of the sub- 
ject is hasty and superficial and perverse. The exact truth 
has never been uttered by anyone yet. 1525, anmisfataJkl 

SOth Jatmari/. — I intend >vriting a volume of ' Letters,' 
ten in number, all to Rotlie. Letter I. has burst into at 
least four ; and the letter on the worship of the Christian 
congregation, as well as that on the teaching of the congre- 


CHAP, remedies, the time of recovery has arrived. To-morrow, 

^^'^- please Grod, I begin work again. 

Monday morning^ 9th February. — I have had the first good 
night, and have been able to work a little at mj desk. As 
soon as the cold gives way, I shall use a steam-bath. Mj 
two young people (Charles and his bride) rejoice my heart 
daily and hourly by the sight of their happiness and their 
animation. This evening, they go to a ^ Museum ' ball, with 
the Stembergs, Theodore, and Matilda. 

24^A February. — At twelve our dear children will depart 
It is a truly valuable and richly-constituted heart with 
which we have made acquaintance ; and we have new cause 
for thankftilness in God's blessing. I have suffered much 
during the whole of this time from the sharp pain of the 
sciatica having gone down into my leg ; but it is better, 
God be thanked ! and I have had to work hard, to make 
amends for time lost — for next Friday the Cabinet-Courier 
of the English Embassy at Frankfort departs, by whom I 
must send my Luther MS. (eighty closely-written quarto 
pages) to Edinburgh. Love to the incomparable Neukomm! 
2nd March. — I am getting slowly better. I never have 
worked more ; and I spread all sails, in order to gain leisure, 
in the second half of April, to go to Rheindorf and Bonn. 

Bunseyi to a Son. 


C harlot tenberg : Tuesday, 6th March, 1857. 

At length T can write to you that I have undertaken a 
new work in four volumes. Do not be startled ! for yester- 
day the sketches of three of them were presented to your 
mother, as her birthday gift, mth dedication * to the forty 
years' companion of my life — " Luther" — an historical repre- 
sentation and autobiography.' I am writing this book as a 
necessary preliminary study for the fourth book of ^ God in 
History,' and instead of the continuation of the ^ Signs of 
the Times.' All that I had to say in those I can more 
impressively and eflfectively attach to the ^ Life of Luther,' 
and shall be enabled thus to shake ofiF a number of trifles, 
which were in my way, and worried me, because in twenty- 
five years, or even less, all that stufiF will have lost its present 
significance. But now I go again to the ' Grod-Consciousness,' 


CHAP. — a^ ^ Reformer, as a writer, as a preacher, and, lastly, as a 
XVlll. man. Eight chapters. 

Now I will tell you how I came upon this, and how I have 
seemingly with such inconceivable quickness made the whole 
clear to myself. 

The originating cause was Black's proposal to write the 
article in the ^ Encyclopsedia.' But I had long known that 
no life of Luther existed, any more, or even still less, than a 
collection of his voluminous writings (88 volumes in 8vo.) 
calculated to communicate the spirit of this man, unique of 
his kind, and to be generally attractive. This want I had 
felt in the working out of the fourth book of *God in 
History,' in which Luther is, of course, after the Apostles, 
the most prominent character. It was not clear to me how I 
should be able to resolve the undertaking within the limits 
of that book. With respect to Christ, I could refer to my 
* Life of Jesus,' as soon to appear; but for the life of Luther, 
not even the materials lie within reach of the reading 

That was reason enough for my being glad and willing to 
write the article for the * Encyclopaedia Britannica,' and 
during the work the plan for executing the whole became 
clear to me. What decided me to the undertaking was 
that I should be enabled to bring forward in the course of 
this work, in a more acceptable and penetrating manner, the 
thoughts and considerations prepared for the continuation of 
the ' Signs of the Times.' There is nothing of what I want 
to say that might not be, in the most striking manner, con- 
nected with the representation of Luther and his works. 

Therefore, I shall not continue the ' Signs of the Times/ 
but close them, by a preface of about forty pages intended 
for a popular edition. 

Now came the necessity of convincing myself that the 
work may really succeed ; and, therefore, the same day that 
I sent oS the article to Black (Friday in the week before 
last), did I set about it, to the inexpressible joy of my wife, 
who has, from the first, urged me to this work ; and late on 
March 3 I had accomplished so much as specimen of the life- 
picture that I could present her with the whole design, and 
with that first chapter all but the close, on her birthday, at 
breakfast, March 4. Now I go back to * God in History,' 


CHAP, iny expectations have been surpassed. Your woilc luis tnns- 
' pr^rted me back to beloved spots and inspiring regions : I have 

walked nnder jour guidance through those glorions, akhough 
mfjHt melancholy years of Republican Florence, displaying 
the aspiring religious mind of Italy, and the wonderful deve- 
lopment of the fine arts, and above all those two giants of 
genius and intellect, Michael Angelo and BaphaeL You have 
prepared the threads out of which you weave the narrative, so 
skilfully and yet naturally, that it reads like a noveL The Pla- 
tonic Academy, the meetings round Lorenzo's table, Savona- 
rola, and Charles YITL, Dante and the Divina Commedia; 
again. Pope Julius 11., and Leo X., last, not leasts, Yittoria 
Colonna, come in so naturally, that no novelist could invent 
or imagine scenery half so attractive as that which we find in 
your book as a reality. 

As to Michael Angelo's patriotism, poetry, and philosophy, 
justice was never done to them before ; and still nothing is 
truer than your statement. You have proved it convincingly 
as to Platonism, by showing that without it you cannot 
explain his Canzone and Sonetti. As to his piety, it was 
certainly neither old age, nor love of the bright eyes of Vit- 
t^ma Colonna, which first inspired him with religious feelings. 
Your memoir relating to her is in its proper place, and your 
reafl(»rH will thank you for it. The memoir which precedes 
it T was gnitified to find embodied in a work of so much 
valiif, and connected with a subject so generally attractive. 
J b(di(ive the passage to be known to only a few of your coun- 
trymen ; the late Lord Elh^smere once made honourable allu- 
sion io it, in one of his R<.*views on Art. How would my late 
friond J^latncr have been delighted, had he lived to see his 
truly solid and impartial articles on the paintings of the Last 
JudL,Mnent and others, so appreciated ! 

I think I can say that I agree with you on all subjects, 
(although I should express myself diflPerently as to the reli- 
gions aspirations of Homer and Sophocles, as not derived 
from ext(Tior sources, no more than the philosophical notions 
of the Deity in Plato, but from that inward revelation of the 
Spirit of God to which St. Paul alludes), except as to the 
nature of Michael Angelo's feelings towards Yittoria. I am 
sure fihe always checked them, and kept him strictly within 
the limits of aftectionate friendship ; which only increased the 


wm P^i^^^^ ^^ ConfidentiaL 

We, the undersigned [Archbishops, Bishops], Clergy and 
Laymen of the United Church of England and Ireland, Mi- 
nisters and Members of the Established Church of Scotland, 
and of various Nonconforming Evangelical Churches of Bri- 
tish Christians, have heard that, with the permission of Divine 
Providence, a Conference is to be held at Berlin, in the ooorse 
of next autumn, composed of Protestant and Evangelical 
Christians of Germany and other countries ; and thai; it will 
take place under the friendly sanction of His Majesty the 
King of Prussia. Being desirous to cultivate brotherly rela- 
tions with true believers throughout the whole of Christen- 
dom, and thus to be helpers of each other's faith and charity, 
we avail ourselves of this opportunity to express our hearty 
sympathy with those brethren on the Continent, who are 
labouring for the defence of the Protestant faith, and the 
wider spread of the Gospel of our Lord and Saviour. 

We believe that the Scriptures of the Old and New Testa- 
ment are the Word of God, that they are given by inspiration 
of the Holy Spirit, are of binding authority on the conscience, 
and able to make men wise unto salvation through faith 
in Christ Jesus. We would therefore record our sympathy 
with those brethren on the Continent who uphold their fiill 
authority as the only rule of Christian faith against all 
theories which would undermine or destroy it, either by ex- 
altiner human traditions to the same level with the Word of 
God ; or by placing that on the same footing with the 
writinrrs of fallible men. 

We believe that Jesus Christ is the onlv-bejjotten Son of 
God, who took upon Him our flesh, and suffered on the Cross 
to make one true and all sufficient atonement and satisfaction 
for sin. We believe that there is no other name under Heaven 
given among men whereby we can be saved. We therefore 
bid God speed to all those brefhren who honour His person 
and His work, recognising His true Godhead as well as true 
humanity, and the atoning efficacy of His death, as the foun- 
dation of the Church, and the sole ground of hope and peace 
to guilty sinners. 

We believe that salvation is not by the merit of human 
works, but by the grace of G^d, through a living faith in the 


CHAP. Jesus Christ is the Head of the Church, the Prince of the 
^^^^^' Kings of the earth, the exclusive Lord of conscience, the true 
Physician of souls, the only source, to men and nations, of 
life, peace, comfort, and joy. We would, therefore, express 
to the brethren who shall meet in Berlin, our cordial sym- 
pathy with all wise eflforts to promote these great objects ; 
and would pray that the God of love and peace may prosper 
all their consultations to the furtherance of His tanth, the 
increase of brotherly union, and the growth of enlarged zeal, 
for the spread of the Gospel, both throughout Christendom 
and in all heathen lands. 

Bunsen to a Friend, 

22nd March, 1857. 

I hasten to communicate to you some joyful intelligence. 
The second edition (of 3,000 copies) of the translation of 
Caird's Sermon is so nearly exhausted that Brockhaus is 
about to publish another ; and I am requested to announce 
it as the fourth, for meanwhile, in the Saxon Society for the 
Spread of Christian Popular Writings, in Zwickau, a popular 
edition of 10,000 copies has been demanded, and of course 
assented to by Brockhaus — the Society has only to pay the 
printing expenses. I shall mention the fact in the Preface 
to the fourth edition. 

There is a great movement among the Evangelicals in Eng- 
land, of every variety ; an admirable Declaration (by the Eer. 
Mr. Birks, of the Church of England, honorary secretary of 
the Evangelical Alliance), which might be called a Manifes- 
to, or (as they call it) Confession of Faith, is said (by Sir 
Eardley Culling, who sent it to me printed, but marked 
^ Private and Confidential,') to have been accepted by the Alli- 
ance. There is a prospect of its being generally signed ; but 
I consider it as too good. If it succeeds, the narrow party 
in Germany will be furious ! In every case the movement is 
a good one, not only because it will be attiicked by the Pope 
and others, but good in itself. 

2Uh March. — The matter (of my journey to Bonn) is 
brought to a decision by an invitation to Carlsruhe this 
week. I have answered, with entire truth, that the phy- 
sicians forbid all travelling in this severe weather, and even 
my leaving my room ; and altogether give me little hope of 


CHAP, had he but noticed the repeated warnings that I have given in 
^^^^^ many places, that it pretends not to treat of the Philosophy 
of Religion, nor to be a History of Religion, but of something 
very different. He evidently considers the * developments ' 
as parts of the individual work — instead of lengthened re- 
marks on the subject matter. When I brought forward new 
opinions, I needed to support them by new proofs; but where- 
fore should I prove what is well known and admitted ? Had 
I but given the ^ developments ' in small print (which would 
have been certainly more practical), their purpose would have 
been more distinct. Ewald, a rigorous judge, and a High- 
Church opponent in a. theological periodical, commend me as 
going deep into the matter — the reverse of * superficial ! ' 

Let your bookseller send you two small books, which have 
just appeared: — 1, 'Edouard Laboulaye — a Foreign Utterance 
as to Religious Freedom ' (Brockhaus) ; 2, * Job's Three 
Friends: Bimsen, Stahl, Ritter' (Hamburgh, 1857). The 
latter, a clever but enthusiastic book, I doubt not to be by 
Onken, the chief of the Baptists in Hamburgh. 

All mine greet you, and regret that you cannot see and 
enjoy the magnificence of the blossoming trees and flowers 
on our hill and on the way to the Castle — the chestnut-trees, 
the lilacs. My wife and I are reading the ten volumes of 
* UHistoire de ma Fie/ of George Sand — a wonderfiil book, 
which has been lent us. That woman has a deep, and, I 
think, a true soul, and she is a disciple of Lamennais, as 
well as of Leibnitz, to whom she remains faithful. She is 
said to be ugly — which is a pity ; but as the Swabian wisely 
said, ' Unpleasant it is, but no sin.' The Rajah of Sarawak 
(Brooke) has again proved himself a hero, which I always 
considered him to be. It is a black sin of those who hare 
been misled by Hume, to attack that man as an enemy. 

24}th May, — When a Ministry, a Parliament, a Nation, 
shows itself ever ready to follow good advice from Cobden,— 
why should the whole public dissent from his opinion about 
Sir J. Brooke, if he really was in the right ? You see fiom 
this, that in public life one must take political characters as 
they are ; one may hold different opinions as to their views, 
and yet honour them as men, and love them as himian bein^^' 
But such a character is not to be converted, and as little can 


CHAP, ^^d History), and altogether, no one in the whole philoso- 
XVIII. phical faculty for many years in Heidelberg. 

Astor and family are to arrive on the 21st August ; he em- 
barks at New York on the 6th, and travels straight to Heidel- 
berg. Therefore, we shall go to Wildbad on the 28th of this 
present month, that I may have completed my twenty-one 
baths before the 20th August. 

The only MS. of the Latin translation of the Old Testa- 
ment by Jerome (of the year 541), which has not been 
corrupted, is at Florence, and a collation of it for me is 
being made by Dr. Heyse, which is to be completed hj 
September 15. 

Wildbad: I6th August, — The bath and the heat of the 
weather have so relaxed me that I find days and weeks pass 
as in a dream, and I feel as if I had done something enor- 
mous when I have corrected and expedited a sheet of the 
* Bibelwerk ' ! But the bathing has done me good decidedlj, 
although I can stand it no longer. On Wednesday, the 19th, 
we shall set out early homewards, and at four o'clock the 
same day Dr. Kamphausen is appointed for a closing con- 
ference ; on the 20th he leaves Heidelberg, for a three weeb* 
tour of refreshment. 

Here it is indescribably beautiful, and should I be obliged 
again to go to a bathing place, it should certainly be 
Wildbad. Excursions into the Forest are charming, the air 
is of the sort that I enjoy, the baths are most beneficial. 
We have met some friends here ; Miss Wynn has just left us. 
Eliza Gurney, the American Quaker, widow of John Joseph 
Gurney, came here to see us, and we had a very fine and 
solemn day in her company. She had been at Berlin, and 
was admitted to see the King, to ask and obtain fix)m him 
exemption from military service for a Quaker youth. 

SOth Augvd, — I have been expecting Astor daily, and at 
last he aiTived yesterday evening, at the same time with the 
Prince of Wales. Astor's faithful attachment to me, and 
the impression we receive of his excellence, give us true 

To the Duchess of Argyll, 

Heidelberg : Ist July, 18.57. 

My dear Duchess, — This is the morning of the fortieth 
anniversary of my wedding. Full forty years lie before me 


THAP. reading such letters as yours, my dear Duchess, is the greatest 
XVIIL comfort and solace in such a state of mind — ^but answering 
them is impossible. Only since last night could I tell yon 
that the work is done. I have mastered it by having accom- 
plished the first volume, for the work has been written back- 
wards, so as to enable me to word safely and unhesitatingly 
the Introductory Address to the Christkii People, or, as we 
call it in German, cUe Oemeinde. I have now only to hope to 
live (as I think I shall) to Easter 1861, when the last volume, 
the * Life of Jesus and the Eternal Kingdom of God,' will be 
out. . . . 

It may be said that we (in Grermany) have been at this 
work (of revising the translation of the Bible) for 87 yean, 
say 100; forin 1770, Michaelis at Gottingen published hifl 
great Translation and Commentary of the Old Testament, and 
yet the German nation has still the least correct of all Bible 
translations, although marked by the greatest genius, and in 
spite of imparalleled exertions made by our men of learning 
to effect a revision for the people. But a49 to England, it is 
more than 100 years that you have given up all reallj 
serious exegetical study of the Bible. Jowett's and Stanley's 
and Alford's works are, however, excellent beginnings — at 
least, as far as the New Testament is concerned. I think 
there are 3,000 passages requiring correction in Luther's 
translation, and not more than 1,500 in the English, Dutch, 
and French — the three best ever yet made. Still 1,500 is a 
great deal in a volume where every word ought to be sacred ! 

Only such ignorant talkers as can speak as though a 

more correct translation would of itself open a new light to 
the Christian world ! Nobody can change the language of 
our Bibles, nor their groundwork ; the precious metal requires 
only rubbing. 

To a Son. 

Charlottenberg : 26th August, 1857. 

. . . Here do I stand, on my sixty-sixth birthday, once 
more (after my return from Wildbad) at my old beautiful 
desk, in my beautiful Charlottenberg, in the finest summer 
weather — after having closed, yesterday evening, the revision 
of my Introduction to the 'Bibelwerk^ — expecting Astor every 
hour ! What will his visit bring ? 


CHAP, tions had always been, that in such a case he would be 

; bound to solicit permission to decline the call, on the 

ground of the pronounced infirmity of his health. But 
the wording of this letter so clearly signified that the 
Royal writer could not be satisfied without seeing 
Bunsen again, could not bear to know him absent, 
where the interests of religion were to be discussed,— 
and, in short, so completely constituted an appeal firom 
a friend to a friend, ending with an expression to the 
eflPect of * You will surely not refuse to be the guest of 
an old friend in his own house ! ' — ^that it was impossible 
not to yield to the will so affectionately intimated: 
although all indication of an especial purpose to be 
carried out by the journey was wholly wanting, — and 
Bunsen's presence at the meeting was but that of a 
spectator, not belonging to the £vangelical Alliance, of 
which he would gladly have become a member had they 
but been willing to adopt the * Confession of Faith ' sent 
him by Sir E. Culling in March last (see pp. 426 — 428), 
and fully approved of by Bunsen (see p. 428). As it 
was, he was obliged to decline becoming a member of it. 
He went, therefore, to Berlin ' pour faire acte de pre- 
sence : ' with an inward determination not to leave the 
opportunity unused, but to ask an audience for the pur- 
pose of bringing before the Royal mind, with more 
urgency than ever, the crying evils of the present 
police-government in matters of conscience. 

The extracts which follow, from the abundant com- 
munications which his affection prompted, sufliciently tell 
the tale of that consolatory visit, which shed an unhoped 
for gleam over the close of the remarkable and unpa- 
ralleled connection with Frederick William IV. which was 
of precisely thirty years' duration — as the two minds 
' met and united ' on the 15th October, 1827. 

These three weeks at Berlin proved a thoroughly 
happy time to Bunsen, in the enjoyment of the society 
of friends, and of objects of art and science, besides the 


CHAP, was wanting in all the qualities required for a lasting 

^^^^ • connection of friendship. 

Here follows a translation of the autograph letter of 
King Frederick William IV. to Bunsen (the last ever re- 
ceived from that gracious hand) — the transcript having 
been found in a letter from Bunsen to one of his sons. 

King Frederick William JK io Bwnsen. 

Saas SoHci : 6th September, 1857. 

Mt dearest Bunsen, — I express to jou my heartiest thanks 
for all the great trouble jou have undertaken and carried 
through with such splendid results (to mj honour) for the 
Schlagentweits. For all this, and for so many letters, most 
interesting to me, I am in heavy debt to you : but time is 
wanting in a frightful manner to me for answering you as 
I ought and desire to do ! I write to you only on account of 
a matter which I have at heart beyond aU expressioUy and that 
is your appearing at Berlin during the Assembly of the 
Evangelical Alliance. I wish thai^ urgently and longinglj, 
first for the sake of the thing itself^ secondly for the sake of 
your good name, thirdly for my own sake : — you must once 
more show yourself outside the limits of that narrow circle 
(becoming ever more and more susj^icious) in which you now 
exclusively live ! 

You must inhale fresh air of life — the breath of that life, 
which alone is life, because it is the essential life proceeding 
from the one essential source of life. You must inhale this 
breath of life, there, where a yet unheard of mass of joyful 
confessors will assenjble ; there, where it seems almost certain 
that a new future will be prepared for the whole Church and 
the entire body of the evangelical confessions. You must, 
by your appearance alone, stifle the malicious calmnny which, 
in genuine German (especially North-German), contracted- 
iiess of vision is beginning to raise against you, and to injure 
the holy cause of the Church. Thousands are watching for 
yom* non-appearance, to cast stones at you. Thai is what 
I cannot bear, if you by an errar in conduct give occasion 
thereto. I conjure you, for the sake of the Lord's cause, 
accept my offer, and accept from me, as an old and faithful 


CHAP. ^ liave a comer somewhere. I shall not write to-morrow, 
XVIII. but I shall, D.V., be with you in the middle of October, 


The Palace at Berlin — at the Apotheotny'if 
Friday early, 1 1th September, 1857. 

My DEAEE8T Fannt AND Theodoee, — That was a poetical 
entry, my * joyeuse entr^ ' into the Palace yesterday ! 

Saturday y four o'clock. — So things go ! I must break off 
the regular history, and relate, that George came in to me at 
eight o'clock glowing with life and love ; and that at twelve 
the Falmouth telegraph announced that Ernest will set out 
Sunday night towards Calais, and hopes to be here on Tues- 
day. See, what rich and blessed parents we are ! literally 
according to the Psalmist's words. Thanks be to Grod ! 

Yesterday was a great day, not to be forgotten. I dined 
with the King at Sans Souci, alone with Humboldt, and the 
Court, to present the English at the great reception of the 
Members of the Evangelical Alliance, at five o'clock. The 
King entered the Hall, and came straight up to me, and 
instead of (as formerly) giving his hand, embraced me 
heartily, and then a second time, saying aloud, * I thank you 
from my heart, dear Bunsen, that you have fulfilled my 
request, and come here so quickly — God reward you ! ' 
Afterwards Humboldt told me that the scene had been 
observed with great astonishment. Ah ! it is the very same 
dear royal countenance, and the same noble overflowing 
heart : the kernel of life is not injured, but the signs of age 
are beginning to make their appearance. 

At half-past four I was at my post, in the New Palace : 
before the long front, and on both sides as far as the steps, 
were placed one thousand Members. 

I went to reconnoitre, in order to make a due report to the 
King : and first on the left wing came upon the twenty-two 
Americans, headed by the Envoy, Mr. Wright, of Indiana. 
When I addressed him, to offer thanks as a Prussian and 
a Christian for his fine speech at the opening, he took me for 
the King, and was about to present his countrymen : but I 
quieted him, and he said, ' Sir, I come straight from the 
woods — forgive me : but I do love your good King. I am a 
Senator, and have been Governor of Indiana.' I went along the 


CHAP, to me (I was with Ernest in the royal seat), and took my 

XVIII. hand in sight of the assembly, and spoke to me for five 

minutes. As I went out, there stood ladies and men on 

both sides of the way, bowing and greeting me. I was much 

moved and abashed when Ernest made me observe this. 

To-morrow I dine with the Minister Von der Heydt, to 
whom I prophesied his triumph, which yesterday splendidlj 
took place. I planted, at the request of Lepsius, a yonng 
oak in his beautiful garden. I held the tree, while the earth 
was thrown over its vigorous roots, in the cradle of soil pre- 
pared for its reception. Then a motto was demanded (with- 
out which the tree would not grow, according to German 
fancy), and I said, in giving the name : — 

Oak I I plant thee — ^grow in beauty ; 

Straight and firm and vigoroufi stand ! 
Bunsen is the name I give thee— 

Flourish in the German land ! 

For the House of Lepsius blooming, 
Through the storm grow fair and free I 

And a shelter in the noon-day, 
To his children*s children be ! 

George then planted a Weymouth pine; motto, Wmne- 
muth (* Joyful courage'). To-day, Ernest will plant Aw 
(a Thorn of Christ) on the way to the train — homewards. 


The Millor'8 House, Sans Souci (dwelling of the late Count 
Stollberg) : "Wednesday, early, 23rd September. 

The last day was grand and fine, not to be forgotten. I 
had an audience, — 'a beautifully calm and yet troubled hour' 
(as the King afterwards termed it), from a quarter past one 
till three o'clock. The statement I had to make I had written 
down in the morning, between nine and eleven o'clock, that 
there might be a minute of what had been proposed and 
debated. The King was quite as in former times, in the 
best sense — all his former openness and his own peculiar 
animation. I had brought everything into clear and distinct 
form, and such were also his replies: we understand ea<*h 
other fuUy. We had just finished, when three o'clock, his 
dinner-hour, struck. 

To-day the General Superintendent Hofinann is to be here: 
and I shall not, till after the dinner, be finally dismissed. 


CHAP, to annonnce, that I shall remain at least this week ! So it 
^^^ is. The King had understood (from a letter of mine, in 
which there was nothing of the sort) that I wished to be 
gone — and he met me on Monday with the question, * Will 
yon indeed leave ns already ? ' I replied, * K your Majesty 
has no farther commands for me — ^yes.' Wherenpon, when 
the King after dinner dismissed me, he added that ' it would 
give him great pleasure to find me still here on his return on 
Friday/ Therefore I made my visits of leave-taking : — and 
at Groben's in the evening (whither I had received a kind 
invitation — she is the same charming person as ever) he said 
to me, the King had charged him with a message to me, that 
^ if my business was not too pressing, he wished I should 
await his return, for that he must speak to me.' I answered 
Groben with an explanation ; and observed to him that the 
King had not yet granted me an audience. ' That he will 
do,' replied Groben, ' on Saturday or Sunday ; at any rate, 
when the Grand Duchess Maria is gone.* - 

I have been well all the time, and enjoying the number of 
fine and grand works, and the company of men of art and 
science, which I have so long been without, and from which 
I had been almost weaned. George is delighted that I give 
way to this impulse of the spirit. The friends outdo each 
other in kindness. Employment I have, more than I can 
master, in the Library ; most of the Museum has yet to be 
seen, and many distinguished men are yet to be visited. I 
have been to see Marcus Niebuhr — in a ruined condition of 
nerves ; he has a chronic low fever. Abeken's kindness is 
indescribable ; the house of Lepsius is of all spots here the 
one I like best. He and I have worked much together, and 
I think to the profit of both. 


The Palace, Berlin : Saturday, 26th September, 1867. 

I am just come from a fine solemnity — the consecration of 
the new Hall for devotional meeting belongings, to the Mora- 
vian Brethren. This day, 106 years ago, the old narrow and 
dark receptacle was consecrated — now they have a handsome, 
roomy, and well-lighted hall. The King was present and all 
the clergy of Berlin. The Pastor Wlinsche and the Deacon 
Stobwasser had in the kindest manner invited me, and they 

448 MEMOmS OF baron BUNSEN. 1857 

CHAP, by sending you, to-day as yesterday, and henceforth daily, 
^^^^^' a greeting in writing, short or long, clear or unintelligible, 
but always true and warm. Yesterday I have indeed 
spoken with the King for the first time ; and the requested 
audience is to take place on Tuesday, the day afber to-morrow. 
It is possible, but not probable, that that audience will be 
the last; but, if not, certainly the last but one ; and I 
shall go away before the arrival of the Emperor, on the 
2nd October. 

The dinner-party at Charlottenburg had been arranged by 
the Ejing himself, the Queen not having yet returned from 
Saxony. Humboldt and Groben sat on each side of him ; 
opposite to him myself, with Abeken on the right and Geoige 
on the left ; the remainder were the aides-de-camp ; next to 
George was the son of the late Minister Count StoUberg, and 
I could not but reflect, how much more desirable a life George 
has, as a free man, than the son of the Count. The King, 
when I presented George, remembered him but slightly, until 
I mentioned that he had the happiness of accompanying and 
showing Eadowitz over London and travelling with him in 
England — and then he asked him about his country-abode, 
and seemed to take pleasure in him. When the dinner was 
over, then came the great moment. The King went into the 
recess of a window, and let Groben relate something to him— 
then he came towards me, and (following good advice) I 
seized the initiative, and reminded His Majesty that I had 
petitioned for one audience. ' I have every day thought of 
it,' he said ; ' but it was never possible.' ' Perhaps to-day ? ' 
I enquired. ^ Yes, truly,' said he, ^ were it not that I must 
go with the Queen to the jubilee of an old actor, who to-day 
makes his last appearance. But it might be on Tuesday, at 
Sans Souci.' 'Might it take place before dinner?' I en- 
quired. ' That would be best,' said he ; 'we will try to make 
it possible.' With a few words I now indicated the subjects 
1 desired to treat — and thus the ice was broken ; I had an 
important preparatory audience in the window-recess. The 
King's heart met mine again ; and I think I now compre- 
hend how things stand. Thus did six o'clock come upon ns ; 
when I with George drove to the Grimms and Bekker, who 
dwell on the same floor. Bekker was at first not visible ; and 
at Grimm's I succeeded in evoking the soul of the house,— 


CHAP. I worked for two hours ; then went to the excellent Nitsch. 

1 There remains nothing now but the family dinner at Pertz's, 

at four o'clock, and the theatre (to see ^ Cymbeline ') at half- 
past six. The King's wish was to have the * Orpheus ' of 
Gluck performed for me, but it will not take place. All things 
are ready for my journey on Friday. To-morrow is the de- 
cisive day. I made my solemn determination yesterday in 
church, absolutely to give over into the hands of Grod whether 
I should now act in the great concern, or not. * If it be 
good, so let it be ; if not, tear Thou the web ! ' What I 
have to say — ^what I can offer to do, and what not — I know; 
but whether it be Gk)d's will that now, under the present 
ruling circumstances and persons, the great work should be 
undertaken, — ^that God alone knows, and He will show me 
the way. I remain in reflection and doubt. 

My travelling plan remains as before. Saturday early, 
9 40, at Frankfort, there to rest, and see Schopenhauer, the 
Stadler Museum, the Ariadne, and the Maine. Could yon 
not come to meet me at Frankfort, and we could see all 
this together ? Now I commend you to Grod ! 

I have yet a good half hour to spare for sleep. This 
evening, at half-past nine, Abeken comes to me to tea. 

Eternally yours, Josias. 

The Palace, Berlin : Tuesday, early, quarter-past seven, 
[Translation.] MichHelma:j-day, 1857. 

The day is come ! I am invited to Sans Souci, to come by 
the twelve o'clock train, because His Majesty wishes to speak 
to me before dinner. There is much to be considered yet ; 
from eight tx) nine, Trendelnburg will be with me for that 
purpose. I can therefore only give you a sign of life, be- 
loved ! I go to my work fresh, and firm in heart to my 
Sunday's vow. 

' Cymbeline ' is a wonderful piece, but too much was 
omitted. Imagine that the lovely little Fiihr, who interested 
us in London, is now established here. She played Imogen 
charmingly. Tour Josus. 

Extract from a Letter of the same day, from Oeorge Bunsen. 

My dearest Mother, — One must give over one's hopes 
and fears into the Almighty's hands, and just rest there. 


^^ Bunsen to a Daughier-in^Law. 

The Palace, Berlin : 19th September, 1857. 

. . . As to details, yon must make E. give them in 
person : I will only say Ixere, that there were those days in 
which I was attacked, assailed, discussed ; and when both 
E. and 6. were fully occupied as well as I myself, and E. had 
to bear the brunt of the battle, and came off YictorioiiBlj. 
The satis£ax^tion has been as splendid as the attack was iU- 
judged. Wherever I go, the Berlin public has its eye upon 
me, and I think I read in their faces the expression of their 
sympathy in my having such aides-de-camp as no King haa— 
sons, friends, advisers, and true supporters. The eight days I 
have passed here are among the most remarkable of my Ufe. 

The following was found among Bunsen's papers :— 

Leave-taking from Berlin. 

The Palace, Berlin : Friday morning, five o'clock; 

2nd October, 1857. 

Praised be Thou, Eternal God, the Grod of fidthfulness and 
truth. Thou that art AU-merciful and All- wise, that Thou hast 
stifled the struggle of my heart, and quenched its bitterness: 
that Thou hast led me hither against my will ; and that Thou 
hast wrought great things, contrary to expectation, and be- 
yond all wish. Thy congregation in Christ vdll be planted 
amid this people, that general freedom may flourish on the 
consecrated soil ; — this Royal House and this nation will be 
reconciled. ' Christ is our peace,' in truth. The period of 
Thy kingdom, as the kingdom of the Spirit, of love, and of 
freedom, will come near, and Thy everlasting Gospel will be 
preached through all the earth. ^ The yoke of the oppressor 
is broken, and Thy eye of love shines into all lands. Halle- 
lujah ! ' 

My tent Thou wilt place for me near my children, in the 
country of my choice, where my bones may rest beside those 
of Niebuhr — should it be Thy will that Thy work should 
prosper by my hands. 

But do Thou, Lord, remain my succour and defence, 
and Thy will alone be done, to Thy glory, and to the for- 
warding of Thy holy kingdom, Thou that livest in etemitj ! 


CHAP, decisively the result of the sentiments which he suffered 

^^"^- to transpire. 

Two subjects, apparently distinct, had been emphati- 
cally commended to Bunsen's conscientious contempla- 
tion by the King, not only often and urgently in earlier 
years, but with peculiar energy on the repeated though 
short occasions of conference during this last occasion of 
cordial intercourse — the proper style of architecture for 
the national and metropolitan church, so long a &vourite 
design with the King, and the form of government for 
the community of living intelligence, or the Church in 
the spiritual sense. These two subjects Bunsen, in his 
own commentary upon the King's expressed intentions, 
studiously interwove into one — arguing that a congre- 
gation constituted on a free and rational, and therefore 
Christian, system, would itself expand into the fonn best 
suited to its public worship, and, unshackled by any 
architectural forms merely traditional, would assemble 
from all sides to meet round the central altar-table, or 
tnble of communion, there to offer the one only sacrifice 
of the Christian — his reasonable soul and free will — 
when partaking of the symbols commemorative of the 
death and of the ever-living presence of Christ. 

Bunsen having returned home after this period of 
deep interest, on the 3rd October (the very day of the 
King's mortal seizure, which was not publicly known 
till later), had not long rested from the manifold fatigues 
and excitement of the three weeks at Berlin, when he 
was called upon to set out towards Coblentz on Slst 
October, and he wrote to his wife from the hotel at 
Mainz on that day : — 


I asked myself the question, just as the train rolled away 
with me, whether I had taken leave of you, beloved ! and was 
compelled to answer. No ! How that could happen I can 
only so explain, that I have the impression as a thing of 
course, when you do not drive with me, that I shall be with' 


CHAP, serious resulted from the large proportion of days of 
^^^^' illness in the following winter. The lengthening out 
of a fine autumn continued the possibility of air and 
exercise, so as to cany Bunsen in a tolerable state of 
health, and in full activity of occupation, through De- 
cember and into the new year ; but the winter severity 
of January laid him low with one of the too well-known 
attacks of gastric disorders and harassing cough, which 
hung upon him until relief was brought by the warm 
air of spring. It will be seen in the extracts of letters, 
that visions of removal to the coast of the Mediterranean 
cheered the days of darkness ; and by the end of March, 
the long-desired commencement of the publication of the 
^Bihelwerk ' brought with it the means, which were essen- 
tial, to allow of his indulging in a journey to the South, 
and in a six months' residence there, without giving up 


CHAP, and * Sursum corda * in a Christian sense ; and both, with 
XIX. Grod's help, can my heart furnish. 

At the moment of writing the above, Bunsen was not 
aware of the serious chamcter of the attack from which 
Frederick William IV. never recovered. His remarks, 
therefore, apply to a state of affairs which, in fact, had 
passed away. It will be remembered that the real 
condition of the King was not fully stated at once to the 
public after the stroke of the 3rd October. 

Bunsen to a Friend, 


21st October, 1857. 

What a melancholy complication at Berlin ! and how 
consolatory for me, to have seen the King once more 
in entire affection and cheerfulness ! No one at Berlin be- 
lieves in the possibility of his recovery, or that he should 
ever again sustain the weight of government. The public 
amuses itself with reports as to my future position at Ber- 
lin ; but I know of nothing on the subject, except that I 
shall never again accept office. At Berlin I saw almost all 
my theological friends and acquaintances, and made many 
valuable new acquaintances. It would have done your heart 
good to have seen how much kindness and respect was shown 
to me on all sides, and particularly by the people of Berlin. I 
am now again deep in my work — the publication of the first 
volume of the ' Bibelwerk ' has been retarded one month by 
my Berlin journey. At Leipzig I saw the first sheets struck 
off (stereotyped). 

27id December. — The King is physically better, but his 
memory returns only occasionally for short intervals ; not in 
the most distant manner can they speak to him on business ; 
the cord once snapped cannot be restored. This condition 
has only so far affected my outward condition, as that the 
King, without my knowledge, on 3rd October (the very last 
day of his reigning, and giving his signature) commanded 
and executed my elevation to the Peerage. The matter was 
an object of long negotiation and correspondence, ever since 
18 i4, when I, in commission from the King, made out a sys- 
tem as to the increase of the order of nobles. Since then, I 


CHAP. The patent of nobility referred to in the preceding 

i L letter was granted by King Frederick William IV. on 

the 3rd October, 1857, a few hours before the seizure 
which deprived him of his faculties. Thus, by a re- 
markable coincidence, the last act of His Majesty's 
reign was to confer this merited honour and reward 
upon his attached Minister and faithful friend. The 
following passage occurs in a letter addressed by Bunsen 
to Arthur Schopenhauer, in reply to the congratulations 
addressed to him on this occasion : — 


Charlottenberg : 13th January, 1858. 

I have endured the elevation in rank, as I endnred mj 
birth into the world ; having, however, fought it off, according 
to my long declared principles, in so far as submission thereto 
might imply want of respect towards my own proper condi- 
tion, which is that of the cultivated middle class ; or becanae 
an absmrdity of pretension might be attributed to myself. 

'Bumefii to a Son, 


Charlottenberg : 29th January, 1858. 

The course of events is dragging down Napoleon IH. He 
has thrown hhnself into the military-clerical-police direc- 
tion, and has declared war against ' ideas,' on account of an 
abominable attempt at assassination. The whole of France 
divided among five commanders, and declared under con- 
tinuous martial law, in case of any movement, ipso facto, 
without awaiting telegrams ! All so-called impiete to be per- 
secuted by the police ! What a curse is annexed to imperial 
despotism ! The Emperor's real danger lay not in the 
attack of the 14th, but in his speech on the 18th. Will no . 
one in Germany utter the truth ? 

Slst March. — The saying of Schulze Bodmer (which ori- 
<]finated at Heidelberg) is going the roimd of Paris:— 
* U attentat a parfaitemetit reussi ; VEmpereur a perdu la teie,^ 

How bad and absurd is the Ellenborough India BiU ! To 
gain over London and the other trading cities, and the Radi- 
cals, and to bribe Parliament, by the sacrifice of the funda- 
mental principle of the English Constitution ! proposing to 



CHAP, insisted on giving up the whole, or that a creation should take 
^^^- place, as was done by Queen Victoria in the case of Macan- 
lay, and that I should be a member of the House of Lords. 
This was the King's intention in October, but his illness made 
its execution impossible, until fourteen days ago, when tbe 
Prince Eegent himself made some enquiry on the subjeet 
The King interrupted the Prince with the words, * Just that, 
and nothing less, did I intend ;' and he then went througlL 
the whole transaction with great clearness, and remembered 
fiirther that he had desired to grant my son Ernest (* on 
account of his services to the Royal Legation in London*) 
the rank of a Counsellor of Legation. He showed himself 
cheerful and pleased that the thing should now be brought in 
order by the Prince. 

28th February. — I admire your courage, to be willing 

to read yourself ! He is a power, being the only one 

of his nation understanding Hebrew and the Semitic lan- 
guages altogether. His education among the Jesuits has 
rendered him an unbeliever, as was the case with YoltaiTe, 
with whom he has much in common, especially keenness and 
clearness of intelligence, although not equal wit and imagi- 

I cannot agree in your opinion as to recent political events. 
If the eighty Liberals, who made Lord Derby Minister, have 
acted honestly, the English history for 100 years gives no such 
instance of folly. It is tJie Great Blunder! But it is a re- 
markable fact, that so political and intelligent a nation as 
the English can for a few weeks, and an English Parliament 
for one evening, have become suddenly mad ! Because Pal- 
merston, having become unpopular, gave a haughty answer 
to those who, sharing the general and intelligible popular 
feeling, roused by French Ministerial impertinences — the 
folly of Persigny, and the asperities of Walewski, took upon 
themselves to ask him reasonable questions — they suddenly 
throw out the Bill, which by an unexampled majority had 
been read for the first time a few days before ! which Bill 
afforded not only no advantage to despotism, but was cal- 
culated to fill up a void in legislation, neither logical nor 
honourable to English jurisprudence. But how will this 
end? The Queen will never consent to a dissolution of 
Parliament at such a time of excitement, and under such 


CHAP. 1^^^ specimen of humanity has in him vanished away from 
XIX. among ns. Much is required to work out a real hmnan 
character — cultivation outward and inward, of the mind and 
faculties, knowledge of the world, the understanding of him- 
self and his position ; but not less to form the real artist 
The mere artistical training is di£&cult, and the inward still 
more than the outward ; and how many of the professors of 
the art more especially of feeling — the art of music — remain 
stationary half-way ! Yet the thorough artist ought to 
possess a thoroughly cultivated understanding, he ought to be 
a thinker, and a self-conscious human being, which is most 
uncommon. Such was he who has just departed ; and such 
was Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy. And how did Neukomin, 
like Gothe, keep up the energy of striving after further de- 
velopment and acquisition, and endeavour, even in his 
advanced age, to preserve his power of composition ! and all 
that he was resulted from his own struggles and endeavours, 
and that often amid circumstances of extreme difficulty. I 
could fill pages with outpourings of my heart about tiiis 
deceased friend. 


Bun8eii*8 reply to a Letter from Rudolph TT., in Magdeburg (per- 
socially unknown to htm), eyiquiring into his religious opinions 


Tuesday in Whitsuntide : 2oth May, 1858. 

Dear Christian Brother, — Your call, of the 20th of last 
month, went to my heart — as how should it not ? but as I had 
much to finish before the Festival which did not admit of 
delay, I have reserved for a Whitsuntide pleasure the an- 
swering of your question as a Christian — that is, sincerely 
and openly. Yes, my fellow-believer, the Lord taught me early 
that I am a sinner, and that only in Christ I can become well- 
pleasing to God, and a child of God. He, the same Lord (as 
you may read it stated shortly in my ' Bihelwerh^), has pre- 
served me by His Spirit in the same path, and given me 
strength to search His Word, in humble, sincere enquiry. 
For it is said, ' The truth shall make you free ; ' how then 
should the enquiry after truth lead those into error, who, 
for the glory of God and not for their own, seek it where it 
is to be found ? and where that is I have said, in terms not 
to be misunderstood, to yourself and all those who are williiig 


CHAP, introduced error surreptitiously, as in the case of 1 John v. 7, 
x^^- in the teeth of the solemn imprecation of Luther ! Thig 

' applies to the leaders ; I judge not those who are mere 

echoes ; — but Grod will judge us all in that day, when we 
pass from the temporal into the eternal, and when ^the 
secrets of all hearts shall be revealed.' 

Those who preach the curse and vn^th of God against sin, 
are in the right ; but if they do not at the same time preach 
the love of God, the eternal love of God in Christ, with which 
He has loved us all from the beginning— if they preach not 
that the Spirit makes known the love of God to all who 
reckon themselves to be, not much, nor little, but nothing, 
and God to be All in All — ^then they preach not the Gospel; 
nor the doctrine of the great Apostle of the heathen, who 
calls himself the ^ chief of sinners,' although conscious that 
by the grace of God he had become a chosen instrament for 
the work of God. To this point may the Lord conduct us 
all, and in this faith may He preserve us all ! 

Do you go on faithfully searching the Scriptures, and He 
will give you the seal of the Spirit in your heart, and preserve 
it to you to the day of death ; and let no authoritative de- 
clarations disturb you. Li my vrritings you will not, I hope, 
find any such declarations, for I seek to lay before the con- 
gregation the reasons for my assertions, as they have become 
clear to me through the labours of forty years ; and in this 
I am only doing my duty. 

In a few months you will receive the next volume of my 
^Bibelwerk^; and if you will but go on studying with me, you 
will discern in the Law the first burst of that light, which 
in the Gospel, in the person of Christ the Son of God, shone 
forth in full clearness and brightness. 

Again thanking you for your confidence, I remain, in 
Chi'istian afiection and esteem, &c., Bunsek. 

Bunsen to a Son. 

Charlottonberg : 4th July, 1858. 

I have really, with the help of God, fulfilled my vow 
of 1815, when I transcribed the text of the ' Wolnspa' (at 
that tiuie not yet published in the edition of Copenhagen) 
jis it now lies before me, with my Danish translation, and 
the corrections of F. Magnussen. I do not agree with the 


CHAP, yesterday eTening, I felt it would be a pity not to go fnrther ; 

XIX« ajid Qow the ideas have arisen in sacli life before my acid's 
vision, that the hand cannot foUow qoickly enongh. Plato 
had clearly before him the problem, to explain the order of 
development ont of the eternal existence by intermediate 
ideas: — and one needs bnt to contemplate the reality of 
evolution, fix>m the level of our age, to find the point of 
connection. . . . Do yon with the two dear girls make nearer 
acquaintance with the Palatinate, and expand in a new scene 
of God's free creation ! I am resolved to show Baden to yoa 
all in the autumn — ^you have no conception of the beauty of 
the place. Were you but here ! The dinner-bell rings — ^fiye 
o'clock — great hunger, and high philosophy with it ! 

Victoria Hotely Baden : Thursday^ 22nd July^ ten o^dotk morn- 
ing. — ^Yesterday, on returning from that divine Badenweiler, 
I was surprised by the unexpected pleasure of your letter. 
How beautiful, but how short, your excursion ! My journey 
is a romance of reality. Whom should I find by my side at 
the table (at Badenweiler) but the Minister of Foreign Af- 
fjEurs, von Meyseburg ! I had spoken to the Prince at onoe 
(at Baden) of the a£Gur of Bastadt, so utterly mismanaged 
and so highly important; and found him, in all points, 
clear and right-intentioned and courageous. The whole 
thing lay in a nutshell ; but who was to open it ? My old 
inclination, to seize at once, peraonally, the opportunity, re- 
vived, when I found the right man (never seen before) at my 
side. I knew not before that he was at Badenweiler. I 
introduced myself — we entered into animated conversation— 
I proposed a confidential conference on the subject of Eastadt, 
which next day took place, and, in two parts, lasted five 
hours, in which we came to the same opinion. The next 
morning (yesterday) at five o'clock, I wrote down the whole ; 
I read it through with him, and he confirmed every word. I 
carried the paper to the Prince, who could not believe his 
eyes ; and I have by his desire telegraphed for Herr von 
Meyseburg to come here. . . . More by word of mouth. Use- 
dom, Pourtal^s, and Sehleinitz are all here. All right ! but 
they laugh at me, poor old man as I am, for complaining of 
illness, when, this morning early, I was able to walk for a 
whole hour, conversing all the time, partly with Pourtales, 
partly with the Prince. This wellbeing of mine is all owing 


CHAP, dear wnil in the noblest enjojment of ait. ... I 
. bosilj at the third volnme — mnch Ues 

my Imprimatar. It wonid be just ri^it if w 
lin were to take jiace at the beginning 
of October. The weather is indescribaUr 
drire again to-day npthe hill, this time not 
heim, but get ont at the Engelswiese, from 
walk home by the Fries- Weg. 

My best greeting to the two yaloed friends, 
companions — ^their visit rejoiced my Terr aool ! 

The ^ two valued friends * were Lepsins 
who, after a short and much-prized visit at 
berg, had accompanied Bonsen's wife and EaSiV 
Munich and Niimberg, and granted their most wp^- 
able escort as far as Augsburg on the wvr faacL v* 
whence they returned to Berlin. Munich in that Jff 
possessed the additional attraction of the genenl Ed^ 
bition of German Art, which there for the first Wt 
took place : a similar collection of monuments of Gcr 
roan genius and talent, excluding all those prenovb' 
exhibited at Munich, has only once since bei-n bnxdtf 
together at Colonrne, in the summer of 1861. Tn^irfr 
jeet of showing Niimberg, as the treasury of uL::r:t 
art in Germany, to his wife, and of revisiting w::h her 
Munich, to behold in a state of completeness all thai 
they had seen in its first commencement twenty yt^ 
before, on their journey from Italy, — ^had long b«D 
entertained by Bunsen ; but now that the dejirabk 
opportunity offered of making the journey in the cowr 
i)any of friends, he found it was impossible to break 
off from his work, which had been only too much re- 
tarded; and was pleased that his wife and daughter «t 
least should execute the i)lan. 

The letter from Baden of July 22 indicates a concu^ 
rence of unlooked-for circumstances, the result of which 
very gratifying to Bunsen, but which concern • 
Son belonging to history, and which, like so much 
pointed out and left untold in this biographic*! 


CHAP. Person. One evening in his house I thought I had shut him 
^^^- up to a point, but the conversation was interrupted by the 
breaking up of the large company. We met the next day, 
by appointment, to resume the discussion ; but amid the flow 
of his grand conceptions, I never got him back to the point 
at which we had broken off. 

The last day I passed with him was a Sabbath — a Sabbalh 
indeed : for I never in all my life spent a more profitable 
day. In the forenoon I sat with him in the TJniversitf 
Church of Heidelberg, where we had the privilege of listen- 
ing to a pow:erful Gospel sermon from Dr.. Schenkel. I spent 
the afternoon in his house, where he read to us in German, 
or in English translations, out of the fine devotional worh 
of his country, interspersing remarks of his own, evidentlj 
springing from the depths of his heart, and breathing to- 
wards heaven — ^whither, I firmly believe, he has now been 

The living picture contained in the preceding passage 
is most gladly and gratefully here extracted, as one 
instance of the kind of memorial so delightful to sur- 
viving aflFection, and as almost unique of its kind. The 
objections mad§ by the excellent Dr. M'Cosh to opinions 
uttered by Bunsen shall only be so far commented 
upon, as to remind the reader of these lines, that Dr. 
M'Cosh witnessed the oscillations of a pendulum, by 
which it was often borne far away from the centime of 
gravity, to which it returned, and in w^hich it rested:— 
and that she who had longest watched and witnessed 
the oscillations, has most reason to know and mark the 
fact, and the point of repose. 

On the o[)inion held by Bunsen as to mesmerism. 
Dr. MX'osli is believed to have misunderstood the dis- 
tinction wliich he endeavoured to mark between total 
disbelief in a natural gift of the human animal, and the 
over estimate of the gift which prevails among those 
who exalt its operations into sublimity and spirituality: 
whereas he believed that second-sight or clairvoyance 
was only the product of a morbid state of body, a dis- 
turbance of health or of the nervous equipoise; and 


CHAP. SOth Sept&mber. — On 10th October (d.v.) I set out— to 
^^^- arrive at Berlin on the 15th. 
' Since the 21st, I have written of the * Consciousness of 

God' from the Abbot Joachim (1100) up to Gothe andHegd 

— from Florence to Washington, from Luther to Channiiig 

— with all the necessary extracts. 

The * Pentateuch ' is * out.' In a word, the dose is siw- 

cessful. Soli Deo gloria I 

Bunsen to his Wife. 

Hotel d'Angleterre, Berlin : 18th October, 1858. 

Here I am, happily arrived, accompanied from St. Eliza- 
beth's at Marburg by Lang, the architect of the restoration in 
this royal city, favoured by the finest weather, and receiTed 
at the station by the two guides of your recent journey. I 
entered this best of hotels at ten o'clock, conveyed in Lepsius' 
carriage. We talked over our tea tiU midnight ; and when I 
left the quiet adjoining bed-chamber (and a bed eight feet long) 
this morning at seven, I saw the prospect, from my sitting- 
room, of the green square with flowers and a fountain playing, 
the river beyond, and above it the new high cupola of the 
Palace ; on the left, the bridge with the eight colossal marble 
groups (the young warrior instructed by Pallas Athene in 
the use of arms — guided in combat, in attack, in defence, 
in victory, in death — and the palm of triumph), and, behind 
all, that splendid Museum. Before breakfast I looked over 
some printed slips relating to the Edda, and read some of 
the papers, so well packed and arranged by my dear Frances 
— then breakfast and conversation with Stockmar and Use- 
dom. Then I drove to the Prince (all absent at Babels- 
berg) ; then a sufifocation came on, and I hastened back, 
and recovered soon, to have a conversation with Cyril Gra- 
ham (whom we knew as a boy), and who will set out to- 
morrow towards the Hauran, where last year he discovered 
eighty-seven cities in good preservation. Then did I talk 
long with our admirable friend, Abeken, and afterwards I 
was able, with the help of Charles's arm, to walk, without 
consciousness of effort, to the Museum, and through all the 
antiquities and pictures, and back again. 

In the night at Marburg, towards morning, I designed 
a great plan for an Academy with an Ethnological Listitute, 


CTTAl'. with Charles. As the dear old Magician* says, the Prince has 
^^^ displayed the great quality of silence, and is to be hailed 
as *' Willielm the Silent II.' — as which, I suppose, he will 

Fridayy 22nd October y three o'' clock, — Just come from the 
House, where we have carried an Address of Loyalty to the 
Regent, by eighty votes against seventy-six, and wanled 
oil* one of similar nature to the King. * This warding off was 
truly loyal ; for the proposal had been an apple of discord, 
intended to fiirnish party-feelings with an occasion for uttor- 
ance, which might have caused embarrassment to the Prince. 
Besides, it must have given rise to debates, which may 
now happily be avoided. This evening I shall have a smaO 
tea-party, and, you will admit, a select one. My former col- 
league and old friend Paul von Hahn, the Caucasian, the dear 
Magician and his son, Abeken, and Paidi. Hahn has brought 
me the two promised memoirs on the great question of the 
Russian cultivators: these papers are eWdently written with 
materials derived fi'om the Cabinet, and as such do the Em- 
peror great honour. 

My neighbour in the House to-day was Daniel von der 
lleydt, a really Christian spirit, although theological: hodiJ 
not recognise me at first, and spoke in commonplace ttTiiis: 
but presently, ha viuLj refreshed his memoiy of ls2o in Roiii^ 
he uh^t me with warmth, and related to me tlit* death ol'lii? 
wife, and her <lying words. She sank under the small-jvi: 
her death was i)r<ni(>unet'd imminent three days before the 
spirit depart<ML ITer husband asked whether she liadauj" 
wishes or requests to express ; slu» answennl, - Xo wish- 
the blessing of God rests upon our children ; as to y<mr?«L-. 
Yon are / — 1 am ifou. For our Lord I have no prayor nor 
petition, but only praise and thanksgiving.' Then be iv- 
peated the iirst vtTS(» of a favourite hymn; she piiim^uiioi'-l 
the second, he eoTilinued with the third; in the fourth wa? 
the expression, " Tln^ Lord can save,' which she altervJ i;!'' 
*The Lord h^is saved;' and thus she proceeded, ri'taiiiiii- 
CiHisciousness to the very last, and saying ever and airain. 'I 
am dead, I live iu (intf." Not a single com])laint was utton^i 
1»T her. I said to him, ' Thost* are the utterances wt ^t' '^ 
Boul departing, but of one already entered into life ftcnul. 

• B:iroii .Stockuiar. 


CHAP, retrospect which brings to mind the grievous fact, that 
..^^Ll these autumnal days, this month of October, were to 
recur but once more in what could be reckoned life ! — for 
the October of I860 found him in the sti-uggle of disso- 
lution ; — and in so short a term as in reality remained, 
any expenditure of time and strength for a purpose 
alien to that which had ruled his whole existence might 
be deplored as a waste. But neither he nor others 
could then have supposed that life so vivid and intense 
was yet so nearly expended ; even though the attacks of 
suffocation, always brought on by emotion and the irre- 
gularities unavoidable in travelling, were frequent, and 
alarming to his companion, unused as he was to the pain- 
ful spectacle. The lateness of the meeting of the Cham- 
bers rendered unavoidable the exposure of Bunsen to a 
violent change of temperature in the sudden setting in 
of winter, early in November; and as a great deal of 
necessary work for the press remained to be done after 
his return home, the long-planned journey to the South 
was reserved for the severest period of the year, when 
days were shortest and gloom deepest, instead of its 
having been, as it would have been if undertaken during 
the latter end of a fine autumn, an expedition of pleasuit' 
and refreshment. 

In a letter written at the beginning of November, he 
mentions that 'Humboldt is seriously ill — Schonlein, how- 
ever, still hopes to be able to preserve his life. I have just 
received a line from him, written from his bed. I am to 
sec him at one o'clock.' This is the notification of the 
hist interview that took place between Bunsen and the 
distinguished man, to whose kindness and encouraging 
appreciation he had felt himself much indebted during 
many years of his earlier life, and whose demonstrations 
of esteem and mutual understanding he never would 
have known or suspected to be otherwise than genuine, 
had he not survived just long enough to witness that 
unfortunate publication of letters to Varnhagen, wliicli 

484 HEHOIBS a 

admirable collatioii to bi 

celebrated MS. of the V ^ 

and for the comparatiTC 

needed, he irould have 

assistants. This classical 

day come into being, an 

that, as &r as thought e 

framed the deugn, woi^e 

all its details. 


Thus your birtlidajr ia t 
jonm of three weeks at 1 
happy and saccessM peric 
blessing, that I can be^ 
you. Wherefore, All haH 
King and Country I 

I recboB npon finding 
write down, at least in onl 

the private history of 

years; besides the other i 
on this side of the Alps. 
set out towards Nice ; then 
ship of the Waldenses ; and 
gedes vhifata quieta* monglr 


ChHTlottenberg : 

(Ood blee 

The close (of * God in H 

very last morning, as I had 

the point which in the Pre 

object. I have proved by fact, that all real religion oduB^ 
in a personal, moral, rational consciousness of God, sod tM 
this is the original instinct of humanity, unfolding itself Jfo* 
gressively from the unconscious to the conscious : sod tW 
therefrom all langua^ political formations, and cnlto* 



CHAP, unnoticed, or converted into causes of mirth, where 

1 health and spirit exist to meet the smaller as well as 

the greater rubs of life; but falling heavily upon an 
invalid. It is both affecting and consolatory to observe 
in the ensuing extracts from letters, that he calls his 
journey an ' agreeable one ' — thus proving that his 
judgment had duly weighed all existing causes of 
thankfulness, and appreciated on reflection the degree 
of success which had attended the watchful care by 
which evil Avas warded off wherever it was possible. 
Two days at Geneva were much enjoyed by all the 
party — in particular the hours spent among friends in 
the house of Mdlle. Vernet Pictet. They had left 
Heidelberg under that solid sea of vapour, spread from 
one extremity of the horizon to the other, which can- 
not be called cloud, as it admits of no variety of form 
or thickness, and transmits only a degree of lurid light, 
confounding all forms of objects, without a beam of sun- 
shine to create a shadow and therewith give evidence of 
substance ; that appearance which is inseparable from the 
greater part of the winter in the central continent of 
Europe, and which was found on the present occasion 
to extend as far as Orange, south of Lyons — where first 
the tent broke into clouds, between which the sun came 
forth, to renew the face of the earth. When travellers 
speak of winter, its storms or splendours are treated of, 
which are the rare exception ; whereas this total abroga- 
tion of sunshine and of life and beauty is the rule — alluded 
to here, as unavoidably oppressive and depressing to 
the traveller, who seemed to imbibe new life on reaching 
Marseilles and the sea breezes, Avith so many signs of 
the desired South, in evergreens and in temperature. 
At that time, the railway terminated at this place, and 
four-and-twenty hours of dili^^rence-conveyance had to be 
encountered between Marseilles and Cannes, — favoured 
by the full moon and fine weather; and all unpleasant- 
ness was cast into oblivion on being hailed at the entrance 


CHAP, sixteen years later. As yet the Christian communily (ffe- 
^^^' meinde) knows nothing of the former period (832-1), and 
little of the latter (1-138). Where, in short, is this portion 
of history to be found, in a tangible form? 

To complete this framework, I shall give what may be 
called * Christian Apocrypha' : — 1. The Epistle of Clement to 
the Corinthians, of the year 80, seventeen years before (the 
Gospel of) John, according to the Codex Alexandrinns ; 
2. The three Epistles of Ignatius, according to the Codex 
of the Church of Antioch (seen by Bawlinson). 

But before these, the most ancient congregational com- 
positions : the Lord's Prayer, * Glory to God in the Highest,' 
the Baptismal Confession, and others, almost all in the Codex 
Alexandrinus of the New Testament; together five or six 
sheets. The gain of this is evident, and remains the property 
of the Christian community ; no one can take it away. The 
whole will help towards forming a basis of reasonable belief. 

Of course I shall not be able to work at these Annals 
until I am again in Heidelberg ; but I must be clear on the 
subject before printing the Introduction to the first volume A 
I shall have much work in the Chronicles, but work more to 
my taste than that which I shall thereby save. The trans- 
lation of Ignatius I have made, and for Clement I hope to 
find somebody ; that Epistle 1 myself know almost by heart 
May God grant me His blessing for the hundred days of work 
on the shore of the Mediterranean ! 

Buiisen to a Friend, 

Cannes : New Year's Day, 1859. 

I cannot begin the new year, any more than I could last 
night close the old one, without thinking of you, and wishing 
to give you intelligence of our progress. We have had a 
most prosperous and agreeable journey, beginning with the 
9th December. Arrived at length here at Cannes, we found 
ourselves in a lodging on the sea-shore, engaged and arranged 
for us (Maison Pinchinat), which at once seemed to me the 
best and most beautiful that we could anywhere obtain. I 
can only compare the situation to Mola di Gaeta, and the 
Villa di Cicerone there; but in this place, the mountains 
that half enclose the bay are much finer. Yet we judged it 


CHAP, present at the funeral, which took place at Cannes, 
^^ 20th April. 

Bunsen to Theodora von Ungem-Sterfiberg, 


Cannes : New Year's Day, 1850. 

To whom should my thoughts turn this morning more 
readily than to my beloved Theodora and all the dear onea 
around her ? Your eye of love, and that of August, greeted 
me at the very last moment on the railway, and, since that, 
many other signs of love have been received from you ; and 
you were, at the closing hour of the year, in our minds when 
we recalled (with the help of your mother's memory) in swift 
retrospect the entire richly-filled year, and the valued presence 
of Augustus (on that day and hour a year ago) when he stole 
away, at a late hour, from your bedside to visit us- And 
now behold the further thriving development ! a pair of fine 
expressive eyes, as door-keepers of the young awakening soul, 
and the satisfied smile, so full of meaning, of the moutL^ 
And then my splendid Bosa, spf^aking, singing, dancing ! and 
you both on the point of entering upon a quieter plan of 
household life, and a less worrying course of activity. There- 
fore, the blessing of God, dearest Theodora, be upon you, on 
the New Year, and on your bu-thday ! . . . 

I wish I could speak Proven9al, spoilt though the language 
be. Imagine, they say 'una chosa' instead of una com. 
But they have kept clear of the French w, and of all nasal 

Bunsen to a Frle7iJ. 


Cannes : 31 st January, 1869. 

We are all improving, but till the 20th my wife and I 
have both had to contend with the consequences of influenza; 
having at last dismissed the enemy, we experience the full 
blessing of this incomparable climate, of our exquisite tran- 
quillity and of sea-prospect, from the Maison Pinchinat. I can 
already walk quickly for half an hour at a iirie without pausing, 
and I walk out daily three or four times, or drive to Ernest's 
Villa RiperCy on a height not far from Lord Brougham's. 

• An allusion to the birth, on the previous New Year's Eve, of another 


XIX. Eztra^ from a Journal. 

Cannes : 5th March, 1850. 

We were early fetched from our hotel to breakfast at the 
Maison Pinchinat, standing on the very edge of the beantifdl 
bay. All the party are bright and thankfrd in seeing Bunsen 
so much better, and able to work again, and to enjoy viaitB 
from his friends. He took us out on the balcony overhang- 
ing the bright silvery sea, and seemed to drink in all its 
beauty ; — its calm seemed to be reflected on his fiuje, which 
never looked more radiant or more full of satisfiaxstion. He 
has his own home-circle around him, and Ernest and Eliza- 
beth and their children near. He is full of hope for Italy, 
repeated passages from Lord Palmerston's speech, and gare 
us a little insight into French and Austrian politics ; he is 
sure that war must come. In the evening it was excitingly 
interesting to hear Charles Bunsen, fresh from Turin, talking 
over the state of men's minds there, with his father. They 
have established religious freedom in Piedmont. A French 
Testament was shown to me, prepared to help inquirers 
among the Roman Catholics, in which passages that throw 
light on the diflferent questions at issue are printed side by 
side, and thus the Scripture explains itself. A touching 
history was related of a woman who, on her death-bed, sent 
to ask Mdlle. C. to come to see her in her home in the moun- 
tains, recently. The latter immediately went thither, and 
found an experienced Christian, who had studied the Bible 
with her family, and had the joy of seeing them all follow 
in her own course. It was edifying to witness with what 
strength and clearness of mind, to the very hour of her dis- 
solution, she met the railing of the priest, and his endeavour 
to frighten her as to being buried in dishonour by the road- 
side. ' Rachel was buried under a palm-tree,' was her reply. 
After she had expired, the priest repeated to the survivors 
that she would find her grave among those guilty of suicide; 
to which the eldest son answered, ' Was not our Saviour 
crucified between two thieves i* ' No funeral service was 
allowed at the grave, but an address, with prayer in the 
house of mourning, was attended by hundreds of earnestly 
attentive listeners. A glorious moonlight-evening, to wind 
up this full, beautifid day. On Wednesday, 4th March, 


CHAP, life in Christ, and what is craved by the universal consdaice 
of the nations of the world — ^ Christ yesterday, to-day, and 
for ever.' I begin with * Glory to God on high,' and proceed 
to Paul, Hermas, Diognetus, and to Ambrose {Veniy redempior 
gentium) ; and then I go on to explain the worship of the 
Infant Christ and the Madonna, and pass on to the domesiac 
festival of Christmas, and to Handel and Bach. I finish 
with the philosophy of the Divine history. The doctrine rf 
the Incarnation is contained in the Prologue to the Gospd 
of John. 

All this is written — 140 pages — of which 40 are new. 
Yesterday I worked through to John the Baptist, and to- 
morrow, I hope, with the Baptism of Jesus, to begin what is 
properly His ' Life.' K all goes on in this way, I shall haye 
finished in February, and then shall leave the MS. for re- 
\'ision next winter. 

To the Same. 

Cannes : Friday, 25th March, 1859. 

By the 4th March I had so far finished the * Life of Jesus' 
that, besides general revision, only a few chapters of the 
earlier period of teaching remained to be completed, for 
which completion I have need first to see how the explana- 
tion of the Gospels shapes itself imder my hands, in order to 
know what I have still, critically or demonstratively, to treat 
in the ' Life.' So I began on 4th March the correction of the 
translation of Matthew, and am to-day at chapter xviii., having 
done the Sermon on the Mount, the Parables on the King- 
dom of Heaven, and the Transfiguration. I have enjoyed 
going through Lachmann's text word for word, and adopt- 
ing each well-considered, honest explanation, whether the 
spii'itual or the literal, of every self-expounding passage. 
Oh, how much confusion, hypocrisy, dissembling, and, at the 
same time, what mediocrity, since the death of Sehleier- 
macher and Neander! The principal feature, however, is 
KaKta^ cowardice — fear of not giving full satisfaction to the 
craving demands of the new generation of clergy and of 
governments after positivism — and so falling back upon *old 
wives' fables.' I foolishly distressed myself formerly about 
hitting the right tone in addressing the congregation in my 
annotations nnder the text, which cannot faul to be most 


CHAP, a birthday offering. It is eight o'clock in the morning, 
^^ and I have just finished the translation and explanation of 
the Gospel of Matthew as far as the Passion and Besnnec- 
tion, that is all but the last three chapters. That view of the 
teaching of Jesus as to the Last Judgment and the Kingdom 
of God on Earth, from which I have started in the * Ltfe of 
Jesus,' had still to undergo this trial. I had passed over that 
point (treating of the Last Judgment) because only by tbe 
connected interpretation of Matthew could I arrive at any 
certainty in my conception of Christianity. The struggles and 
difficulties of enquiry, through which the conscientious inter- 
preter must pass, begin, as you know, with the Sermon on 
the Mount — that Gospel of the Judaic Christians, in which, 
nevertheless, the Christ not only of James, but the Christ of 
Paul and of John, is to be found. There is not a verse in it 
which receives not, by means of this free and comprehensiTe 
contemplation, its true, full, and clear sense. The same 
holds good of the innumerable parables of the Kingdom of 
God — all relating to this earth, but in a wholly transmuted 
moral condition of human society. And all ibia stretchei 
out far beyond the Jewish system, beyond all Heathenism, 
even beyond thousands of years of Christianity * among aD 
nations.' Thus also the great and difficult chapters xxiv., 
XXV., are unlocked to me. Chapter xxv. 31, unto the end, 
contains that which the Apocalypse models out into the 
establishment of the Millennium — a vision of the confessors 
of Christianity. With that are to be connected the verses of 
chapter xiii. 37 — 45, and we behold the Kingdom of God 
thereupon succeeding. 

With respect to our personal continuance after death, I 
have formed for myself new ways of demonstrating it : of all 
this, more by word of mouth. 

Bunsen to another Son. 


Cannes : 3rd April, 1869. 

What happiness, to expound the words of Jesus, in a con- 
nected form ! I have now the solution of the enigma of the 
end of Matthew, and of the breaking off of Mark at the close, 
all in order and quite satisfactory. 

My philosophical thoughts have received a new impube 
from the chapters on the ' latter days.' Neither this doc- 



CHAP, as a necessily, bj- Pitt eqaanj- with omreelyef; and that ne, 
^^^ seven years later, in 1805, stood aloof in the hour of conflict^ 
was as much the &nlt of Aaatrian arroganoe and fiuthkn- 
ness as that of onr own irresolution. Bnt ihem, a portion of 
German J was actnall j invaded, whereas fiow, Qermany is aot 
even threatened, but more secure than ever, under fte 
guardianship and protection of Pmsna. Now we hiTe 
before us an European question, in short the essential qoei- 
tion which has demanded solution ever since 1882, not to mj 
since 1817 — ^the Papal and Jesuit rule, and the Austrin 
tyranny in Italy, against all treaties, not merely witbool 
"ttie sanction of treaties. 

Has not every e£Ebrt been made, on all sides, for thirty-nx 
years, to bring Austria to reason? Have not all the fiutUU 
and sagacious among European statesmen, xneluding Can- 
ning, foretold to them what now has happened? nam^, 
that Austria would irresistibly provoke the power of France 
(as the history of half a century shows) to dislodge her fron 
her brutal supremacy over Italy. Has not Austria slig^iled 
all warnings, persecuted and stigmatised all those divinen of 
truth, as well as all the moderate and earnest patriota of 
Italy? Has she not been continually imposing on her 
stronger chains and heavier burdens? But it is said, *Who 
could think that Austria would be so obstinate ? * Nay, who 
could expect any other conduct ? Only those who expect the 
Pope to become Galilean, Anglican, or Lutheran ! Should 
Austria to-morrow evacuate Central Italy, the day after to- 
morrow it will be in the hands of the national party, which 
is now monarchical, not republican — conservative, not reTO- 
lutionary. Then the system of that arrogant House will be 
struck down, and what more could be the result, even of an 
unsuccessful war ? 

And now, what cause will be served by the agitation of 
these furious foes of France? 1. That of the Pope and the 
Jesuits. 2. That of the prolongation of Austrian tyranny. 
Therefore, its tendency is against our essential life, against 
Protestantism, and confessional freedom, against Pnisaa* 
against the German Federal State ! France and Bussia are 
opponents of a German Federal State, but the House of 
Austria alone is directly antagonistic to Germany herselt I 
will not conjure up the shades of Olmiitz and Dresden, bot 
I must be spared the argument of Basle ! 


CHAP, remain two days, were it not for necessary work, for I haye 
^^- no inclination to dispute on first principles with G. and M. 
4th May. — This time I shall not enter into the qnestion 
which of the many dangers is the most threatening to onr 
beloved Grerman &therland — my joy is almost too great, I 
mean the joy of beholding another nation, at least, and th&t 
the one which Oermany and France have oppressed, the one 
for 800, and the other for 300 years — rising from prostration, 
and brave not in words only but in deeds of arms, going 
forth not in the anarchy of despair, but in the legahiy of 
hope and faith in the fature, under the visible protection of 
Providence, to set free the first-bom daughter of Chtistian 

Contemporary Letter to a Daughter -in-Law, who had writim to 
explain that she could not visit Heidelberg, 

Charlottenberg : 26th May, 1859. 

I comfort myself that your not coming is providentiaL Ton 
can form no idea of the discomfort of the state of public feel- 
ing. There is a complex of nonsense brewed together into a 
poison, producing intoxication and a cloud over the intel- 
lect, in the case of almost every one you speak to ; only Herr 
von Dusch, as an old statesman and diplomatist, upon whom 
Bunsen first called, looked upon things in the same light as 
himself; as does also Gervinus, who latterly could hardly 
venture to go out but in the dusk, lest stones should hare 
been thrown at him ! The public mind has been worked upon 
(certainly by agitators) to such a pitch that Prussian tra- 
vellers have been warned to keep out of sight, and not appear 
at the table d'hote, lest they should be insulted ! because 
Prussia, though well prepared and ready for war, intends to 
keep out of it, if she can ; whereas, the Southern States are, 
in fact, calling upon others to enter into the war they pre- 
suppose, and are endeavouring to kindle, not being them- 
selves in any way prepared — having neither fortresses pro- 
vided, nor regiments equipped. But enough, and too much! 
I tremble at every conversation, lest Bunsen should not put 
a guard upon his expressions, and pain those who are bound 
by their material interests to Austria. It is fearful to discofer 
how many are entangled financially in the Austrian losses. 

At Geneva we suffered much from the ' bisey' on the three 


CHAP. I say, Italy free before the end of August ; then a Congrew 

L of Peace, and peace itself before the Ist October, on which 

day I hope to commence my pilgrimage to Florence, and 
from thence to Cannes. 

I found at home heaps of work waiting for me, and 
have laboured unremittingly to make a clearance ; so that I 
am now again in full courae of advancing. Henry has been 
here a week, rejoicing us with his presence; and we ha?enot 
given up the hope of getting George also here, with wife and 
child, if the rain will but give way, which is now pouring 
upon us. 

Bunsen's departure from the beloved South, on the 
14th May, 1859, took place in a happy consciousness of 
improved health, and with the hope of returning before 
the close of the year. The journey by voiturier, as far as 
Aix in Provence (where the railway could first be joined), 
was attended by the unwonted spectacle of a succession 
of French regiments, cheerful, well appointed, and or- 
derl}^ on their way to the fields of Magenta and Solferino. 
Bunsen had followed the development of events during the 
last Avinter with his accustomed fervour of anticipation, 
and, with his usual hopefulness, reckoned upon success 
more complete to the Italian cause than was at once to 
be granted ; but having gone deeper than most of his 
contemporaries into the causes of the abasement of Italy, 
and estimating her capacity and her deserts at a rate not 
usually admitted among Germans, he considered that to 
rejoice in the prospect of her freedom and independence, 
and to believe in a high career of distinction among 
nations as reserved for her, were things of course. He 
was therefore not prepared for the state of univereal 
feeling against Italy, and for the frantic enthusiasm 
in the cause of Austrian preponderance, which he found 
first in Switzerland on his way, and in yet greater inten- 
sity in the South of Germany. It was a new and painful 
experience to him to be expatriated in the midst of his 
o^vn country, by the necessity of closing up in silence 
opinions that glowed with the heart's fire, and were 


CHAP, exists in the compressed sketch that forms the article 
^^^' in the * Edinburgh Encyclopaedia.' This experience 
of life sunk deep with Bunsen, and caused a momen- 
tary longing for removal to a scene of different in- 
terest and activity. It would seem that his friends had 
supposed that when he was in BerUn in the preceding 
autumn, he would have applied for the appointment of 
Envoy to the Swiss Cantons, resident at Berne, as a post 
of repose in his latter years : it could hardly be offered 
to him, after the higher position that he had held, but 
would have been granted to him at his request. During 
a short absence of his wife in 1859, at Wildl^ad, she was 
surprised by a letter, stating the prospect as follows : — 


Charlottenberg: Monday, 25tli July, 1859. 

A thought having occurred to me, beloved, without seek- 
ing it, which was yesterday (Sunday) morning as new as it 
will now be to you, I will now talk it over with you, before I 
mention it to the children. If nothing should come of it, 
there would equally be a reply to the enquiry that we 
address to Providence. 

May not the moment be come for applying for the Le- 
gation in Switzerland for myself? There is no Court, bo 
representation ! As Eochow said, ^ Cattle and nature, beau- 
tiful,' — to which we add, ' Country and inhabitants good and 
free.' In the German and in the French Switzerland we 
have valued friends right and left. The vexed question of 
Neufchiitel is happily settled ; the Prince will in all sincerity 
maintain frien<lship with the country, whose goodwill is 
courted by powerful rivals, with the two Emperors at their 
head : the nearest future will not alter this state of things, 
but will probably throw more light upon it. I can in 
Switzerland continue, and, please God, finish, the work of mv 
life quite as well as here : indeed, as I have often thought 
and said, Switzerland is the proper soil of German tongue 
and evangelical spirit for my ^ BibehverJc ' and * God-Con- 
sciousness ' to take root in. Professor Schweizer, at Zurich, 
— RiUiet, at Geneva, — Edgar Quinet, at Montreux ? In case 
of need I could pass the winter at Montreux, instead of at 
Cannes ; and to Cannes we should be two days' journey 


CHAP. Powers. These are noble, and true, and human thoughts! 

^^- We in Prussia have spent six million pounds sfcerling in 
three months, to make ourselves respected: and we speak 
only of the ancient treaties as the starting-point : and oor 
only comfort is, not to have been thereby dragged into war. 
But where is political or Protestant instinct? Only grand, 
high-minded ideas can warm, guide, urge, and raise nations 
and humanity : and upon what else does Prussia rest? Woe 
to us, if the * holy alliance ' be our highest aim ! 

The North of Grermany has returned to a sound temper of 
mind, but all Swabia is still mad. 

Bunsen to his Wife. {At Wildbad.) 


2nd August, 1859. 

My last letter contained significant words which will haye 
prepared you for what might else be incomprehensible. 
Switzerland is given up. I felt that my inward spirit iras 
never satisfied or tranquUlised in the resolution to leave Ger- 
many. Soon after I had written to you, it knocked so loud 
that I was obliged to hear. I cannot, because I ought not 
to leave Germany : that would not be to remain on the 
height of my determination in 1854. It would be emigra- 
tion : for I should never return ! 

Here, or at Berlin to close my life — that I feel to be my 
calling, and for that I feel courage and strength. Should I 
have no call, I remain where I am. ' Wo du bist^ da bleib,^ as 
Luther says. 

The last debates in Parliament of last Thursday are 
decisive. Palmerston and Lord John have spoken after luj 
heart ; and Cobden made a fine speech on Friday. 

The plan of removal was given up, but the rest- 
lessness remained, which prompted removal ; and never 
was the fullness of conscious life and power more ob- 
servable in Bunsen, or the belief in his own ability 
to meet the demands of public interests that might 
be confided to him, than in this, the closing year of 
actual buoyant life. The position origimdly held by 
Leibnitz at the head of the Academy of Sciences at 
Berlin, was at one time about to be offered to liim; 


For tiie Aostrian Gover 
Legation from Turin, lei 

Austrians to be cared i 
therefore, the Frusnan 
the melandioly office o: 
enquire into the Btate 
and dying, unacquainted 
of the hoB[Htal attendan 
municate their wants a 
one other Prussian ladj 
visiting, moroing and ev 
or another. Other Ge 
Turin, or, if there were 
capable to act in this mi 
kindness in the language 
sions from some to write 
ing beverage, &c., &c., t 
additional supply of lin 
pital stores and regulat 
in two days, and the hi 
had reached its highest j 
portion which they had 
thus Charles was induce( 
berg, with a statement 
in making a collection— 
which he promised to gi\ 
bers. Immediately on th 
sen wrote his name at tl 
same day sent round to 
the family had either 
existing Austrian symp 
inclination to liberalitj 
hope or calculation Wf 
by banker's order to Ti 
dispensers of others' b 
that of the poor recei 
dicated has a i'ip;ht to 


have an anaingi 
of iieed}tilieT( 
also a MilitiB^ ( 
M J dear wift 
bad. Weenie 
G. on the Slth. 
Tolame out of a 
week. Then I e 
days I cannot 1 
the vay towacd 
better, bat I mi 


I have read 
ler — in which 
troly not in vai 
adnurable; she 
and tor inform 
only a book in i 
* Friends of Go 
bnrg, who cont] 


I have saggt 
fifty years' Jul 
the two greatlj 
Arts and the ^ 
endowment, — tl 
another (Rietsct 
that Cornelius ^ 
to be erroneons 
The Academy i 
have an endown 
15,000 to 18,0fl 
scientific enqui] 

[A letter dat- 
lowing: — ] The 
expense for thi 


^^^- Bunsen to his Wife. {From Paris.) 


Charlottenberg, no ! Paris : 17th November, 1859, Hotel du Lourre. 

Here I am, my beloved ! after a thoroughly prosperoos 
night-journey, brisk and strong as ever, not at all excite. At 
Kehl, and going to the Strasburg station, I was indisposed, 
which the amiable Charles Waddington bore with admirably. 
Ernest received me at half-past five, according to our time- 
here five o'clock — at the station. At the Custom-hoose, my 
card having been shown, they declined to examine anything. 

And now for a vision out of the Thousand and One 
Nights ! Opposite to the entrance of the Louvre Palace, an 
hotel nearly as large. Before my room-vdndov^, the old 
and new Louvre, with two grass-plots right and left fix)m the 
entrance of — the GraUery ! 

At half-past ten this morning to the Louvre, — the Venns 
of Milo seen for the first time ! — then the ancient divinities, 
which I knew before. But something is wanting, and that 
is, all of you, and in particular yourself! To show Paris 
to you remains for another time, please Grod ! 

To the Same. 


Paris : 24th November, 1859. 

I have just rejoiced over your letter from Basle. I thiiik 
you will be soonest found at Charlotte Kestner's, and 
therefore shall recommend this letter to her kindness. That 
amiable image of our never-to-be-forgotten Kestner com- 
bines, as he did, the heart full of loving-kindness with an 
ever- lively and fresh intelligence. 

I run up and down stairs daily at the Louvre and the 
Bibliotheque ; and in the evening am very often occupied in 
conversation until eleven o'clock. In the morning, fidends 
call from nine to twelve o'clock. I am imbibing a new world, 
and enjoy speaking to persons who think and know mach. 
I may hope to have left an impression here. Cobden is here, 
still laid low by fever : yet it is believed that the danger of a 
more serious illness is past. His sojourn at Paris, and his 
life altogether, are of the greatest importance. 

My assertions as to the continuance of peace, and the 
Emperor's pacific sentiments, met with miiversal oppo- 


CHAP. Scheffer, and have seen the high-priestess of that manao- 

"^^^' leum of genius. I am enraptured. I had no conception 

before of the wide grasp and deep reach of the artist ; and 

the daughter is a wonderful being, between a Muse and a 

Medusa. God be with you ! Farewell ! 

Bunsen to a Friend. 


Hotel de rUniTers, Lyons : Sunday, 4th December, 1858. 

La8t night, having happily arrived, I foiind my dear fiunflj 
arrived before me after a cold jotuney ; and after a somewhat 
lengthened rest, I feel refreshed in the rooms, which want 
nothing but the presence of the kind friend who awaited ns 
here in May last. My head and heart are so frill, that I can 
but write a few poor lines. I have the entire fortnight of a 
whole life-period before me, and I long for the rest and still- 
ness of my earthly paradise, to be able to arrange and put in 
order my impressions before I can write them down. But first 
of all I must express my thankful affection in return for yonr 
inexhaustible kindness and care — upon which my thoughts 
were for ever dwelling, during the somewhat too long, but 
agreeable drive of eleven hours. 

Cannes; Sth December , 1859. — We left Lyons on Monday 
morning, half-past seven, the 5th, in icy coldness, but already 
between Valence and Orange we entered the mild region of 
the South, and at Avignon we found the Spring — at Toulon, 
roses were blossoming in a hedge. Here we live among 
orauge-blossoins and ripe oranges, blooming hedges of myrtle 
and rosemary, under the finest blue sky. I accomplished a 
walk yesterday of an hour and half, and to-day of two hours, 
with visits between, without any oppression of breath. I 
intend to write down my impressions of Paris. 

20 fh Dccomher, — I have written to , with full con- 
sideration of his strange and un regenerate nature, which 
acts by impulse, and not according to fixed principles, and is 
full of mistrust and suspicion of all high-placed persons; 
of course, you may be sure I have written with sincerity. 
We shall see how he accepts the letter, and proceed ac- 
cordingly : one can help no one, against his will. My own 
view of the case is, that Rome is or may become poison to 
him, as it has been to and to so many Germans. 1860 


CHAP, in May) — in order to speak to him of the mode of constitntmg 
^^^* self-government in cities. The great work of peace is qnietlj 
progressing between the Emperor and Cobden, and will have 
wonderful results ; Cobden makes full use of the * franc 
parler ' allowed him ; and he assures me he can only eonfinn 
what both Lord Palmerston and Lord John had said to him 
beforehand — that there has never been before upon the 
French throne a Monarch and Ally so trustworthy and de- 
sirous of peace as Louis Napoleon. Gladstone has behared 
admirably. We shall therefore have peace ! And Non-inter- 
vention ! That is all that is needed by the noble-minded, 
brave, wise, and moderate individuals and people of Italy. 
The Jesuits and their patrons will not return. 

I have contended much with Legitimists and Orleanists,— 
the spirit was moved in me to utter my convictions of truth. 
There is a want of political wisdom among them : they are 
influenced by hatred and vexation, — vexation, when He does 
what they dislike, and yet greater, when He does that which 
they would have reserved for themselves to do. 

Bunsen to a Son. 


Cannes : Saturday morning, 10th December, 1859. 

Theodore's appointment to the Japanese Expedition re- 
moves a weight from my heart. God be thanked! . . • 
He wall enter with one leap into the midst of a fine career, 
without the senseless, time-killing, ultra-Chinese examina- 
tions ; without fagging in the business of provincial Courts 
or a govomiiient office — mediam in rem — as if we lived under 
a rational system, based upon division of labour, resting and 
reckoning upon intellectual cultivation, and not upon the 
training of a ' maid of all work.' After the present fashion 
our diplomatic body must sink to the lowest ebb. The fun- 
damental error is supposing that the State is bound to find a 
position for every man who has passed his examination. 
Here our national infirmity, I mean, poverty — is in fault; 
but still more the system which draws off the strength of 
the nation into military and government offices. 

Nothing pleases me more than that you should have re- 
solved thoroughly to study the great practical science of th^ 
century — National Economy. Should you fall into the German 



XIX. Bunsen to Miss Winkworth. 

Cannes : Christmas, 1859. 

My fortniglit's stay at Paris was very instractive and rous- 
ing to me, but I could not long have borne to remain in that 
distracted condition of society. My general impression is, 
that in the minds of the men of highest intellect, a preparation 
is going forward for a new epoch ; namely, that for which I 
work, and for which I pray ; a period of serious and yet free 
research after the reality of Christianity among the Catholics, 
and of advancement in the same direction among the learned 
Protestants, with a quick growth and spread of congrega- 
tional life. A free Italy will yet overtake France ! I con- 
sider Benan to be sincere, and hope that his philosophy will 
increase in spirituality. 

Bunsen to a Friend. 

Cannes : 30th December, 1850. 

A blessed New Year, and peace, be to our hearts, to the 
world, to this deeply diseased and confused humanity ! I mnst 
send these words before I seat myself in the carriage which 
is waiting to take us for the rest of this year to Nice, where 
I shall this day and to-morrow visit the Grand Duchess Si& 
I^lianie and the Dowager Countess BemstorflF. Then we re- 
turn to await the New Year in serious stillness, and on the 
1st January all is ready for my beginning to write. I have 
<:(ot rid of my worst debts of letters, and am half dead, tired, 
l)ut otherwise better than for many years. The weather has 
been majrnificent, 11 to 15 degrees in the shade, clear sin, 
the earth full of blossoms, and the air of perfume. 

I think Napoleon III. has become the Alexander of the 
modern world, in cutting through the Gordian knot of the 
question of Romagna and of Rome ; and that only Ae could do. 
May God give a blessing to the work ! and, above all, to the 
noblest work of peace, which in your near neighbourhood is 
can-iedon in 'quietness and hope.'* 

2n<l January^ 1860, six o^clochy rnormn^. — The manifesto 
pamphlet of the Emperor Napoleon is the greatest event of 
this century ; for it aimounces the decisive resolution of the 
one man of power of the time, to execute with wisdom at the 

• Allusion to Cobdeii's negotiation for a commercial treaty. 

have since endeavoured to derelope and demonstrate ^ 


assertion. In these books I have also had occasion to lament CHAP, 
the visionary character of many evangelical writers of this ^^' 
century, founded upon a most deplorable misinterpretation of 
Daniel and of the Apocalypse, and distorting and overlooking 
Christ's promise of the Spirit to His disciples and the followers 
of the Gospel, on this earthy and upon the basis of Christ's 
teaching and example. I must, therefore, deeply regret 
that you call Dr. Arnold's views on this subject explicitly 
* visionary ;' for I am convinced that his Christian greatness 
and holiness of character centre in that belief, and that in 
the preaching of it in all his works, he combated what I must 
caU, with him, the * visionary' views of those who look for 
another state of existence here, such as shall change the con- 
dition of mankind from one of injustice and violence into one 
based upon the application of the Gospel to all our domestic, 
social, and political relations. 

Of the strength of that conviction I cannot give you a 
proof stronger than that of my having dedicated the work of 
which M. Milsand has given some extracts (in the * Revue des 
Deux Mondes*) to the * blessed memory of Arnold,' with words 
such as admiration and Christian conviction can furnish. I am 
sorry to perceive that you have no other idea of Christian re- 
search and philosophy than that its spring of action is the de- 
sire to exercise the understanding, and that it is founded on 
the pride of reason. No, my dear Madam ; let a humble and 
sinful, but true and sincere disciple of Christ, who has dedi- 
cated a life of study for more than fifty years to the subject 
and aim of research after all Truths and in particular the 
Truth that is in Christ, — let him tell you in his old age, that 
only by a great moral effort can the intellectual labour be sus- 
tained, or even originated ; that the effect of knowledge is to 
humble, and not to excite, the pride and vanity of intellect. 
Neither science, nor ignorance, neither research nor visionary 
conjecture, can lead us to Christ, and give that peace of mind 
after which every human soul is yearning ; nor fill the spirit 
with that charity, or strengthen the will to that self-sacrifice, 
which are the only eflRcient tests of Christian faith. Had you 
but read my writings, you would, in spite of differences of 
opinion on single points, admit that through their whole long 
course I have never separated Truth from God, nor reason 
from conscience. On the contrary, I have combated such di- 
vorce as the ruin of religion, and the opposite of Christianity. 


CHAP. Let me also assure you that the search after truth, and 
^^^- particularly after ChristiaD truth, is not a path strewn with 
roses, but a thorny path, upon which all the evil influences of 
ignorance, conceit, prejudice, and, above aU, of self-interest 
and of Mammon, await the faithful enquirer ; and every one 
would avoid entering upon it who does not consider the doing 
so as a sacred duty, as a mission, which must be accepted, on 
pain of becoming a faithless steward and a traitor. Beseareh 
of this kind has its peculiar and divine charm, and carries its re- 
ward in itself, whenever it holds fast conscientiously by tratL 

A great judgment of God is going on before us, visible to 
the searching eye, beginning with the date of 1517, becoming 
more awfiil in the seventeenth century, and pouring forth ite 
avenging wrath in the course of revolutions beginning in 
1789, even striking the most obtuse minds, at the same time 
refreshing the Christian with the meaning of the Psalm, 
* The Lord is King for evermore.' 

What we have witnessed in Italy is clearly only the begin- 
ning of a great regenerating work of the Spirit of God in all 
the Boman Catholic nations. What a humiliation then mnst 
it be to all Christian souls, and above all to the Christian 
philosopher, in whatever system or form he may cast his 
thoughts, to see how paltry dissensions and disputes (some- 
times merely personal) sej^arate evangelical Christians, and 
prevent the growth of Christian congregations, to the triumph 
of sneering enemies ! 

But perhaps this humiliation is wanted, that we may make 
a return upon ourselves, and more than ever implore strength 
and life of the Spirit of God to rise above all such impedi- 
ments of the Kingdom of Christ in our hearts, as promised 
upon earth * to men of good will.' 

Let this be the New Year's wish and prayer for both of us« 
and for all our Christian friends, as it is of. 

Yours sincerely, Bunsex. 

Bun 8671 to a So7i. 


13th January, 1300. 

My enthusiasm is ever increasing as I dwell upon the great 
deed of Massimo d'Azeglio, in his golden work, admirably 
written — ' La Politique et le Droit Chretien^ dans la Question 
Italienney' Nov. 1851). 


CHAP, deeds, to attack the most hateful prejudices, just in that part 
XIX. of the population where he used to have many friends. May 
God bless the work ! 

For many the present is a war of religion ; for those whose 
God is Mammon, and their Gospel the old Continental system 
of Napoleon I. But the true God must conquer. 

How poor is the Report of the Minister, in answer to the 
Emperor's State paper ! That will not do. It is the old 
error, dating from 1599, only strengthened by the fiscality 
of centralisation. That the Communes should yield to the 
State one half of the deserts and marshes reclaimed by 
their own labour and money, is worse than the demands of 
Pharaoh. Until the Emperor calls the Communes into life- 
encourages them to live and to act — all the money is thrown 
away. K the State undertakes such works itself, it is robbed 
and cheated ; the Emperor experienced that in the Sologne. 
May God grant him better Ministers, and subjects less irra- 
tional ! 

27th January. — Many thanks for the pamphlets ! to which 
I join a request that you would send me, in the same maimer, 
' Julien — les Epoques des Revolutions de la Terre et de la Merj 
Paris, end of 1859. The author is a lieutenant in the French 
service. ' GallgnanV has twice given extracts from this book; 
it explains a theory I have first applied to chronology in my 
' E<j^}i)t,' and I must mention it in the Preface to my last 
volume of the English edition. 

Bun sen to a Son. 

Cannes : Sundav, 20th Jannarv, 18(50. 

I reckon upon not spending the two next winters in the 
South. At this moment, placed upon the Alps, my heart 
calls out, ' Italia ! Italia ! ' beholding Rome before my feet. 
But, uiy calling is — personal teaching and influencing others. 
I feel so greatly revived as not to give up this hope. 

I am puzzling my head as to what the Pope will do. *n 
Leone quando arriva il giorno (clie avvegnera tosto) che si 
vede cliiuso nella gabbia, fara tremar 1' Europa prima di 
renders!,' said Capaccini on taking leave of me. But, how 
will this be ? War, he will not be able to rouse. Every 
State has too much on hand at home ; money is wanting ; 
the two maritime Powers are all-powerful, and all follow in 

St 68 LETTER TO M. RENAN. 527 

teir wake. The Interdict would be dangerous, if unsuccess- CHAP. 

ol. Will he assemble an (Ecumenical Council, as a shield, 2. 1. 

ike the American in Paris on the 2d December, who screened 
limself behind a girl supplicating him for protection ? . . 
I am composing with spirit and success ; if it please Grod, 
[ may, in the spring of 1861, be able to give a course of 
lectures * on the Theory and History of the Consciousness 
of Gk)d,' in the Aula at Bonn. 

Bunsen to M. Renan. 

[Translation from the French.] 

Cannes : SQth January, 1860. 

Since I parted from you at the entrance of the Library, 
I have meditated upon a letter to you, which I am im- 
patient to write. To make your personal acquaintance was 
one of the principal objects of my journey to Paris ; and to 
lave seen you, looked upon you, listened to you, observed, 
studied, and valued you, has been among the most precious 
stores of remembrance that I bore away with me to my 
"wmter-hermitage. Tou opened to me your mind and your 
soul, and I found there in reality what, from the beginning, 
I judged to be the mainspring of your thoughts and aspira- 
tions; easily, because willingly convinced that, although 
starting from very different and often opposite points, we yet 
loth tend towards the same end — the seeking after truth, 
revealed by conscience as weU as reason ; certain that such 
truth exists, and that the mystery of the soul of man is not 
only the mystery, but also the conscience, of the universe, 
and, consequently, its key. The study of your admirable 
Volume, ^Essais de Morale et de Critique^ could only confirm me 
in this conviction. I perceive in it that you have advanced 
greatly, revealing more and more the depth and seriousness 
of your soul, and the freedom of mind demonstrated by self- 
conmiand over painftdly-irritating impressions, which were, 
perhaps, still too marked in your first volume. I admire 
tie Preface more especially, as a grand confession of faith ; 
and the rare quality displayed, of courage in conviction, there 
*^here you are well aware of being about to wound self-love, 
both personal and national, to rouse bitter animosity on the 
part of those whose idols you are breaking, and occasion mis- 
^derstanding even among your friends and admirers. Also 


CHAP the pessimisms of which you accuse yourself, and yet in which 
^^^' you have a right to take credit are, to my mind, only the ut- 
terance of faith in that which is essentially good — which 
implies a firm belief in the final victory of the Good — and 
therefore of truth, in spite of evil, and by means of the 
very energy of evil. In this sense I am as much a pessimist 
as yourself, except that I trust, more than you do, to the 
germs of good that I believe to be expanding in our time, 
and to the signs of the approach of a second Beformation, 
which must be evangelical and not theological, biblical and 
not dogmatic, although religious throughout, based upon a 
social regeneration of the Latin and Germanic nations. 

The two several epochs of 1517 and 1789 must unite; and 
it was that of 1688 which gave the signal for such a tmion. 

You will, therefore, imagine the satisfaction I experienced 
in your attack upon the worship of B^ranger, rather than 
upon Beranger himself ! It is indispensable first to cast down 
idols, before the ground can be prepared for the altar of the 
living God. Your volume having been my first occupation 
on arriving here, I had wished to have written to you with- 
out delay ; but, I felt the need of first arranging the work 
left unfinished at Charlottenberg, and, as the creative instinct 
revived in me, I required the renewal of inward consciousness 
that the conception had not escaped fi'om me, and that I 
had, as before, the weaving-threads all in hand. 

I had been obliged to leave, for my winter-quarters of 
18G0, the completion of an imdertaking begun in 1836 — the 
restoration of the chronologic order of the ' Life of Jesus; 
from the beginning of the second year of His preaching 
until His return from the second journey to Jerusalem 
(for the Festival of Purim). I was sure that my sketch was 
true, and my reckoning exact, and in the quarter of a century 
which has since elapsed, I had on all sides collected new 
evidence in its support; but, both time and courage wew 
wanting to me, in the spring of 1859, to attempt explaining 
the whole to my public (which I call the Congregation) with- 
out being tiresome, and yet, so as to furnish the means, as 
well as to stimulate resolution to follow me, by the use of 
this clue of Ariadne, through the labyrinth. I was thus 
driven by necessity to set to work, and I hope you will be 
satisfied with what I shall have accomplished. 

The separate work (not forming a portion of the * Bihel- 


CHAP. God has given to us both, my dear friend, a glorious task, 
XIX. but a very laborious one. The curve of the orbit of the finite 
mind, which Plato and Aristotle had partially divined, ib 
now before us, enlarged by 5,000 years of history, and 
charged with a Pantheon of the languages and the civilis- 
ing religions of our species. Without interfering with the 
taste of others, I envy not, any more than yourself those 
who treat the philosophy of history either in the manner 
of Voltaire or of Hegel. I am impatient, more espedallj 
since my retirement in 1854, to return to my sketch made as 
a young man of twenty-five years of age ; — ^but whether I 
leave the task to another, or whether I accomplish it myseli^ 
it must be carried through by possession of all the observa- 
tions and the results of knowledge which are strictly ne- 
cessary—defective and fragmentary though they be, like 
everything done or attempted by man. That is my scien- 
tific task — and I believe that you and I are not so much 
at variance, as I feared on first reading your Semitic 
Grammar, as regards the principles of the analyses of lan- 
guages in their primitive connection, nor with respect to 
the philosophy of religion, and more particularly of Chm- 
tianity. Since I have seen you, I have the testimony of per- 
sonal impression, which is worth more to me than all possible 
written ones : that is, the hidden source, the complex, and 
the key, of the past, present, and future of the writer; the 
infinite factor is comprised in it. 

As to your last article more particularly, I begin where it 
terminates, by that fine prayer to the Heavenly Father, which 
assuredly was granted as it issued from your soul. You have 
also admirably demonstrated the need of erudition : for that 
is the first desideratum to oppose to the abstract philosophers, 
and the men of many words, as the author of a recent work 
which I showed to you. Perhaps you have gone too far in 
defending antiquarianism, which in Italy has stifled erudi- 
tion ; and in seeming to defend pedantry, which has had a 
similar evil effect in France, to the advantage of a literature 
apparently erudite, but not founded upon reality of research. 
I am sure you would be the last to separate the labour and 
the value of research from its just object ; and to place on 
the same line the ascertaining of facts which decide the fate 
of humanity, and the research into barbarian conditions which 


CHAP, communes ; the essential conditions of such action ought 

1 to be demonstrated to him, — ^which might be done without 

attacking the actual Empire in its principle. 

How far have you proceeded in your ^ Song of Songs'? 
There is nobody who awaits it with such warmth of im- 
patience as myself. Forgive the length, the frankness, 
and the want of style of this letter ! VcUe et fave I 


Bunsen to M^ RSville {Pastewr at Rotterdam). 

[Translation from the French.] 

Cannes : Slst January, 1800. 

I had already intended, during my sojourn at Cannes 
last year, to have addressed to you a letter of Chris- 
tian and theological fraternity, after reading your articles 
(in the * Revue des Deux Mondes * ) upon the history of the 
doctrine of Justification by Faith ; where I met you upon 
the same road that I have travelled myself, drawn towuds 
the same end, by the force of attraction of the same tmth. 
The formulae of the old theology are dead, even those re- 
lating to the most essential doctrines, such as that of Jus- 
tification, and that of the Eternal Decrees of God ; and the 
only ground of hope is in the inherent strength of the 
Gospel, the centre of which is the consciousness of the per- 
sonal God, manifested in Jesus Christ, and the Spirit which 
Jesus has left to His people — that is, to the congregation o| 
believers — or, in other words, to humanity regenerated. 

But on reflection I preferred sending you first my prinied 
letter under the title of * God in History,' of which I hope 
you will have received the copy which I directed Brockhaus 
to for>vard to you. You will have found it a long letter, 
peculiarly addressed to yourself. Should a French edition 
of it be intended, I should re-cast the work by abridging 
the first volume. 

I cannot, however, now delay any longer addressing to 
you a few winged words from your own France, being im- 
pelled to give utterance to what I had almost termed my 
exultation in all that you have said in the article of the 
1st November, 1859 (in the ^ Revue des Deux Mondes^), sug- 
gested by the work of M. Renan on the present problem 
of Christian science, and of the history of the Spirit, which 


CHAP. M. de Parieu, Vice-President of the Imperial Council 
^^' of State, in a letter dated Paris, February 1860, ex- 
pressed a wish for information as to the Conferences at 
Rome on the Reform of the Papal States, in 1832, and 
their immediate result ; in reply to which Bunsen made 
out the following sketch of these important transactions, 
in which he was personally engaged. 

La Riforme des Etats Pontijicaux. 
A, Le Ptqfee de ItSfarme, 1832. 

Le seul Acte ^manS de la Conf(Srence europ^nne qui an 
printemps de 1832 si^geait a Rome, snr le d^ir du gouverne- 
ment pontifical, est le M^morandmu dn 28 mai de I'ann^ 

Le Ministre de Prusse (Bunsen) avait 6t6 charg^ par le 
vote unanime de ses collogues de pr&enter a la Conference 
un projet de r^forme d'apr^s les principea qu'il avait d^ve- 
loppes dans les premieres stances, et qui ^taient ceux de son 
gouvemement et de son pays. 

Ce projet partait du principe que le syst^me actuel de 
I'administration et des finances, n'ayant aucun controle 8^ 
rieux, ne pouvait pas etre maintenu. H venait de s'&rouler 
presque sans resistance pour ainsi dire ; c'^tait une banque- 
route complete. Le gouvemement meme etait convaincu 
de la necessite d'une r^forme r^elle, — le Cardinal Bemetti, 
Secretaire d'Etat, en etait p^n^tre. De Tautre cot^, un gou- 
vemement constitutionnel fut reconnu entierement inadmis- 
sible pour le gouvemement pontificaL 

Le systeme prussien se trouvait entre les deux. D 6tait 
base sur Temancipation des villes de la monarchic en 1808, 
et sur la formation de conseils (etats) provinciaux, ^manant 
des municipalites flues par les propri^taires. Ces conseils 
s'occupaut des interets de la province, ont une part rfeUe 
dans son administration, et sont enfin mimis du droit des 
petitions au souverain pour les affaires provinciales. D est 
connu que c'est sur ces bases que la monarchie prussienne 
s'est reconstruite de 1808 a 1845, et que la restauration de 
I'ordre et de la tranquillity s'est op6re au moyen et par la 
force de la stability qui est dans ce systeme. 

Ce systeme parait d'autant plus adapts aux Etats pontifi- 


CHAP, Gr^ffoire XVI dut c^der aux instances de rAutriche : la 


^^^^' Conference fut dissoute. Le projet tomba avec sa base : les 
autres mesures, faiblement ex6cut6es, n'enrent aucun r&ultat^ 
— exactement comme tout le monde I'avait pr^vu. La corrup- 
tion de I'administration, la p^nlation, la frande sjstema- 
tique, Tanarcliie, r^puisement des finances, augment^rent 
terriblement de 1833 a 1846, ann6e de Tav^nement de Pie EL 

B. De 1846 a 1859. 

Le Memorandum de 1832 fut done tu^ par PAutriclie, et 
ses debris furent trahis par les cardinaux et les pr^lats. Ce 
meme Memorandum, dans toute sa plenitude, fdt proclam^ 
par Pie IX comme base de sa refonne. H fallait bien donner , 
plus en 1848 que ce qui aurait suffi en 1832. Cependantla 
base resta meme apr^s que la revolution succomba, comme le 
prouve la loi eiectorale de Pie IX de 1852. 
' En ecartant d'abord la question italienne dans sa genera- 
lite, et en ne s'attachant qu'au problfeme d'une reforme rfelle 
des Etats pontificaux, on devra toujours dire que cette re- 
forme ne pent avoir d'autre base que celle posee dans le 

Le mot de notre kge est decentralisation administrative, 
dans le sens de self 'government, ou d'un mouvement independ- 
ant dans la base, c'est a dire dans la formation de munici- 
palites elues par les populations, et agissant avec un controle 
interieur, ce qui done n'est pas celui de la police centrale, que 
depuis Louis XIV on appelle sur le continent le gonvemement 

Si Texperience a prouve qu'on ne pent pas former un gou- 
vemement constitutionnel malgre tout recbafaudage pai'le- 
mentaire, sans une administration libre, cette verite est 
encore infiniment plus saillante dans une forme de gou- 
vemement qui, comme le syst^me pontifical, ne pent jamais 
devenir constitutionnel dans ce sens. 

11 est clair qu'il ne pent avoir de racine vivante que dans 
les municipalites. Les quatre-cinquiemes de toutes les popu- 
lations de I'Etat pontifical vivent dans des villes : et meme 
les plus petites villes peuvent tr^s-facilement s'organiser en 
Italic municipalement. 

n est dangereux de mettre Teiement democratique snr les 
degres du tr6ne, en commen9ant par des elections parlemen- 
taires. La vie communale assure I'interet du peuple dan« 


CHAl*. the Jews were only eight centuries and a half in Egypt^ from 
^' • the entrance to the Exodus, of which 215 years formed the 
time of servitude, beginning under Thutmoses II. 

The matter of Schleswig-Holstein might have been brongU 
forward more diplomatically than has been the case with re- 
ference to the rest of Europe ; the difficulty can only be met 
with this syllogism : — ^Holstein belongs to the Qerman Oon- 
federation; Holstein is connected by privileges and dnliei 
with Schleswig ; Holstein has claimed protection from flie 
Confederation, wherefore for these privileges also. 


CHAP, which had set in early and with an unusual degree of 
^^^ gloom and inclemency ; but he was also full of solemn 
emotion at the prospect of leaving the beautiful spot in 
which he had dwelt many years, and the cheerful room 
filled as it were with his thoughts, in which he had 
worked with so much energy and satisfaction. The 
vision of being ultimately settled at Bonn, and of enter- 
ing there on a new course of mental activity and influence 
over the young, also occupied him much, although as 
yet no suitable house had been found ; but he enter- 
tained no doubt that this difficulty would eventually be 
removed, and he grasped in idea the home of his own^ 
which was to be the last he should occupy on earth, 
and not far from which was the spot destined for his 

The celebration of the centenary festival of Schiller's 
birth was partly witnessed by Bunsen and with peculiar 
interest, for he had the most truly German heart, and 
gloried in every thing and every person who did honour 
to Germany. On the morning of that celebration, he 
drove into Heidelberg to see the procession of the dig- 
nitaries of the University and of the Town-Corporation, 
with a portion of the students and all the trades; and 
he heard some of the speeches in the hall of the Uni- 
versity : — but this was the last time in which he was 
able to take part in a national demonstmtion. As it 
was, the agitation caused by his sympathy with the 
universal emotion produced much immediate suffering. 
That day was, however, exceptionably bright, and the 
night cloudless with a full moon, which showed the 
shadowv masses of the hills and the forms of the Castle, 
the bridixe and the church, while the torches of the stu- 
dents ghuvd along the streets, and were reflected in the 
Neckar, contrasting Avith the Bengal lights, which cor- 
ruscated in front of the Castle, — the whole forming a 
spectacle not to be forgotten, as beheld from Bunsen's 
study at Charlottenberg. 


CHAP, with peculiar pleasure; regretting that, owing to in- 
^^' creased suffering, he was unable to be present at another 
party, promising unusual gratification, which had been 
arranged by Professor Jules and Madame Mohl, and 
where many of the literary celebrities were assembled. 
Kind friends were always ready to come and see 
him on the evenings when he could not leave his room ; 
and one such evening remained particularly engraved on 
his memory, when M. Renan discussed at length with him 
the matter of a commentary of the * Song of Solomon,' 
which he soon after published, and dedicated to Bunsen. 
The Countess de St. Aulaire, and the venerable Chanoine 
Martin de Noirlieu, were among those whom he more 
especially rejoiced to meet again. 

The temptation is strong to dwell longer than would 
be reasonable upon days so gilded by intellectual and 
social enjoyments, that they heightened the feeling of 
life and vigour, which was ever strong in him, and 
enabled him to forget for the moment the progress of 
that insidious disease which was gradually la3dng hold 
of him. The well-known haunts at Cannes were hailed 
with pleasure, but not enjoyed as much as the year 
before, because the unaccustomed frost of November 
1859, had left its traces upon the vegetation even in that 
favoured spot, and the weather was chill and wintry. 
The last four days of the year were spent at Nice, prin- 
cipally for the sake of renewing his intercourse with 
the venerable Countess Bernstorff^ — widow of Bunsen*s 
patron and friend at Berlin in the early years of his 
diplomatic career. The society of many other friends 
was matter of interest and attraction; and the mourn- 
ful satisfaction was allowed him of a last interview with 
the Grand Duchess Stephanie of Baden. He came away 
much depressed, with the certainty that her bodily 
powers were exhausted, though the mind was as fresh 
as ever. In January 1860, those that loved and watched 
him were still allowed to entertain the hope of a pos- 


CHAP, though it would hardly seem possible to conceive, that, 

J after such an attack as the last, he should have flattered 

himself with the vain hope of a final recovery to health 
and strength, yet it is certain, that the consciousness 
of possessing in its fullest vigour the power to give 
utterance to, and to condense into written words the 
stored-up treasures of a long life's meditation, led him 
to hope on for intervals of time, sufficiently free from 
pain, to enable him to bring his great work, the ' Bibel- 
werk^^ somewhat nearer its completion. The requisite 
preliminary studies had been made, — it remained but to 
cast the well-prepared metal. Moreover, he indulged his 
fancy with a long-cherished plan of delivering lectures 
at Bonn, from which he anticipated a species of relief, 
instead of considering it an effort; and his natural 
hopefulness cheered him mth the prospect of his exer- 
cising even greater influence over the minds of his 
youthful audience than he had been able to do by his 
Avritings over those of his contemporaries. 

On the 4th March, a week after the seizure just de- 
scribed, he had, as usual, risen early, and sent to his wife, 
while she was dressing, a large letter, directed in full, 
as if it came from a distance, and marked ' By Air- 
Telegraph.' The contents were as follows : — 

Air -Telegram, 


From the Khine Quay at Bonn : Sunday morning, 4th March, 1860, 

one minute paat eight. 

My beloved Fanny, — I arrived here two hours ago, and 
hasten to inform you that George has succeeded in purchas- 
ing the house for us at the price settled. I shall write by the 
commoner medium of communication the particulars to my 
duplicate self in the land of prose (Philister-land), — the 
Privy Councillor, I mean, whom I left fast asleep this morn- 
ing at five o'clock. 

I am sitting here, looking out of the window, in sight of 
the Seven Mountains, after having completed my sketch for a 
course of public lectures on the history of world-contempla- 


CHAP, a blessinoj would attend it, they doubted not; but it 
was truly a complexity of afflictions and anxieties in 
which the ti'avellers set forth, still escorted by a son, 
from whom they were to part four days later, ' it must 
l)e for years, and it might be for ever.' At Olten in 
Swtzerland, the place of railway junction, Theodore, 
after seeing his parents, with a quick farewell, into the 
train, started for Basle, and went on thence by the 
train which conveyed him by Venice to Trieste, to join 
at the appointed moment the expedition, to which his 
father was thankful he should belong. 

This pilgrimage of sorrow had been favoured by 
a variety of outward circumstances, for the weather and 
temperature were perfect, and the face of the earth 
expressed only joy and blessing, presenting fullness of 
beauty at the moment, and the gladdening promise of 
plenty for the future. The rocky barrier of the Est^rel, 
between Cannes and Frdjus, clothed in verdure with 
blooming cistus and golden broom, the varied vegeta- 
tion and the granite mountains of Provence, could not 
but soothe and cheer, contemplated at leisure, as the 
party travelled with post-horses to Toulon : from whence 
to Basle the railroad was not quitted, except during the 
necessary pause at Lyons, and for a night at Geneva and 
at Neufchfitel. On arriving at Basle, the 19th May, a 
few hours after parting from one son, a telegram was 
found announcing that another was expecting his 
parents at Baden Baden, where they had hoped to wait 
upon the Princess of Prussia on their way to Bonn. 
But Bunsen did not feel equal to that exertion and 
pleasure : and Ernest was sent for by telegram to join 
his parents at Basle, where his fiither desired to rest, 
and to seek relief at the hands of Dr. Jung. The 
conversation and personal character of that eminent 
physician, however, had a more reviving effect than 
his medical treatment. The concluding advice re- 
ceived was that Bunsen should try the effect of days, 


CHAP, to give a lecture to a few friends on the subject of 
^^' Buddha, his original teaching, and the alteration of his 
doctrines by his subsequent worshippers. When the 
day came on which Bunsen felt able to execute his pur- 
pose, Joachim was unluckily absent from Bonn; but 
Miss Charlotte Williams Wynn, General von Pfuel, 
General Tuckermann, Professor Brandis, and several 
others, will not have forgotten the life, the vigour, and 
the lucidity with which he treated the subject proposed. 
For upwards of an hour he spoke without apparent 
fatigue: his hopeful nature seemed to revive as he 
experienced that his power of speaking was yet undi- 
minished, and that he was able to treat fully a subject 
which he had investigated with peculiar interest. But 
the eflfort was never repeated, the almost daily conti- 
nuance of actual writing and correcting his ^ BibelwerV 
entailing as much exertion as for him was possible. 
The mind and intelligence were as powerful as ever : but 
the bodily powers were fast declining. His chief solace 
at this time was the presence of sons and daughters; all 
of whom in succession were near him, occupied in con- 
stant and varied offices of love, in their endeavours to 
soothe the weary hours of continued want of rest. A 
true and unselfish heart had his been at all times 
towards his children, and true and unselfish were their 
hearts towards him. 

In the course of July his portrait was painted by 
Professor Roeting, of Dusseldorf, at the earnest wish 
of his son Ernest, which he could not resist, although 
the effbrt of continuing long in the same position 
increased his sufferings. An attempt was made to 
entertain him by reading aloud some of his favourite 
passages from the poetry of Gothe ; but an emotion, only 
too strong and too marked, was the consequence, the 
expression of which unfortunately remains in the pic- 
ture. Yet the portrait is an invaluable one, because a 
faithful shadow ' of the time, its form and pressure ; ' 

hour when the openti 
kept ncret from him, 
emotion. And yet he h» 
interest in guigioal ope 
iat that sdence. Life 
Ihoagh hii mgemess t< 
fiqgged, any more than 
ercntB. The arrival < 
sfauioe, GYerf eveping 
inqiotience, and even . 
himself parts of it, an< 
to lum for some timeh 

Bmmam to kit Bon Bt 


It nmrt' seem as thoi 
Mofliar and aisten are 
Nerer have I thought of 
than in these latter moi 
upon jour coming here 
off all favourite subjecte 
besides wbich, I cannot 
lately writing has cost m 
to-day, yesterday, and thi 
to compose. I took in 
edition of ' Egypt,' &c. ^ 
effects of the treatment, 
the disorder : it was a 
digestion rebelled. The 
jKvtion to the revival t 
wwks, 'Egypt,' 'Jeremi 
my hands, and, please Go 
^hwe, where I hope to s 
«^w>n and with Christ th 
abo as a writer. I am 
hiadn««3 of the Dnchei 
»»«»»her me in the mid 
<i<.^ that those are lessen 
*i'tf rwt. The first iettei 


CHAP. Fear not that I work too Iiard ; alas ! alas ! as long as the 
^^- complication of my disorder with a troublesome cough lasts, 
I can work only two or three hours in the day. But I have 
written to you all this, that you may see that God's good 
Spirit has not forsaken me. Henry's presence here is an 
hourly blessing. 

Bunsen to the Duchess of Argyll. 

Bonn : 8th August, 180a 

My deakest Duchess, — Words of kindest affection, like 
those of your last letter, must draw down a blessing. Thanks ! 
from my dying soul. Yes, my kindest friend, I have been 
supported, and am continually supported, by that EtenuJ 
Love, in which we live and move and have our being, and 
which manifested itself in Christ Jesus. The days have 
been heavy, and the nights dark, but His^ light has sur- 
rounded and strengthened my soul, and will, I hope and 
believe, carry me through the gates of death to behold His 
eternal glory. 

My suffering is greater than the immediate danger of my 
illness, particularly by transitory complications and aggrava- 
tions. Still my spirit is not dimmed. I have carried an 
English and a German volume through the press. The 
printing of the Gospels begins on the 1st September, and 
this is the centre of my thoughts more than ever. 

I am surrounded by the tenderest love and care of \n{e 
and children, and enjoy this beautiful place daily, in spite of 
the incredibly unseasonable weather. 

I daily thank God that I have lived to see Italy free, and 
Garibaldi her hero ! Now, twenty-six millions will be able 
to believe that God governs the world, and to believe in 

God bless you I Ever your affectionate friend, 


Und so, in enc^er stets iind engonn Kreis, 
Beweg" ich mich dem eiiL'-esteii und letzten, 
Wo alles Leben still steht, lan«r-am zu. 

ScuiLLKR, ' WUhelm Teli; Act ii. Scene i. 

The 25th August, his birthday, had been a ofladsome 
festival for a long series of years ; but was this time to be 


CHAP, without stain, and a highly gifted military commander. 
^^' Garibaldi founds his hopes not alone on the sword, or 
even on negotiation, but upon the moral and spiritual 
resurrection of the entire nation. This remarkable man 
wrote not long since, " The best of allies that you can 
procure for us is the Bible ; which will bring us the 
reality of freedom." Rather than he should be tempted 
to undertake the least thing inconsistent with the glo- 
rious task of saving his country, may his great life find 
an honoured end !' 

The spirits of all present rose in proportion to the 
evident improvement (however momentary) in Bunsen's 
own state. One by one the absent were mentioned, 
who were sure to be present in spirit and in sympathy; 
and the joyous grandfather himself proposed with fer- 
vour the health of the infant, John Charles Harford, 
who in England was to receive baptism on this festival- 
day. The universal consciousness of family love and 
devout aspiration cast a warm glow even over the 
parting with Ernest and Elizabeth and their children, 
wlio, at four o'clock, started on their way to England. 
Though nothing in Bunscn's state of health authorised 
the hope of his eventual recovery, there were yet several 
hours every morning during which he showed a won- 
derful capacity for work, and occupied himself with 
the critical examination and correction of his ' Bibel- 
werk.^ And besides conferences with his assistant. Dr. 
Kamphauscn, on the Old Testament, he was able to 
go through the three first Gospels, with the help of his 
son Henry, in whose rich fund of biblical knowledge 
and scholarship he felt cordial delight. Several occa- 
sions are remembered, of bright and cheerful conversa- 
tion with friends from a distance, the pleasure of whose 
greeting suspended for the moment the sense of ha- 
bitual sufiering : as, for instance, when Abeken made a 
short but inspiriting visit, and took part in a dinner 
party with him at Rheindorf (his son George's resi- 


CHAP. Two days later, a sudden interval of comparative 

L ease made it possible for Bunsen to receive a visit 

from Mr. K. B. Morier, which gave an opportmiity 
of expatiating on political subjects, in which the power 
and rich stores of his mind astonished the hearers. 
This was almost the last of the long and animated con- 
versations, in which he used to delight to commu- 
nicate to others his own rich and glowing thoughts, 
and to call forth the thoughts of others. After the 
arrival of his son Charles, on the 21st, he was once 
more enabled to converse on Italian and other pubUc 
aflFairs, the greater part of the afternoon. In the course 
of that week, he was twice taken to his favourite gar- 
den-pavilion, being carried down stairs on a seat borne 
on poles, then wheeled in a chair — the object being to 
see the cast of the colossal head of Jupiter Olympus 
from the Vatican, which by his desire had been placed 
in the pavilion. It had been ordered from Berlin six 
weeks before, and he had been impatient of the long 
delay in its arrival : but now that it was put up in its 
proper place, while resting on a seat opposite, he could 
scarcely look at the much-prized object. The second 
occasion of being taken thither, on the 24th, he said 
* it would be the last time.' Two days running after 
this, he was taken out for an airing in an easy carriage. 
It was then that he expressed to his son George his last 
wishes on various matters — touchingly refi'aining from 
orders — but desiring that, if possible^ his collections 
(books and engravings) should not be dispersed, and 
observed that though the outward air was refreshing, 
the effort of being brought into and out of the carriage 
was too great for him; and accordingly the 26th was 
the date of the last drive. On the 28th, the actual grip 
of death was upon him for the second time (the first 
was 25th February) — from morning till night the gasp- 
ing, the struggle ceased not. The experienced eye of 
Wolff considered the last hour to be at hand — he ut- 


CHAP. * I can do all things through Christ which strengtheneth 

J L me ' (Phil. iv. 13). This last passage Bunsen seized (m 

with peculiar animation, and declared emphatically 
'how he had felt the truth contained in these words 
daily more and more, and hoped to experience it yet 
more fully to the end.' 

The Last Month. 

To record here some of the words uttered under the 
present sense of imminent death is due to the memory 
of him, whose reality of opinion and inmost conviction 
has been much misunderstood and misconstrued : but it 
would seem needless to give an account of each and ever)- 
utterance, precious and consolatory though it might be 
to surviving love. A selection has been made, such as 
Mali give a true indication of the mind, which had passed 
into life eternal, even before its release from the poor 
suffering body ; for even before the critical 28th October, 
speaking had become at times difficult, articulation being 
impeded by the inflamed condition of the throat, and 
by the gradual progress of the malady; so that words 
to express the thoughts that were struggling for utter- 
ance were often indistinct, forcing their way, as it were, 
thi'ough a thicket. 

But the whole of that 28th October will remain, as 
long as consciousness lasts, impressed upon the minds 
of the surviving -sv^tnesses. The sufferings were intense, 
but the spirit remained throughout bright and clear; 
and its utterances, under the increasing conviction of 
the near approach of dissolution, bore but one character 
— that of looking upwards to God, through Christ, and 
of turning to the past, as well as to all around him, with 
love and thankfulness. Many notes were made of the 
broken sentences uttered on the following day, felt to 
be very incomplete : yet those who heard them have re- 
solutely refrained from allowing themselves to modify, 
interpret, or connect the ejaculations, a few of which 


CHAP, look, each of his children present, and named the absent 
^^' ones, more especially Theodore, the youngest son. Be- 
tween each name he paused, as if in silent prayer for 
each individual. He mentioned the wives of each of 
his sons, and the husbands of his daughters. 

* Prussia, Gennany, England, Italy, and her freedom, 
hail ! ' * The Gospel over the whole world ! may it rule 
the world!' 'All blessings on the Prince and Princess 
of Prussia!' *God bless the Prince and Princess of 
Wied ! ' ' Thanks be to Niebuhr — Stein !' 

After a long pause he addressed his servant, ' Thanks, 
dear Jacob, for all your love and faithfulness, which you 
have so constantly sho^vn me ! Remain and hold fast 
by all mine, and they will stand by you.' 

' Jt ui sweet to diel^ — ^he uttered these words with an 
unspeakably fi ne expression of countenance. ' It is sweet 
to die ! ' ' With all feebleness and imperfection I have 
ever lived, striven after, and willed the best and noblest 
only. But the best and highest is to have known Jesus 
Christ. I depart from this world without any feeling of 
uncharitableness towards any one. No uncharitable- 
ness, no! that is sin' (speaking with a kind of inward 

The ejaculation, ' Glory to God on high I ' uttered 
by some one, was devoutly repeated by him ; and he 
resumed, ' It is a wonderful retrospect upon this world 
and this life frota above. Now first one begins to per- 
ceive what a dark existence it is that we have here passed 
through. Upwards! upwards! heavenwards! Not dark- 
ness, no ! it is becomino^ ever more and more lifflit 
aroimd me.' He turned, addressing one of those pre- 
sent more particularly, ' I live in the Kingdom of God; 
I am in the Kin^^dom of God : here below it has been 

onlv an anticipation.' ' But now, we behold ' ' face 

to face,' said one of those present, to which words he 
assented, adding, ' How lovely are Thy dwellings, 
Lord ! ' Thus, with long intervals, in which looks of 


CHAP, lish world/ One of his children pointed out to him the 
^^ brij2:ht evening sky, and he exclaimed, ' Glorious ! love 
in all!' (many times reiterated) ' God's life — the life of 
God — lives in all!' 

He recognised his son Ernest instantaneously on his 
arrival. Late that night he began, clear in thought, but 
not in utterance, in English : — ' May I not say a word? 
My strength is going, but among my children and friends 
I wish to say a few words. Is it too hard a thing even 
to say a parting word to the world ? It is some time since 
I have given up fulfilling any public duties. It is my 
wish, therefore, to disappear entirely. I die in perfect 
peace with all men : I have entirely the feeling of a man 
who has desired to live at peace with all men, at the same 
time to speak the truth, and to say what he thought. 
So likewise, I wish all men, if they think of me, to think 
of me with benevolence, as of one who wished and strove 
to do good to all. I offer my blessing — the blessing of 
an old man — to all who wish to have it.' 'I thank all 
for their kindness to me.' ' I see Christ, and I see, 
through Christ, God.' ' Christ is seemg us, — is creating 
us. Christ must become all in all.' 

Taking the hands of two of his sons, he said, 'Que 
Dieu vous benisse eternellcnient! eternellement P (often 
reiterated, and with strong emphasis.) ' Dieu, c'est 
VEtcrnel! Dieu est la vie et Tamour; la vie c'est Ta- 
mour. (Looking towards the darkening window :) Nuit 
et jour, c'est tout un — Dieu en tout!' All these utter- 
ances were often repeated; and in conclusion the bene- 
diction, ' Dieu vous benisse, tons ! Laissez-moi,' gently 
letting go the hands he had clasped. ' Partons en paix 
— paix — paix ! Partons en Jesus-Christ. N\^st-ce pas? 
En Jesus-Christ.' After a time, he said, 'Die Erkennt- 
niss offenbart uns die Unsterblichkeit.' ('Knowledge 
reveals to us immortality).' Again, after a pause, 
' Christus reco^^iioscitur victor I' (often repeated) 
' Christus est ! est ! Christus victor ! ' ' Ja ! gewiss, das 


CHAP, am sure — in the presence of God. I have assured you of 
L. my love — is there anything more? Do you expect any- 
thing more of me? ' ' Christ is the Son of God, and we 
are only then His sons if the Spirit of love which was 
in Christ is also in us.' 

On the 4th November an improvement took place, 
and during the following night he was for the last time 
quite himself^ over Bowing with affection in word and 
look, when, between two and three o'clock on the 
morning of the 12th, he took solemn leave of his wife, 
with a last kiss, and a flood of light beaming from his 
eyes, which ' looked their last,' for they never had their 
own full expression again. He repeated, as though he 
had not made impression enough before, ' Love, love— 
we have loved each other — live in the love of God, and 
we shall be united again ! In the love of God we shall 
live on, for ever and ever ! we shall meet again, I am 
sure of that ! Love — God is love — love eternal ! ' Never 
again were his words so clear and connected ; although 
often, throughout the remaining days of his life, single 
expressions denoted the under-current of thought. 
' The Eternal — the Eternal — strive after the eternal. 
Man, the human being {der Mensch)^ must become a 
sacrifice to the Holy One/ 

Taking food of any kind had for many days been im- 
possible ; when the last attempt was made he said dis- 
tinctly, ' God sees it is no longer needful for me.' So 
frequently had death seemed to be at hand, and the con- 
tinuance of such a life to be impossible, that no one sup- 
posed the release about to take place, when it was ac- 
tually imminent. The 26th and 27tii November were 
days of misery indescribable ; a degree of composure, 
with a mournful gaze and smile was only obtained on two 
occasions, when Emilia played on the orgue expressif just 
beyond the door of the next room, while Ernest sung 
several favourite hymns, 'Jesus, mein6 Zuversichtl* 
' Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme ! ' 'Jerusalem, du hoch- 


CHAP, rassment of the throat is not surprising, after a cough 
^^' has lasted so long — ^that may increase/ Thus everjrthing 
contributed to prevent the idea of the conunon sign of 
approaching dissolution from occurring to her, any more 
than to her sons. Soon, however, the fact became evi- 
dent. As the clock struck five, a loud convulsive cough 
was followed instantaneously by a sudden stoppage of 
his breathing, which till then had been painfully loud. 
The two watchers, his wife and son, were going to raise 
him higher in his bed, but the head had already dropped 
upon her shoulder, and the last breath had fled ! The 
family party came in haste, and remained some time 
round the beloved dead. The eyes continued closed, — 
the features, however, did not retain a trace of suffering, 
— ^the peace was profound : nothing of the ghastliness of 
death was there. For two whole days, the remains 
continued beautiful, as in the most tranquil sleep : and 
invaluable was the privilege to the mourners of being 
enabled thus long to contemplate them, and take in the 
full conception of the blessing granted in that life 
which had just closed: — the immeasurable privation 
sustained in the death just witnessed could only be 
taken in gradually, during the remainder of the sur- 
vivors' time on earth. 

In theafternoonof December 1st, — a bright and cloud- 
less winter day, — the oaken coffin containing all that 
was mortal of Bunsen was conveyed to the cemetery 
at Bonn, and deposited there, in the last rays of an un- 
clouded sun. His wish was thus fulfilled: for on 
quitting Berlin in the year 1858, on a clear and sun- 
shiny day with a cloudless sky, he had remarked to his 
son Charles, who accompanied him, ' On such a day as 
this, as bright and cloudless, should I like to be borne 
to my grave ! ' 

The loving sympathy of friends had covered his last 
earthly resting-place with wreaths of evergreens and 


— ♦- 




JReifc in tie |)eimatb. 
2(uf bfin Skge Don 2Crolfen na4 Aaffel/ 2. 3anuar 1814. 


Srut) in bfi 3af^ SBeginn/ 
^tm mit (eid)tem ®tnn/ 
SRafc^n €^ntt«/ 
Sfflen a:nttd/ 

Skinbr idi burd) Ser^ unb StKib 
S$or mir ber ®onnrnfh:ab( : 
Shelter/ mein Iteber iSternr 
?rud)tc mxv, m\) unb fern. 


SBknn aud) bte 9lorb(uft ge ^t 
^ttkrmifd) ber Mantel Wf ^t^ 
grei ber 2(rm/ 
3nnen marni/ 

Sknb' u^ mein ®e(^nen ^tn/ 
€k^u' nad) bem Sunten brin : 
^itet/ mein Iteber ®tem/ 
Seud)te mir/ na^ unb fern. 


Sa()rt felbfl iu dbem Crt 
IXdufdKnb ber Svrpfab borf/ 
^ilen SBegd/ 
flatten Gteg^ 
Salb bod) ben fro^^n Slict 
Sknb* i4 sum Sid)t ^urOct: 
SSeiter/ mein (ieber Gtern/ 
&ud)te mir/ na^ unb fern. 


9lebel unb SQolfen flie^n 
Stnfler am «&tmme( (in i 

®4minbe/ mein 9)fftbd)rn/ nicbt/ 
&d)immre mir/ treued Si^t : 
SBeiter/ mein Iteber Stent/ 
iiudlU miXf nab unb fern. 


IDort auf bed SBolbed ^t^n 
QkV t(b ba< 3etd)en fle^n 4 
SS^olten |ie(n 
Druber l^in; 
Senfeitd in ooUer 9rad)t 
Sreunb(i<ber ^onbfd)ein tacbt : 
SBeiter/ mein (ieber Stent/ 
Seud)te mxv, na( unb fern. 


enbli^ mit e{e9<gefii(( 
0d)au' id) ber Sknb'rung 3ieU 
9btt)V bie lobnt/ 
Morten n)oi)nti 
Xraulicb au «{)eerbe«fd)ein 
Stra^let ber golbne Sein: 
Skiter/ mein (ieber Stern/ 
Ceuc^te mir/ na( unb frm. 




0p&t hatm inm it&miiictlciii 
9tff {4# fb €00 imb fleins 

gftOt cl nan}) 
«^{ii ftnEt tut Vit0(n 8id^ 
eiS baf bcr Sag onM^t : 
SBkitfr/ mein Uebcr 0teni# 
Senile mit/ oat unb fem. 

8ro^ bcmw mit IcUbtcm CKnn# 
CKT {<4 in: .^rfiiiaf^ ffim 


2)oct# »o bk (icWwctt ikf^# 
gnnnblUt mdn €((fnildii nlft^ : 
tbaffint mdn Qebcc 6tmi/ 
£<ti(ll^e ndxt tUL% unb fcnu 



Vn 8. Soimar 1814/ jioiftcn itoffel itnb Wttiagm. 


jDer btt geboren 
3n Ii(|)ten «^()n# 
Unb anterloren 


!0{it ©lanjgefteber 
Hm SBol!en nteber 
3ur erbe fHegft^ 
^af fte enoarme/ 
3n t^re Hunt 


3e$t bectfl bu Itnbe 
^ad tobte eanb/ 
Sltcefl toeiie S3inbe 
Urn IBergedranb: 
SBalb mirb bte S^onne 
3n Senie^wonne 
«^o<^ obcn fle^n i 
)Dann t^ufl iDu nuber 
3u ^immel^^^n. 


O 9tami# Mm ^mmel 
a^m eiebe«tKtnb 
!3n< (Srbgetfimmel 
IDef etd)t unb SBa^t^it 
Unb SBdrm' unb itlarbeit/ 
^e (9otte«!rQftf 
iDeS Sroft bem *&ec}en 
3n 9(ot( unb €S<bniersen 
eie fegnenb fd^fft: 


@tieb* o(n* Grmattf n 
2Cuf beirger Sa^n 
)Durd)d Sanb ber 6d)attfn 
3um iitl (tnan. 
){>ort finf t bte ^fiOe 
3n ®rabe«fiiae 
3u fanfter Stuff, 
jDu flfigfl oot Gorgen 
Unb ®tam geborgen 
)Dfm eicbte iu. 






«^eil/ unferm Mniq ^h 
T>ix, Snebrid) mi^elm, ^tiU 
Sle^n mr aU: 
Sang' t^ti/ o «f)err/ betoa^r/ 
®tdr!* t^n oon 3al)r ju 3a^r# 
Subter bet «&e(bfnf(^ar: 
3ubel erfcbad! 


13n bdnem ©nabenbltcf/ 
3u teined SSoIfed ®lfic!/ 
Sf{e(i)t unb ®ered)t{g!ett> 
SBabrbeit/ SBarmberstgfett/ 
Rreibeir^ ®efe^lid)feit/ 
3n i^m erblu^n. 


3oUfrng er^abner ®tamm/ 

Sfucbtenb in ^tegedflammV 

®tebet er ba. 

S3on fetnem SBipfel brindt/ 

^urd) £etb unb 2ub<tt oerjfini)!/ 

^ctn 2Cb(cr ni^mbefd)ioingt/ 


ttnter M ®turmf6 )Dn>^n/ 
0(f)aII(t urn beinen Z^xoiit 
Eaut S)eittf(l^lanbd SBort: 
etO) wit ein Se(6 im ^tn, 
«&errf(i)e Don !Dlcer ju ^m, 
®nmania'^ dtaf^m oerme^r/ 


2>er bu im ^riege Antct 
Stieblid;en SJ^ufcnf^imuce 
^i(b und befd)(m: 
fBattt bed »atfrlanbd# 
®d)flte im Sneben6!ranK 
S&nger bed beutfc^en aXannS 
«^etmif4en ^tttb. 


C/ beef mit SSatnr^nb 
®ott unfer be utfd)ed Sanbr 
@ei unfrr @d)u$: 
0d)linge bcr @intrad)t S3anb 
^MSid)tiQ umd SSaterlanb/ 
Strietrac^t fei gana oerbannf/ 
IDem S^inbf tru^. 

* These are the lines alluded to in toI. i. p. 231, and again p. 624, as composed 
by Bunsen for the birthday of King Frederick § William III., August 3 ; the fifth 
verse being by Gerhard. 




Ml Okfiditf gcftout auf bent ffopttol am ss. Somiar 1837^ 

am 18. Tipsd 
UihevM^ in CkinM^oncf am 19. Vt^nt 18S7. 

34 Itanb auf t^§n 3imie# ton em^grn QapiM 
nnb bactf an feme tkUM trob an bet «(fimat( IBo^l: 
lla^ flocbeni ficrgen f^antie bev ftt^nf^^ttMi Sfitfr 
2)ctt tti4t im 6fibm fellett Okmil ttnb jUi0 Olldtf. 
Sum itan{0lMnf cOti ba« %ug auf 9dfler|Iugr 
fSHim ban fd^ lano^ im Cufm i^ fftte ^^Ib'suns tRi0. 
2>enn Jtunbe war erf^oQen tmi (eften unb oon Qk^merg — 
Vtti (ager mar oefrffett ^r^ bcm ^ewei^t mein <&cr). 

Die Ctonne fant binunter# bort (inf erm fio(|ett €$aa(r 
jDct (o4 unb bteit fU^ »d(bet> ^fa4 fin QkohH Wtat 
<K raufi^ trilb bic IBtoge Stoicelhtl 0au oorbei^ 
SDer le^ wie ban0e ^^ffming M Soltt o|l nicbtie ffi. 
Die (ettm Gtra^Ien fSrbtin ben dben Sateran 
Unb fd^tenen bleid^ unb bleid^er oon fRoma*t itreuy^fa^n. 
)Do4 ftlbecn fKe^ ba^tnter/ mtt 9tom im fKOen Bunb# 
jDer SoUmonb auf/ burd)Ieud)tenb M ^oloffeumd SHunb. 

)Da trat su mir im ©(anjc/ bee Za^ unb 9lad)t oeceinO 
C^in «^tmmtdbi(b/ mie'e felten ben Gterblid^n erfcbeinf/ 
@tn e^ttUd) 9Betb# bef mtd^tt hit ®d)lande !r&ftid fdimingt i 
2>ec IBotenflab ber Sinfen iff ^ ber unS grieben bringt: 
//J8erf4eud^ tnibe Sknrgen/ id) trage ftotfi Wit^Vf 
#/2)e< Saterlanbed greube unb Srofimorf/ ju bic i^i 
//jDec XbniQtfotfni er (ebet> er blii^t frifd) unb grof / 
//Unb alter !Qiknfc^ giiUe birgt eud) ber Sutunft 04oof ." 


//®egrtk^t fti mir tnnig/ bu ^Ibe^ ^^immelibilb^ 
//2)u (Ktft mit SBort unb Sei^en be6 ^^erynd Seib geftiUt/ 
//IBo^t fenne id) ber ^^ilung ge^eimnifooUed ^fanb/ 
//Dai S3ilb ber em'^^en Sugenb/ ben «&imm(if4en oerwanbt. 
//Du bifi'i/ bic munbe <^Iben mit ®(tterfofl gepflegt/ 
//fBie bt4 ber laten (Slaube in SBSort unb 0tein deprdgt. 
/#)Do4 fage/ »a< bebeutet ber Sinfen SBunber mir/ 
//Dai CWangenpaar am etahe, bei 8oten Sooii 3ier?'' 


i/^ilDrum tooOoi (fd^rtin bie fltei|lni) »{r febi ein ncti 9efitMHf 
M //iBenn re4tIo<# mr iriitt cneo fo ^iffi mn IKeii((4eniir4t«"' 
#//fS(9 mit to gcdtdt CMtdae (fb XnbcteV bie nni briUtt^ 
«f #/2)eiie5it{9t SiOr f^aUcy bcf flUIbe 0lc{4 bcflUMt: 
#///So^ war rxoM mt\ft ocrtdfem bo4 laft cS nnr flfT^e^} 
////So frf bc6 S^ceart CMrfey bai merbm einff f!c fe^'"' 
//ttnb ienfdti f4allf i oom glnire mit nicbt oerbccton <(o(k : 
// //€^t/ bfti i^ bc4 SectmiKRf (utf {ffttfcn loftcb'^ir Co^.'' ^ 

//34 <>to ffi^t' im»{IB0 (impeg Mn ban 9€r4(e<(l> 
f/IBto alb Alette tDoOen imb nieiiiaiib nHO bad 9ie4t 
/^Die (efbni ^dm ftomen an CMb^i^t^fti^cm €Spott! 
//Die wolfeii 8tei^ ^beii/ bo4 %M^\t o(ne 0ott: 
/iSDie fetn im 0it4 ber Seiten nitr f^ndbcn ^Kngriffi fltoi^i 
//Die nwOeii leine StM^tc/ aU bie fie felbfi; crbac^t . 
//Clo finb fie oOe S||oceii/ bemi aOe tooUen SKob/ 
/#fdei(/ n)a< fie Seben to&^neii/ ifl »ur)eIIo« tmb tobt 

//jDo4 bbt mein flle^t in iweiea/ im Batnr imb bem 60^ 
//3(m/ bem im Gtucm bcr itfoig be»a^ ben fteien S^^con. 
//Or tikrnt bee 9Unnm9 Soben/ meit fie bie gcei^ ^mt# 
//ttnb warren fonern SebenS tkftoltun^ feinbli^ bftmmt 
//(Sr f4ft(t/ UKii grof / weit JUeine^ ec ^ben miS empoT/ 
//^tebt 2Cttee/ weil |u baucn i^n lOflet neuen G(^or ) 
//SB5o IBorjett i^m bie Gtetne sum ()ebren 8aue retc^t/ 
//Der gret^eit iungeS Seben au ^tCgem Dome flctgt. 

//Sa/ nie ®efe^ne6 fd)afft et/ be< ^rgen SHet^ed S3an$ 
//De0 S3aterd ^dc^fhs ®e(nen brtngt aUen er aur €^u: 
//S^ad taufenb Sa^c oergebend ecflrebt bad SSaterlanb/ 
//SBirb raf4 ft4 bann er^n oon fold)e« Sau^ecm .^nb. 
//®o wtrb bee Slud) geffl^net/ bee atte 3aubee Io$/ 
//Unb geteb' unb greube feimen au6 biefed 9teid)ed €$(^of. 
//®ein 9lame abee leuc^tet/ ein ^edendbtib bee Sett/ 
//^n ®teen in meinem Stetgen ood 6i(^t unb Geligfett 

//3^m fle^et mtlb sue ®ette ein ^Ibed (SngeUbtlb/ 
//Dee €$anftmut^ ^Ilee ^pvt^tl unb atted ®uten ®4itb: 
//®ie t^rt mit ^utteeliebe bad t^euee Sanb umfa$t 
//Unb mtti oeefd^nenb binben/ mad \t%t ftc^ fite^t unb ^af t 
//®en .^immel ifl geeid^tet bed feommen.«&ec}end Slug/ 
//®d fiie^t oon \i^ttta S3li(fe meg €$(^meid^elei unb Seug. 
//Sie fte mit bangem *^eejen an feinem SBett gewad^t/ 
//®o blictt fte neugetedfht in eenfiee SuCunft 9la4t. 


t,I>vc hxad^ id) btefe Stanbe, wdl bo t^n tteu gr Uebt> 
//Unb bt4 ber ^ftifdfydt Gorgen in fdnem ^Bktf betrikbt. 
/fIDntm fKU ber Gf^nfu^t Gd^ncQcn/ fofem bu mir oertraufly 
„Qiaft tommt ein fc^nn: Storgen/ bef Mtfft bu tpoi^l f^auft'^ 
^ fc^ioanb fte ^in im 04immer ber le^ten TCbenbgUit^j 
34 Aber fa^*< ergldn^ii/ »ie Gonne in brr ^itttt^i 
(Sin SKng marb mir ^itiqitU Hv fBUh in €$tein deprftgt/ 
IDaS ie^t stt beinen gfifen bit treu^ Siebe UqjL 


9lac^ruf an ben |>onttfei; SRartmuS^ 

€ki)au/ ^ im ^tU, an bem bu foQfl a^d)eaen/ 
)Der groUrfl auf bem Sauberberge brflben/ 
3ft be< Okfc^ictes 9taq,tl eingetrieben/ 
fSie ft4'< Qtb^tt, an QapitoiH Gd^Oen. 

eitt), in ben gelfen ^b* i4 i^n getriebeu/ 
Son bem be< em'gen Seben^ €itrdme queUeu/ 
2)a« SeidKU biefer 3eit/ aui bun!eln SkOen 
tid^t wieberfira^Ienb in ber 3a^(en ffeben. 

Unb ^inler if^m fannft meinen 9{amen finben$ — 
^O^agfl bu ben ^^tl ant bem S3oben fd)netben/ 
IDed 9lageU epi^ foUft bu nie ergrflnben. 

SBo^l muf oieOeic^t i^ oon ber @rbe fd)eiben/ 
6b' i(4 ba6 SSort be< gelfend barf oertunben : — 
(Sin «|>d^'rer lommt, oon bem ben a^ob foUfl (eiben ! 

@egen6grup an Stom. 

£), tmiQ (eif geliebter Gtern ber (Stht, 
SBo mir ber Jreunb' unb JCinber ®r&ber blfl^rn 
Unfern ber ^tbtn, bie nad) Sebenemii^n 
Sa^rtaufenbe bort (arren auf ba< fSerbe! 


D ^ebiii9M9 in ndibf 9cn unb in {rfl^n 

<^fl ta mir DMtcttccirn nnb Okbecbc 
dntftftiibce mir (cr ticfltei CSe^aMt WlfirR. 

Ccfrnw^d tmb m6|)ai bcine €10*901 9t0tt(n 
Cie foOni |rtR# Mr M (m ftmimrtftribc 
•efctt auf beiiifn S^coiir ta Oktft iti motben: 

jDIr 9httH &irib dcmoitt in dbrr .^dbc^ 
Die Vnfini^ imb Uii0lattbciK Shtttcr nmteii/ 
jDif Cktolb an mctnrt Bolfd Bbtt unb Mbt, 


Ocofel ^ft bo |cr|ttrt tmb QMfm< nHebcr 9rbaiter# 

Sief in bcr UnoeCt 9ta^ leuittet bai femif^e eic^t: 
8o(t unb Okdenwart treur bimMibtcIt bu Uebcnb orraangenr 

QMff bcr lOtenfdAeit im QkCfo ffttCenb i^r fBotI unb i^ Se ^: 
Satr^Kit dUkubcnb unb d^nbmb/ 0ewif bet oecboiq^encn €M^o^; 

SBorfft bu bet Socf4ttn0 eotti tief in bte Jttfifte bee Sett 
9ioma liebenb unb ^Uah eni|>fanbefl bu 2(fta'< Saubcti 

^aufd^enb mit tinbli^em 6inn &ltefler SBf iff n ©efang. 
2Cud) (Sgpptend ®eflim begriif tefl bU/ frrubig ed e()renb/ 

2(Id e(( gu fd)etncn begann ob |)9ramibengcftlb. 
Sorttitn ba^nenb ben 9Beg# rnt>&^r icb bid)/ fSattv, alt ttitfUvn: 

9eud)te im jDuntel bu oov/ fl&rte bed ®ud)enben Slict. 

f 1854. 

2Cn Xrnolb.t ' 

Du ^aft mit und get&mpfet bed 0!$(aubend ^rgen SCampf, 
%iix aUe tief em|)funben ber bittren Seiben Jtrampf : 
X)n fa^ft ber <D{enfd)(eit na^n ®ert(t)t unb blut'gen £>treit> 
Jtlar flanb voc teinem Tfuge ber 3ammer biefer idt. 

* This is printed at the beginning of vol. i. of Bunsen's Egypt. 
t Prefixed to toI. ii. of Christianity and Mankind. The tmnslation of thetr 
lines, by Miss Anna Gumey, is giTen at p. 19 of this volume. 


^a traf Hdj jened ^tintn, bai fHUt ber (Mm ®4meri/ 
®« t^fle ft(^ in eiebe ba« mtlbe 6tretter(Kri/ 
SBegrflf tefl/ •^elb/ aid SBoteiu gefanbt oom IBaterlanb/ 
Den (Sngcl/ ber bic^ ffi^cte in< cw'^e •^ttmat^Ianb. 

SBerfhtmmt tfl nun am ®tabt M 3omd unb «^fTed S8ut()/ 
(Sin Seuc^ttt^urm ragfl bu jha^Unb and n&d)f get ®turmed Slut^/ 
@d fproffet t^eifger ®amen in mand^r jungen fBvxft, 
din SoK ooU ebten ^toIjeS blicft auf au btr mix Z\x% 

Du felbfl bifl mqQtxHidtt avL€ ber SBenoimins 9totf), 
^ai fd)n)n:f!e 0ee(en(etben ^at btr erf^rt ber !£ob: 
@d iit^t t)or bir enti^uUet bad SR&tt^fel biefrr ^U/ 
@d)aufl nun/ mad bu ^eglaubet/ oon dotted iid)t ttf;tHt 

9Bir aber wotten Umpfeu/ wie bu ed oorget^au/ 
3n «£>offhund unb in Siebe/ mit ®(auben angeti^an/ 
Die Swigtcit oor ^Cugen/ S^af^r^aftigfeit tm ®inn/ 
Unb geben fiir bie SBa^r^^eit bad Seben mittig i^inl 


Tin 3uliu8 |)are»» 

Unfer SQeg ge^t fiber ®r&ber/ wenn »ir auf bte Srbe fdyaum 
Unfer SSeg gef^t unter ®tecnen/ bliden mtr ju «&tmmeld 2(un $ 
S3ie(e finb ^inmegcjefdiieben und aud ber geliebten ia^U 
Z\)t\ive Zobttn fritter 3eiten bectet mantled alte Wtal 


Zai ben S3ltct und benn aufti&jttn, wo und xoinft bte Swtdfetf/ 

Seben wir bod) fd)on tm 6n>'gen/ mitten in ber irb'fc^n ititt 

SBenn wir ftnnen/ menn wir (ieben/ menn anbetenb mtr oergebn ^ 

3m ®cban(en biefer ^di^pfung/ in bed ®eifled ^ii'gem S&c^^n. 

Denen ifl ed nur oerfcblofTen/ bie um Sobn bad ®ute t^un# 
Die mit em'gen £lua(en fci)recten ®cele/ bie in ®ott mill ru^n: 
SBlinbe ftnb fte/ bie t)om S^oielic^t manbern in bie Dun(el(|fit/ 
JCc^rcnb (iJeifled emig 2Balten in eablofe 3eitlid)teit. 

• From Chriiftianitif and Mankind^ vol. i. Tho EDglisli translation will be 
und at p. 320 of this volumu. 

VOL. II. Q Q • 


4 Q 2 




BABYLONIAN writing, i. 657. Re- 
searches of Rawlinson, ii. 285, 288, 
Bader, his ' Emancipation of Catholicism 

from Rome/ i. 523 
Eaini, Maestro di Capella, i. 188, 189, 346 
Bancroft, Mr., ii. 167, 227. His * His- 
tory,' 168 
Bankes, Mr., i. 477. Visito to, 480, 481, 

Barnabas, St., church of, ii. 271 
Barry, Mr. (afterwards Sir Charles), ii. 
29, 172 

Bartolomte of Strasbnrg, ii. 256 

Basle, missionary meeting at, i. 572. The 
remains of the French bomb at, 578 

Bathurst, Miss, i. 237 

Beaulieu, visit to, i. 589 

Beaulieu, General Charles de, i. 48 

Beaumont, M. Gustave de, ii. 489 

Becker, of Gbtha, i. 34, 60 

Beethoven, uncovering of the statue of, 
ii. 88 

Behnes, Mr., the sculptor, ii. 238 

Bekker, ii. 449 

Belfast, Lady, i. 234 

Benedict, the composer, ii. 313 

Berlin in 1815, i. 83, 84. University of, 
84. The new palace of Frederick the 
Great at, 284. Berlin society in 1827, 
285. The Spanish Club at, 285. The 
rising in 1848, ii. 169. Conflict of 
Frankfort with Berlin, 193 The 
Church conferences in, 322 

Bemays, Dr., ii. 270 

Bernetti, Cardinal, i. 321 

Bemhard, Duke, of Weimar, i. 595 

Bemstorff, Count, i. 201, 203, 221, 280, 
284, 291, 295, 298, 303, 311. Mar- 
riage of his daughter, 314 

Bemstorff, Countess, i. 295 

Berry, Duchesse de, i. 381 

Beuggon, reformatory at, i. 579 

Beust, Count, ii. 322 

Bible, Bunsen's study and examination of 
the English and German texts of the. 
i. 123 

Bible reiiders, Tyrolese, i. 270 

Binning, Lord (afterwards Earl of Had- 
dington), i. 263 

Birch, Dr. Samuel, ii. 640 

Birkenhead, visit to, ii. 231 

Bischi, the sisters, i. 237 

Bischong, Madame de, i. 72 

Bla<?as, M., i. 332 

Blackie, Professor, his translation of Bun- 
sen's lines, i. 32 

Blaise Castle, i. 468 

Blenheim, i. 533 

Bliicher, Prince, i. 79 

Bodelschwingh, President von, i. 447 


Boisser^e collection, the, i. 64 
Bolton, visit to, ii. 233 
Bombelles, Comte de, i. 538 
Bonaparte, Christine, i. 334 
Bonaparte, Jerome, his rule in Westpha- 
lia, i. 10 
Bonaparte, Lucien, i. 366 
*BooK of the Dead,* the, translated, ii. 

Bordeaux, Due de, i. 386 
Borghesi, his * Fasti,' i. 396 
Botticher, Dr., ii. 821 
Boucher, M., ii. 247 
Bowring, Sir John, ii. 826 
Bozzaris, Dimitri, i. 276 
Bozzaris, Marcos, i. 276. His widow, 276 
Braham, Charles, the singer, i. 632 
Brandenburg, Count, ii. 204 
Brandis, Charles, i. 129 
Brandis, Dr., i. 78 

Brandis, Prof. C. A., i. 46, 92. 96, 104, 
124, 129, 155, 186. His * History of 
Greek Philosophy,' 48. His family, 49. 
His recollections of Bnnsen and his as- 
sociates, 64. His answer to Noirlieu, 
Brandis, Johannes, ii. 346 
Braun, Dr., i. 563 
Breslau, Prince Bishop of, i. 287 
Brocchi, on the geology of the site of 

Rome, i. 241 
Brocken, Johanette Eleonore, married to 
Henri ch Christian Bunsen, i. 4, 15. 
Her death, 22, 172 
Broglie, Due de, ii. 83 
Brooke, Sir James, Rajah of Sarawak, ii. 

145, 430 
Bruno, Giordiano, ii. 254 
Buckland, Rev. Dr., i. 521 
Bull, De Salute Animarum, i. 263 
Billow, Herr von, i. 498. 509-606. Hia 

illness, 507, 508 : ii. 86 
Bunsen family, escutcheon of the, i. 4 
Bunsen Maria Christiana, i. 3, 15, 65. 68- 
74. Her influence over her young bro- 
ther, 7, 68. Visits him in Romer222 
Bunsen, Charles, i. 192, 222, 434, 436, 

448, 542 ; ii. 173, 416, 507, 559 
Bunsen, Emilia, ii. 68, 69 
Bunsen, Ernest, i. 222, 407, 434, 436, 

448, 542, 624 ; ii. 84, 97 
Bunsen, George, i. 536, 539, 640 ; ii. 376, 

Bunsen, Helene, i. 3, 16 
Bunsen, Henrich Christian ( Bunsen ^ 

grandfather), i. 4 
Bunsen, Henry, i. 222, 379, 407, 565. 

589, 591, 614, 620, 621 ; ii. 127, 149 
Bunsen, Henrich Christian (Buns^'n's 
father), i. 2, 14. His sayings, 2. His 
character, 3. His first wife and chil- 




Bonsen, C. C. J. — continued 

— His friend Rhebenitz, i. 142 

— His reflections on the study of Scrip- 
ture, i, 143 

— And on death, i. 147 

— His description of the f^te given in 
Rome to the Crown Prince of Bavaria, 
i. 160 

— Birth of his first child, i. 161 

— His parting from his friend Brandis, 
i. 156 

— His character of an English lady, i. 

— His reflections "on this event, i. 168 

— His conversations with Niebuhr as to 
his future plans, i. 169 

— Visits Niebuhr at Tivoli, i. 161 

— His farewell homage to the favourite 
branch of study of his University days, 
i. 163 

— His religious progress, i. 167 

— His historical and political studies, i. 

— His course of life at Rome, i. 1 70 

— His prayer in the concluding hours 
of 1819, i. 171 

— Death of his father and mother, i. 

— Birth of his third child, i. 177 

— His investigation of the subject of 
liturgies, i. 178, 201, 202, 207 

— His reflections on the Christian Church, 
i. 181 

— His collection of hymns, i. 182, 193 

— Illness and death of his daughter 
Mary, i. 184, 185 

— His wife's illness, i. 186 

— His own serious illness and recovery, 
i. 187 

— His re^rd for the Baron von Stein, i. 
187, 188 

— His study of ancient music, i. 188 

— iVIusical evenings at his house, i. 189, 

— Birth of his son Charles, i. 192 

— His collection of hymns, i. 182, 193, 
194, 293, 361, 369, 383, 386 

— Rewrites ' Platuer's Description of 
Rome,' i. 193, 194, 207, 279 

— Goes to Albano with Platner and 
others, i. 198 

— Brought into personal contact with the 
King of Prussia, i. 199 

— Conducts the King's two sons over 
Rome, i. 200 

— Receives a present from the King, i. 

— Named by the King Counsellor of Le- 
gation, i. 202 

— Becomes Charg^ d' Affaires during Nie- 
buhr's absence, i. 204 


I Bunsen, G. 0. J.- 

— His rule of conduct^ i. 204 

— His proposed study of the Holy Scrip- 
tures, i. 207 

— His letter to Count Bemstoif^ i. 221 

— His friendship with Count Leopardi, 
i. 226-229 

— His reflections in January, 1824, i. 

— His friendship with Count von Ba* 
dowitz, i. 232 

— His correspondence with Niebuhr, i. 
238 et aeq^ 262, 266, 260 

— Obtains a wall for the Protestant buy- 
ing-ground at Rome, i. 241, 242 

— His first mention of E^jyptian studies, 
i. 244 

— His study of Egyptian antiquities, i. 

— His friends in Rome, i. 257, 258 

— Brings the English State papers in the 
Vatican into notice, i. 258, 259 

— His remarks on Roman Catholicism in 
Rome, i. 262 

— His answer to the Comte de St. Au- 
laire, i. 262 

— His observations on English affiiirs, i. 

— His breakfast parties, i. 264 

— His friendship with, and oontemporair 
notice of, Neukomm, the composer, i. 
264, 266 

— His friendship with Kestner, i. 267 

— His hymnological publications, i. 271, 

— His remarks on married life, i. 273 

— His first official visit to Berlin, i. 274 

— His purchase of a Raphael, i. 274, 

— His arrival in Berlin, i. 279 

— His visit to the King at Paretz, i. 283 

— Invited to the New Palace, i. 284 

— His visits to his friends, i. 286 

— His part in the Silesiau negotiations, 
i. 287 

— Favours of the King and Crown Prince 
conferred upon him, i. 288, 291, 301. 
302, 304, 314, 319, 379,401 

— Receives important papers for study 
and comment, i. 289 

— Obtains a prolongation of leave of ab- 
sence, i. 289 

— At the Palace, i. 290 

— Obtains an amelioration of the treat- 
ment of Roman Catholic Prussian sol- 
diers, i. 292 

— His Christmas at Berlin, i. 297 

— His reflections on the close of 1827, i. 

— Madame Mendel ssohn-Bartholdy's ac- 
count of him, i. 300 



BmiMBy C. C. J.- 

— Htfl Tint to QzfiDid, i. 497 

— HU fini Tint to the Hobm of Com- 
noiis,!. 499 

— PreMBtad to the QnMn, i. 606 

— HU^eeeh at the meeting of the Bible 
Society, i 606 

•>- At O^e Hoepitel, i. 611 

— Hie Tieit to the Doke of CSunliridge^ L 

— Hie eitidein the * CtoMxtaij Beriew/ 
on the ZdUTerein, i. 616 

— BcCnme to LlADOTer, L 617 

— Woriu at the Uw of diroree, L 617> 

— Hie ^eit to Bnsbj, i. 617 

— Hie ^eeeh at me BiUe Soeiely meet- 
ing i. 626 

— INnee with Lord Falmenton, L 626 

— Yieiti Ounbridfle, i. 629 

— Heazs Handefa 'Mewiah' lor the 
Urat time, i. 660 

— Again rieite High Wood, L 662 

— And Oxford, i. 666 

— Degree conffurred upon him then, i. 664 

— Hie Tieit to Sir Harry Ymiey, i. 666 

— And to Dr. Arnold at Fos How. i. 666 

— Appointed Swian Minister, i 667 

— His policy in Switserland, L 666 

— Again at Oxford, i 669 

— Attende the dinner of the AgricaHaral 
Society, i. 669 

— His speech there, i. 641 

— Betnms to Llanorer, i. 642 

— Leaves Llanover for London, i. 543 

— His letter to the Bishop of Norwich 
respecting Dr. Arnold, i. 544 

— His remarks on Gdthe*s ' Faust,' i. 

— His residence in Switzerland, i. 549, 

— His feelings on leaving England, i. 
550, 551 

— His friendships in Switzerland, i. 553 

— His * Elizabeth Fry's Address to the 
Matrons and Maidens of Germany,* i. 
554, 562 

— Causes of his commencement of Egyp- 
tian studies, i. 556 

— His work on Egyptian chronolopy, 
language, and religion, i. 557, 558, 561 

— His advice to one of his sons, i. 559 

— Offers his Casa Tarpea to Dr. Arnold, 
i. 563 

— His Old Testament researches!, i. 665 

— His recommendation of Professor 
Stahl, i. 570 

— GK>es to the missionary meeting at 
Basle, i. 572 

— His speech there on missionary work, 
i. 677 


Bimaen, C. C. J.- 

— His Tiiit to the Benggm nfbniiafeoij, 

— Hie Tiaita to Geiwfa» Beanliei^ aad 
KeiifehAtel, i. 691 

— Summoned to Beriin, L 696 

— His mieaioii to En^^and* i. 696 

— Hie ooDTenatioD with BJadowi ta, i 696 

— Hie audience of Frederick "WOlmB 
lY^ i. 697, 606 

— Hie arrifal in Lopdoa, i. 604 

-— Hie Tieit to Queen Addaide, i. 607 

— Beoeptioii of hie memoir by the Km^ 
i. 610,611 

~~ Bfqaeete to be allowed to tike lesfBb 

— At Fuaey, L 619 

— Preparee to zetiie from pnblie Hfr, i. 

— Appointed Pmaeiaii TIfinietar to Loa- 
don, i. 619 

— Hie piedileetioii to the Boj^iiih 
Cainreh. i. 620 

— At the dinner to Dr. AleaKMidir,BSahop 
of Jemsalem, i. 624 

— Hie appointment aa AnueiaD Mhrietir, 

— Hie yisit to Windaor Oastle, L 666 

— Hie qnalilleatiooe to hie newpoaitMii, 
i. 666 

— At Cailton TerTae^ii. 1 

— Meets the King of F^oaaia on his way 
to England, ii. 6-6 

— Receives the King at Oarltcm Teriace, 
11. 7 

— His illness, ii. 11 

— His visit fo Cambridge, iL 17 

— His lines on the deaUi of Dr. Am(^ 
ii. 19 

— His fondness for dramatic representa- 
tions, ii. 23 

— His dislike of the opera stage, ii. 24 

— Second edition of his ' Hymn Book,' ii. 

— Prosecution of his Egyptian researches, 
ii. 27 

— His life in London, ii. 26 

— Engages Herstmonceaux, ii. 61 

— His work for the Legation, ii. 36] 

— His visit to Sir Robert Peel at Dray- 
ton Manor, ii. 37 

— Summoned by the King to Berlin, iL 46 

— At Brussels, iL 46 

— His comments on Ewald'a ' Israel,' iL 
46, 47, 101 

— Receives a gift of the ^ngf a portrait, 
ii. 53 

— At work at the ' Four preliminaxy 
questions,' ii. 54 

— His lecture on the grant of a Pmasian 
Constitution, ii. 67 




DiMen, hii fHoidiliip widi BmiMii, L 19 
DiToroo, Bnnseii'fl tiMtite on the Uw of, 

L 491, 617, 688, 6S7, 648, 666 
Bodwell, Mrs., i. 287 
Bomborg, (General, i. 286, 819 
Bngonetti, Munhete, i. 666 
Bronyn de Lhtijs, on the aflkin of G^er- 

suuiy in 1849, ii. 226 
Dmeh, Hon Ton, i. 142 ; iL 600 
Dutch, thflimligion, L 66 

EARTiHAM. ii. 97 
Eastlake, Lady, u. 828 
Eberfaaxd, i. 141 

S^gerton, Lord FranciB, i. 614, 628 
IJ^rton, Lad^ Franoes, her tour through 

jP^estine, i. 607 
liKgefs, hia portrait of the BazonaM de 

Hansen, i. 198 
£|g7pt, Bnnaen'a ftndiea in the chronology 

and hiatozy of, i. 409, 468, 464, 481 ; 

ii.47. Boaellini's work, 848, 481 
'llgypt's Place in Uniyinnal Hiatozy,' 

imblication of the fint Engliah Tolnme, 

li. 186. Ckunpletion of new Tohune, 

ISehhom, i. 282, 291, 296, 297 
Eliae of Bayaria, Prinoees, i. 220 
Sllenboroagfa, Lord, ii. 42, 117^ Hia 

India BiU, 461 
Kmbley Park, risit to, ii. 188 
£mpaon, Professor, i. 484, 489 
England in 1 81 4, i. 1 75. Bnnsen's review 

of England and English life, 495. In 

1849, ii. 224 
Erbach, i. 59 
Erdmannsdorf, settlement of the Tyrolese 

Bible readers at, i. 270 
Etrascan tombs in Italy, i. 381. Paterae, 

408. Language, 421 
Eucharist, Bunsen's remarks on the, i. 

Eugenie, the Empress, ii. 509 
Erangelical Alliance, meeting of the, in 

Berlin, ii. 435, 440 
Ewald, Prof., his works, ii. 46, 47, 101, 

Exhibition, the Great, Prince Albert's idea 

of, ii. 229. BuDsen's speech on the, 

241. Diversities of opinion on the, 

261. Opening of the, 265 
Eylert, Bishop, i. 302 
Eynard, visit to, i. 589 

I^ABER, the officer, i. 70-72, 118 
Faber, Mr., his work on ' Justifica- 
tion,' i. 484 
Fairbaim, Mr., ii. 232, 235 
Falck, M., the Dutch ambassador, i. 359 

FUk, Johauiea, of Weimar, i 680 


Fasy, jamea, of Geneva, iL 477 

Fea, Abb4, i. 848 

Ferdna, BouMn's MS. of, i. 68. Hia 
atody of,94 

Feoerbaeh, i 48 

Ficht^ hia «ftpeeehea,' ii. 46 

FiAv^, hia wntinga, L 267 

Fitvjamea, Doe de^ i. 262 

Fleming, Connt, hia dsatli, i 280 

Florence in 1816, L 101 

Fonter, Bev. C, hia woik on the Saaitie 
inscriptions, ii. 129 

Foeie, M. Oomrtantin de la, and hiamim- 
dea, i. 262 

Foater, Mr., Kngliih envqj at Oopen- 
hagen, i. 88 

France, indifierence to vsHgion in gracnl 
in. i. 144. In 1880, 860, 868, 866. la 
1889,667. Itevolntionofl848,iLl66. 
PerMcntioD of Proteetanta, 477. OAa 
Commercial Treaty with England, 626 

F^nnda, hia attempt on the Qoeen'a Ub^ 
iL 16, 18 

Frankfort, conflict of; with Beiiia, n. 198 

Frana, Dr., i 466 

Frascati, i 121 

Frederidt the Great, hia palace in Badia, 
i. 284. Hia mnaieal eompoaifciQnB, 284. 
Garljrle'a *Life' of him, ii. 898 

Fredenck, Ph'nce of Orange, i. 220, 222 

Frederick William ILL., £ng of Pmssia, 
i. 144. His visit to Italy, 199. His 
conversations with Bunsen, 208. At 
Paretz, 282, 283. His kindness to 
Buosen, 288, 294, 295, 302, 320, 401. 
His reception of Bunsen's Litoigy, 310. 
His imprestiions from his visit to Eng- 
land, 323. His 'Agenda,' 323. His 
views on mixed marriages, 403. His 
discussion with Bunsen aa to Catholic 
soldiers, 441. Appoints Bunsen envoy 
to Switzerland. 537, 549. His declining 
health, 564. His death, 567 

Fre<lerick William IV., when Crown 
Prince, i. 199, 220, 283, 290, 295, 340. 
His kindness to Bunsen, i288. His 
visits to Italy, 199, 340, 347. Hia views 
as to Church government, 566. His 
letter to Bunsen, 568. His views on 
the Church of Christ, 589. Gives audi- 
ence to Bunsen, 597, 608. His work, 
603. His reception of Bunsen's memoir. 
611. His letter to the Archbishop of 
Canterbury and Bishop of London, 623. 
His visit to England, ii. 5. At Wind- 
sor, 6, 7. At the honscs of the aris- 
tocracy. 8. At the opening of Parlia- 
ment, 9, 10. His gift to Bunsen, 53. 
His letter to Bnnaen, 71. Becdves 




IABOULAYE. M.. ii. 307, 315, 538 
J Ljiboulaye, Madame Edward, ii. 647 
Lachtraim, Carl. 46. 54, 55. 294. His 
e<lition of the New Teytament, 48. His 
early doath, 48. His death, ii. 263 
I^julv. Bunsen'j* character of an English, i. 

Lamartino, M. de, his speech, ii. 140. His 

* Des Gironihns,' 167 
I^aniprecht, i. 402 
Liind credit system, the, ii. 176 
Ijanples. i. 94 

Lunpuai^e as the most general and origi- 
nal image of our mind, i. 155 
Dmsdowne, Marquis, of, i. 605, 609 
I^ansdowne. Lady, i. 509 
Larsow, Dr., ii. 321 

Laval-Monfmorency, Due de, i. 213, 255 
Lawless Club, the, i. 8t,294 
I^yard, Mr., his discoveries in Mesopo- 
tamia, ii. 314 
Lee. Dr.. ii. 177 
I^ Grand, at Basle, i. 573 
Leipzig, defeat of the French at, i. 44. 

Insurrection at, ii. 90 
Leist, Counsellor of State to Jerome 

Bonaparte, his offer to Bunsen, i. 31 
Ijcuormand, Madame, i. 234 
Leo X., Pope, i. 216, 220. His election, 
i. 215. Ilis adoration, 215. And coro- i 
nation, 217. His year of jubilee, 244. 
His death, 354. And obsequies, 366 
lA'opardi, Count, i. 225-229 
Leopold, Princo, christening of, ii. 314 
lx>op()ld L, King of the Belgians, ii. 91 
Lepsius, Kichard, i. 344, 467, 608; ii. 442, 
444. 470. His Egyptian researches, i. 
344. In Switzerland, 591. In England 
in 1842, ii. 27 
Letters from Bunsen to : — 

, ii. 234, 497 

Agricola, i. 37, 38, 101 ; ii. 310, 377 
Argyll. Duchess of, ii. 432, 562 
Arnold, Dr., i. 316, 387, 388,407, 410, 
413, 418, 422, 425, 448, 449, 463, 
492, 557, 561, 564,566 
Beckrr. i. 50, 51, 63, 76 
Brandis, Prof. C. A., i. 65, 91, 92, 93, 
117. 131,140,147. 161,163,366,385 
Bremer, Frederica, ii. 401 
Bromley, Miss Davenport, ii. 11 
Bunsen, Frances, Countess von, i. 274, 
275, 279-285, 286, 289, 292-299, 
301. 302-315, 319, 320, 347, 349. 
351, 378, 379, 401, 446, 459, 467, 
476, 478-490, 497-526, 539, 664, 
571, 574, 581, 594, 602, 604, 606, 
607, 609-614, 615-618, 619-622, 
024. 626, 629, 631, 633; ii. 4, 16, 
17, 28, 29, 31, 34, 35, 37, 41, 46, 46, 
48, 49, 51-78, 85-96, 110, 111, 114, 


Letters from Bunsen — continued 

119, 126, 139, 150, 153, 155, 1,'>6, 
158, 163, 190, 193, 195, 198, 199, 
200, 202, 203, 204, 235, 237, 239, 
248, 251, 252, 259, 271, 287. 291. 
293, 295, 315, 319, 322, 310, 351, 
359, 360, 38^, 383, 388, 395, 403, 
439, 451, 467, 469, 478, 479, 504, 
505, 506, 512. 513, 550 

Bunsen, Maria Christiana, i. 10. 26, 26, 
41, 65, 8i, 90, 93, 95, 96, 104, 106, 
107, 108, 110, 116, 118, 126, 131. 
137, 150, 165, 159, 167, 171, 172, 
173, 176, 178, 179, 184, 193-195, 
199, 202, 204. 206, 219, 220 

Bunsen, Rev. Henry, ii. 246 

Bunsen, Eichard, i. 79 

Cobden, Rirhard, ii. 399 

Cosh, Dr. M', extract from, ii. 471 

Dasent, G. W., ii. 103 

Father and Mother, i. 27, 28, 33, 39 

Frederick William IV. ii. 438 

Friend, a. i. 30, 623 ; ii. 384, 401, 410, 
413, 417, 419, 421. 428, 431, 458, 
461, 476, 485, 489, 490, 497, 501, 
609, 610, 514, 520, 621, 626, 533, 
638, 642. 661 

Fry, Mrs. Elizabeth, i. 609 ; ii. 83 

Gladstone, Bight Hon. W. E., i. 682 

Graff, Mr., ii. 131 

Gurney, Anna, ii. 147, 387 

Gurney, John Jo.seph, ii. 99 

Gurney, Samuel, ii. 103, 123 

Hall, Lady (now Lady Llanover), i. 685 

Hare, Ajchdeacon, i. 689; ii. 18, 45, 
74, 101, 102, 192, 198, 238, 240, 
251, 258, 274, 278, 348, 349 

Harford, John, ii. 423 

Hey, Wilhelm, i. 81. 146 

Hills, Mr. John, i. 475, 493, 620, 646 

Kchtner, i. 453, 468, 462. 475, 686, 
614; ii. 13, 84,256 

Klingemann, ii. 398 

Lady, a. ii. 301, 522 

Liicke, i. 77, 83, 100, 109, 134, 144, 
183, 207, 382, 411, 656; ii. 219, 
287, 357, 363 

Midler, Dr. Max, ii. 217, 266 

Niebuhr, i. 234. 238-244, 252, 255, 
260, 276, 280, 290, 330, 361, 359, 
361, 365 

Perthes, Frederick, i. 699, 632 

Pertz, i. 384, 406 

Platner. i. 494; ii. 109, 264, 272 

Reeve, Henry, ii. 178 

Renan, M., ii. 527 

R^ville, M., ii. 532 

Rudolph, W., ii. 464 

Schnorr, Julius, i. 273, 348, 860. 361, 
373, 386, 424 ; ii. 29. 43. 69, 78, 83, 
148, 246,264,265. 369,378 • 


K R 




Letters from Bnns^n — toniimffed 
Schnorr ron Carolrfeld, ii. 387 
Schulze. Ernst, i. 41, 81. 100 
Sehumareher. Wolrad. L 40 
Schwabe. Mrs., ii. 337, 340, 364, 365, 

372. 378. 391. 396. 397 
Sicreking, Syndic, ii. 81, 112, 119. 121. 

Sun*, his, ii. 42, 44. 4o. 78. 80, 106, 
107, 131, 135, 141, 147. 248, 252, 
260, 265. 272. 273, 285. 310. 327, 
337, 353. 355. 356, 358. 361. 367. 

373, 374, 379, 380. 381. 384. 386. 
390, 394, 408. 412. 418, 420. 425. 
434. 439. 457. 460. 461. 466, 469, 
477, 484. 487, 491, 493, 494. 495, 
496, 510, 511, 515. 516, 518. 524. 
525. 526, 537. 539, 540. 543, 560 

Stanley, Rey. Dr.. Bishop of Norwich, 

i. 544 
Sternberg, Theodora, ii. 490. 513. 519 
Stockmar. Baron, ii. 1 17, 1 18, 120, 125. 
126. 170, 180. 189, 193, 239, 240. 
251. 262, 263, 275, 276, 278, 306, 
308, 325 
Strauss, Dr., ii. 363 
Usedom, Herr yon, ii. 36, 168. 182, 

197, 235, 324 
Waddington,MrB., i. 114. 115, 120, 132, 
148, 154, 167. 183, 195, 364, 529, 
551, 587, 593, 618, 633; ii. 2, 32, 
42. 117, 120, 122, 127. 184, 186, 
Wati, John, ii. 385 
Winkworth, Miss, ii. 342, 520 
Letters to Bunsen frrjin : — 
Bromer, Frederica, ii. 401 
Clifford, \jon\. i. 4.)« 
Cragerii, H^-inrieh von. ii. 202 
Humlx)ldt. .Vlexantler yon. i. 364 
NeukoTT.m. ii. 201 
Peel, Sir. Robert, i. 622 
Schon. Herr von. ii. 175 
Schulze, Ernst, i. 110 
Werther. i. 435 
Letter to Baroness Bunscn from : — 

Bunsen. George, ii. 450 
Leyden in 1814, i. 67 
Liebenslein, i. 58 

Lieber. his personal appearance, ii. 270 
•Light. Friends of' ii. Ill 
Lind, Jenny, ii. 24. 131. 187. Her sing- 
ing, i. 188 
Lit**rary Fund Dinner, i. 511. Bunsen 

chairman at the. ii. 118 
Liturgies, invest ijration of the subject of, 
i. 178. 201, 202, 207. Bingham and 
Itenaudet on. 207. Result of the in- 
troduction of the, in Germany, 256. 
Bunscn's Litururv submitted to the 
King. 308. 310. 31* 7. Which is ordered 


by the King to be printed. 312. Its 

principal objects, 318. His yiews r»- 

specting Lituigical refomi, 393 
Liyerpool, Lord. i. 263 
LiyerpooL risit ta iL 233 
LodLhart, Mr., i. 504 
Lonis. Crovn Prince (aftervmrda King) 

of Bayaria. i. 140, 141. 149. Fke 

giyen to him in Rome, 150 
Ltmise, Queen of Pmsna. i. 56. Her 

statoe by Ranch, L 306 
Loayre. the. i. 557 
Lucca. Duke of. i. 487. 489. 490 
Lucke. i. 46. 54, 57. Hia edition of the 

Gospel of St. John. 48. 666. His letter 

to Schulse, 82 
Lond. Uniyersitj of, t 61 
Lnnebei^g sayed bj Dombeig. L 320 
Lushington. Dr., i. 523. 642 
Luther. Bunsen^s work on. ii. 418, 421 
Liitzow Omnt. i. 475 
Lynd hurst. Lord. ii. 21 
* Lyra Apostolica.' i. 428 
Lysias, his life and political character, i. 

Lytton, Sir E. (now Lord), his * Lsdj of 

Lyons.* ii. 94 

TliTCAUL. Rev. Dr.. i. 601, 61 1 

iU. Macaulay. Mr. (afterwards Lord), i. 
507 ; ii. 168. His review of Gladstone s 
'Church and State,* 519 
I MCosh, Dr.. his interview with Bunsen 
at Charlottenberp. ii. 471 

MNeil. Rev. Mr., i. 502 

Maoreadv. William, i. 621 ; ii. 24 

Madama, Piazza, musical performance in 
the. i. 198 

Mahon. Lord (now Earl Stanhope), i. 509 

Mahon. Lidy. ii. 12 

Malihus. Mr., his system, i. 168 

Mamiami. ii. 254 

Manchester, visit to. ii. 231 

Manners, Lady Adeliza, ii. 73 

Marburg, town of. i. 23 

Marburg University, Bunsen at, i. 18, 24 

Marini. Monsiguor, i. 253 

Marriages, mixed. Papal instructions as 
to. i. 360. Bun!*en's note's on the ques- 
tion of, 402. Quarrel of Prussia with 
Rome on the subject, 429 

Married life, Bunsen on, i. 273 

Martens. Barun de, i. 371 

Massimo, Princess, her death, i. 4-i3 

Maubeuge. persecutions in, ii. 477 

Maurice, Rev. F., his sermons,!. 512. 514, 
515. 529, 613. In Switzerland, 591 

Maurocordato, i. 234 

Mazzini, Joseph, ii. 296 

MellK)ume, Lord, i. 499 



. SCH 

Schmedding, Ud dor-Secret An*, i. 402 

Sehmieder, the chaplain at Kome, i. 158, 
165, 218. His serniODs, 166 

Schmiti, Dr., ii. 76 

Schon, President, ii. 264 

Schonberg, i. 291, 296 

Schonber^, Frau von, i. 296 

Schiitz, Dr., i. 37 

Schwabe, Mr., ii. 232 

Sohwabe, Mrs. Salis, ii. 341 notej 547 

Schwarzenberjr, ii. 225 

Scipio, Wilhelm, Bunsen's schoolfellow, i. 

Scott, Charles, i. 376 

Scott, Sir Walter, in Rome, i. 374. His 
death, 376 

Scotland, highlanders of, ii. 290 

Scripture, n-flections on the study of, i. 

Sebastopol, fall of, ii. 384 

Seckendorf, i. 42 

Seeland, i. 78 

SenffV, Count, i. 499 

Serre, Count de, i. 196. His death, 244 

Seymer, JVIrs. Ker, i. 484 

Se^Tner, Louisa Ker (afterwards Mrs. 
Denison), i. 486, 543, 615. Her death, 
616, 617 

Shakspeare, German translations of, i. 8 

Sheridan, his 'School for Scandal,' i. 541 

Shuttle worth, Sir John Kaye, his pamph- 
let, ii. 128 

Sieveking, Dr.. ii. 23, 191 

Sieveking, Syndic, his 'Florentine His- 
tories,' ii. i22. His dcjith, 140, 142 

Silesia, troubles in, i. 287 

Smith, Adam, ii. 517 

Solly collect ion, ihc. i. 290, 292 

Somun^lia, Cardinal d.lL. i. 21fi. 212, 331 

Sondt'rbund affair of Switzfrhmd, ii. 147 

Sonta<,% iVIadamt', Iht slnginfi, i. 284. 285 

Sophia of (.Tloucistor, Princess, ii. 5, 8, 
100,107,120. Herillnes?. 175 

Sovereigns, the allied, in England in 1814, 
i. 175 

Spanish Club of Berlin, i. 285 

Speckter, Oito, i. 50 

Spencer, Earl, i. 539, 540 

Spiegel zu Darenberg, Count, Archbishop 
of Cologne, i. 287, 402, 404. His death, 

Spitliead, naval review at, ii. 316 

Sporlein, his sermons, i. G04. In Eng- 
land, 613. His visit to Dr. Newman, 

Spottiswoode's printing establishment, ii. 

Stacl, Madame Auguste de, i. 380, 589 ; 

ii. 402, 404, 405 
Stafford, I^ord (now Duke of Sutherland), 
ii. 3 


Stahl, Professor, i. 670 ; ii. 377, 379 

Stanhope, Earl, i. 502 

Stanhope, Lady Wilhelmina, i. 502; iL 

Stanley, Dr., Bishop of Norwich, i. 604 ; 

n. 3o 
Stanley, Rev. A. P. (now Dean), i. 691 ; 

ii. 449 
Steffens, i. 286 
Stein, Baron von, i. 63, 182, 183, 187, 

188. Niebuhr's f&te to, 190 
Stephanie, Grand Duchess of Baden, i. 

Stephen, Sir James, ii. 228 
Stephens, the druggist, his essay on trial 

by jury, ii. 322 
Stier, the architect, i. 278 
Stockmar, Baron, ii. 168, 201, 226, 230, 

235, 479 
Stollberg, Count, ii. 66 
Stonehenge, i. 479 
Stoneleigh Abbey, ii. 231 
Stowe, Mrs. Beecher, ii. 311 
Stowell, Kev. Hugh, his sermons, ii. 38 
Strangoways, Mr., i. 609 
Strasburg, visit to, i. 594 
Strauss, Dr., i. 286, 314, 315, 319. At 

the palace, 299. His ' Life of Jesus,' 

419, 427 
Strube, Rector, i. 9 
Stuart, Lady Louisa, ii. 169, 160 
Sulzer, Baron de, i. 682 
Sumner, Rev. Dr., Bishop of Winchester, 

i. 511. 523 
Susemiehl, of Kiel, student of medicine, 

i. 34 
Sussex, Duke of, ii. 8 
Suthfrland, Duke of, ii. 8 
Sutherland. Duchess of, ii. 8 
Switzerland in 1839. i. 551-553. Dis- 
turbances in, 561. The Sonderbund 

affair, ii. 147 
Sydow, Rudol})h von, i. 224. 269, 371. 

* 379. 387 
Svncellus, MSS. of. i. 557 

Tarquinite, discoveries in the tombs 

of, i. 279 
Tauler, ii. 342, 343. Publication of his 

sermons. 358 
Taylor. Etiwanl, ii. 35 
Taylorian professorship, the, ii. 103 
Telescope, the. of Reichenbach, i. 43 
Tessin, revolution in the, i. 555 
Testament, New, Luchmann's edition of 

the, i. 48 
Theremin, his sermons, i. 294 
Thienemann at Gottingen, i. 18, 19 
Thiers, M., his history, ii. 136 



W£8 > 

Westplmlia, Jerome Bonaparte's severe 
rulo in, i. 10 

Weyden, Dr., ii. 313 

Wever. M. van de, Belgian envoy to 
England, i. 604; ii. 138. 158 

Wbately, Archbishop, i. 395, 413 

Whewell, Dr., i. 503 

Wichern of Hamburg, ii. 270, 271 

Wiebeking, i. 43 

Wied. Prince and Princess of, ii. 271, 336, 
360, 389, 567 

Wiesmann, Pastor, ii. 569 

Wigand, Frederica, ii. 80 

Wilborforce, Dr., Bishop of Oxford, ii. 

William, Prince (now King) of Prussia, 
his visit to Rome, i. 200 

William I., King of Prussia, -when Prince, 
i. 199; ii. 53. Visits England with 
Bunsen as his guide, 67> At Carlton 
Terrace in 1848, 170. Returns to Ger- 
many, 182. Prince Albert's letter to 
him, 227. His visit to England in 
1850, 249. Returns to Germany, 250. 
Again \nsits England, 314. Bunsen's 
interview with him, 455. Becomes 
Regent, 458 

Williams, Mr., of Aberpergw, i. 473 

Williams, Rowland, his * Christianity and 
Hinduism,* ii. 429 

Willisen, Lieiit.-CoL, i. 2.)7 

Wiukworth, Miss, ii. 342. Her 'Thoo- 
lojiia Gt'nnanica.' and Tauler s ' Ser- 
mori!*.' ii. 342. 510. Her translation of 
•Si^nis of the Times,' 3/6 

Winterberg, C'ourector; i. 9 


Wittgenstein, Prince, i. 202, 262, 

Witzleben, General, i. 200, 204, 206. 

Wobum Abbey, ii. 153 
Wolff, the sculptor, i. 306, 315, 331. 

bust of Bunsen, 321, 322 
Wood, Mr., of the High Church pai 

Wood, Rev. Mr., of Maine, i. 605 
Wordsworth, William, ii. 234 
Wren, Sir Christopher, ii. 161 
Wurstemberger family, i. 553 
Wurstemberger, Sophia, i. 572 
Wurzburg, library of, i. 58 
Wyse, Mr., i. 508 
Wyttenbach, i. 45 

YENOPHON, i. 163 

YORK, General, i. 174. 175 
York, Count, son of the precedi 
Young, Dr., his discoveries in Egy 
hieroglyphics, i. 253 

ZEIXER, direct-or, at Bcngiren, i. 
Zt^lfer, director of the Sinjr-Akaden 

Zio^:lpr. Profe"<sor. of Berne, i. /)o3 
/tichokke, i. oo4